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The Students' 
Interlinear Translations 



THE INTERLINEAR is admittedly the stu- 
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for forgotten words and constructions. 

Caesar's Gallic War Ovid's Metamorphoses Com- 

Cicero on Old Age and plete 

Friendship Sallust's Catiline and Jugurth- 

Cicero's Orations ine Wars 

Cornelius Nepos Tacitus' Germany & Agricola 

Demosthenes On the Virgil's Aeneid, First 6 Books 

Home?rmad Virgil's Aeneid, 12 Books 

Horace Virgil's Eclogue*, Georgics and 

I ^1 the last 6 Books of Aeneid 

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STUDENTS INTERLINEAR TRANSLATIONS 



CAESAR'S Commentaries 



ON THE 



GALLIC WAR 



The Original Text with a Literal Interlinear Translation 
and Explanatory Notes 



BY 
FREDERICK HOLLAND DEWEY, A. B. 




TRANSLATION PUBLISHING COMPANY, Inc. 

76 Fifth Avenue New York CitY 



Copyright, 1916 
Copyright, 1918 

Translation Publishing Company, Inc. 



PRINTED IN THE U. S. A. 



INTRODUCTION 



Since Caesar is the first Roman author studied by beginners in 
Latin, a translation of his work should be practical and helpful for 
both teacher and student. Such a translation, especially an inter- 
linear, must not be so smooth and polished in English style and 
diction as to escape the true Latin meaning of word and phrase, or 
so slavishly literal and exact that the real meaning is clouded by the 
abuse of English idiom. 

Owing to the style and nature of Caesar's work, it is impos- 
sible to produce an elegant, polished English rendering, and at the 
same time indicate the full force and meaning of the original. The 
Commentaries of Caesar are camp notes, hastily composed, and 
sent to Rome annually, merely as military reports. The author 
never considered them a classical production and for that reason 
never carefully revised and polished them as did Cicero his 
famous orations. 

As Caesar, in early life, devoutly studied and practiced versi- 
fication, with the secret hope of becoming a famous poet, his 
writings are occasionally enlivened with poetic terms and expres- 
sions. Although his epigrams and lyrics have disappeared, his 
military notes, hastily written, have become immortal. The poetic 
element in the Commentaries appearing in many vivid and original 
uses of words, calls for especial attention in a translation. These 
Commentaries, little valued as a literary work by the author, were 
soon adopted as a text by ancient Roman teachers, and ever since 
have been found indispensable in classical instruction because of 
their artistic perfection. We have endeavored to indicate these 
natural touches by following Caesar as closely as possible. 



The elements of Caesar's work which render it so suitable as 
a means of instruction also make it the most difficult to translate 
into good English. The Commentaries, being mere camp notes, 
are written with a conciseness, force and teeming thought in a 
climactic progress, which the English idiom can with difficulty 
reproduce from the brevity of the Latin. Caesar's command of 
climax, his fluency, his poetic use of words, together with his 
philosophic outlook, cause a strictly literal translation to be very 
inadequate. 

The frequent use of indirect discourse is also an added diffi- 
culty for the translator. If the rendering of such passages is too 
freej the translation as a reproduction of the Latin thought and a 
clue to the Latin construction, will be most misleading to the 
student. For practical use a translation must be transparent and 
behind it the original language must be visible. In certain passages 
where Caesar desires to represent rapid action, he has used a vivid 
and condensed form of construction, even for Latin. A smooth 
and easy rendering would fail to reproduce the life and vitality of 
Caesar's thought. 

He will suddenly use a word in a bright and original manner, 
even as we might expect from the pen of a poet, and unless the 
feeling and force of the passage is rendered as well as the bare 
thought, an important element of Caesar's style is entirely lost. 
Caesar possessed such a command of both the essential and second- 
ary meanings of Latin terms that his brief and cursory notes shine 
with these gems of thought. The natural Latin order of thought 
and expression, a style somewhat inverted to the English thinking 
mind, of course is found in Caesar in all its Roman complexity. 
Beside Caesar has inverted forms of expression, peculiarly his own. 

Translators therefore have found it impracticable to preserve 
the Latin order of the original and the student after the use of the 
interlinear must reconstruct his own translation and by comparison 
with the usual text book, will be able to appreciate the power and 
beauty of the Latin language, which must in a large degree escape 
even the most careful translation, as a result of the artificial English 
order of the Latin words. 



Owing to the prevalence of these diificulties throughout the 
Commentaries of Caesar and the inadequacy of the usual methods 
of translation, a new system has been adopted in the production of 
this interlinear. In the reproduction of the Latin words into English 
it has been the endeavor to render the Latin terms as literally nnd 
exactly as possible, consistent with good English idiom. To remedy 
the crudeness of passages which have been impossible to render 
exactly into our idiom in an interlinear translation and which would 
become too wordy beneath the Latin, explanatory notes have been 
added in many instances providing a freer translation. Notes of 
this nature are an innovation in an interlinear and taken together 
with the parallel translation will afford both a free and an exactly 
literal rendering. In this manner the full meaning, the original 
and poetic feeling, the strength and rapidity, the artistic complete- 
ness of Caesar's style, by comparison of the renderings, can be 
obtained. 

In order to modify exact renderings so that a more pleasing 
English idiom may be produced, not too far removed from the 
Latin sense, brackets have been used about these synonymous terms 
and expressions. In translating, if desired, these bracketed portions 
may be substituted for the more exact renderings which immediately 
precede. It has been the endeavor in every instance not to use in 
brackets any forms which would mislead the student concerning the 
essential meanings of the Latin text. 

Words and expressions which may be entirely omitted or those 
which may be supplied bodily to suit more nearly the English 
phraseology, and which are not synonymous, have been inserted in 
parentheses. Such parenthetical portions may be used or omitted 
as the student's judgment may decide in order to obtain the best 
English rendering. In the preparation of this work the standard 
Latin school text as regards punctuation and orthography in so far 
as possible has been followed. 



THE COMMENTARIES OF 

CAIUS JULIUS CAESAR 



ON THE 



GALLIC WAR 



FIRST BOOK 

Caesar, in recounting the events of the war which he waged in. 
Gaul, first describes Gaul itself, then tells of two battles against the 
Helvetians and then of one against the Germans. 

1. Omnis^ Gallia est divisa in tres partes: unam 
All Gaul is divided into three parts: one 

quarum Belofae incolunt; aliam Aquitani; tertiam, 
of wnich the Belgae inhabit; another the Aquitani; the third, 

qui lingua ipsorum appellantur 

(those) who in (the) language of themselves are called 

Celtae, nostra, Galli. Omnes hi diffgrunt inter 
Celtae, in ours, Gauls. All these differ between 

se lingua, institutis, legibus. Flumen 

themselves in language, in institutions, (and) in laws. The river 

Garumna dividit Gallos ab Aquitanis, 

Garonne divides the Gauls from the Aquitani, 

Matrona et Sequ^na a Belgis. Belgae sunt 

the Marne and Seine from the Belgae. The Belgae are 

fortissimi omnium horum, propterga quod absunt 

the bravest of all these, because (that) they are distant 

longissime a cultu atque humanitate 

farthest from the cultivation and humanity [refinement] 

ProvincTae; que mercatores minime saepe 

of the Province [Provence] ; and merchants least often 



9, The Commentaries of Ccssar. BOOK 1 

commgant ad 60s, atque important 6a, 

resort to them, and import those (things) 

quae pertinent ad animos effeminandos. 

which tend to minds to be effeminated [to enfeeble 

Sunt proximi Germanis, qui 

their minds]. They are nearest to ihe Germans, who 

incolunt trans Rhenum, cum quTbus g^runt 
dwell beyond the Rhine, with whom they cany on 

bellum continenter : de qua caussa Helvetii 

war continually : from which cause the Helvetii 

qu6que praecedunt relTquos Gallos virtute; 

also go before [excel] the remaining Gauls in valor; 

quod contendunt cum Germanis ffere, quotidianis 
because they contend with the Germans almost, in daily 

proeliis quum aut prohibent 60s suis 

battles when either they prohibit [bar] them from their own 

finibus, aut ipsi ggrunt bellum in 

borders, or they [themselves] carry on war in 

finibus eorum. Una pars eorum, quam 

the borders of them [their]. One part of them, which 

dictum-est Gallos obtinere, cilpit initium a 

it has been said the Gauls to hold, [possess] takes beginning from 

flumine Rhod^no; continetur flumine Garumna, 
the river Rhone; it is bounded by the river Garonne, 

OceS^no, finibus Belgarum ; etiam attingit 

by the ocean, by the borders oftheBelgae; also it touches 

flumen Rhenum a SequS.nis et 

[reaches to] the river Rhine from the Sequani and 

Helvetiis ;^ vergit ad Septentriones. 

the Helvetii: it inclines to the seven stars [the North]. 

Belgae oriuntar ab extremis finibus Gailla? ; 
The Belgae rise from the farthest borders of Gaul; 

perttnent ad inferiorem partem fluminis Rheni; 
they reach to the lower part of the liver Rhine; 

spectant in Septentriones et orientem solem. 

thev look imto [towards] the North and the rising sun. 

Aquitania pertTnet a flumine Garumna ad 

Aquitania reaches from the river Garonne to 



BOOK I 



On the Gallic War. 



Pyrenaeos montes, et 6am partem Oceani, 

the Pyrenees mountains, and that part of the Ocean, 

quae est ad Hispaniam, spectat inter occasum 

which is [next] to Spain, it looks between the going down 



Solis et 

of the sun [West] and 



Septentriones. 

the North. 



2. Orgetr)rix fuit longe nobilissTmus et ditisslmus 
Orgetorix was by far the most noble and the richest 

apud HelvetTos. Is, Marco Messala et Marco 

among the Helvetii. He, Marcus Messala and Marcus 

Pisone consulibus, inductus cupiditate regni, 

Piso (being) consuls, induced by desire of the kingdom, [of 

fecit conjurationem nobilitatis; et persuasit 
reigning] made a conspiracy of the nobility; and persuaded 

civitati, ut exirent de suis finlbus 

(to) the state that they should go out from their own borders 

cum omnibus copTis : esse perfoclle, 

with all their forces: to be [that it was] very easy, 

praestarent (imp. subj.) omnibus virtute, 
they were excelling (to) all in valor, 

imperio totius GallTae. Persuait id 

the empire of all Gaul. He persuaded (to) this 

hoc facilius, quod Helvetii continentur 
by this more easily, because the Helvetii are contained in [hemmed in] 

undique natura l6ci ; ex una parte, 

on every side by the nature of the place; from [on] one side, 

latissimo atque altissTmo flumine Rheno, 

Dy the widest [very wide] and very deep river Rhine, 

qui dividit Helvetlum agrum a Germanis : 
which divides the Helvetian land from the Germans: 

ex altera parte, altissimo 
on the other side, by the very high 

qui est inter Sequftnos 
which is between the Sequani 

Lemano. 



quum 
since 

potiri 

to gain 

6is^ 
(to) them 



monte Jura, 

mountain Jura, [St. Cloude] 

HelvetTos ; 

the Helvetii; (on the) 



et 

and 



tertia, 
third (side) , 



lacu 
by lake 



Lemanus [the lake Geneva], 



et 

and 



flumtne RhodSno, 
by the river Rhone, 



qui dividit nostram provinciam 
which divides our province 



4 The Commentaries of CcBsar. BOOK l 

ab Helvetiis. Fiebat 

[Provence] from the Helvetii. It was made [it happened] 

his rebus, ut et vagarentur (imp. sub.) minus 
by these things, that both they were roving less 

late et possent (imp. sub.) minus facile inferre 
widely and were able less easily to bring on 

bellum nnitimis. De qua caussa homines 

[wage] war (on) neighbors. From which cause men 

cupTdi bellandi afficiebantur magno dolore. Autem 
desirous of warring were affected with great distress. But 

arbitrabantur se habere angustos fines, pro 

they were deeming themselves to have narrow borders, for 

multitudine hominum et pro gloria belli atque 
the multitude of men and for the glory of war and 

fortitudmis ; qui patebant ducenta et 

of bravery; which was lying open [extending] two hundred and 

quadraginta millia passuum in longitudinem, centum 
forty thousand (of) paces into [in] length, a hundred 

et octoginta in latitudinem. 

and eighty into [in] width. 

3. Adducti his rebus, et permoti auctoritate 
Induced by these things, and excited by the authority 

Orgetorigis, constituerunt comparare 6a, 

of Orgetorix, they determined to prepare those (things) 

quae pertinerent (imp.subj.) ad proficiscendum ; 

which were pertaining to setting out; [the expedition] 

coemSre quam maximum numgrum 

to buy up as the greatest [the greatest possible] number 

jumentorum et carrorum; fac6r6 quam 

of beasts of burden [cattle] and of wagons; to make as 

maximas sementes, ut copTa frumenti suppet^ret 
the greatest sowings, that a supply of corn might be at hand 

in itingre ; confirmare pacem et amicitiam cum 

on the way [march] ; to confirm peace and friendship w'th 

proximis civitatibus. Duxerunt bienmum 

the nearest states. They led [thought] two years 



10 



esse sS^tis sTbi ad gas res 

time to be enough for themselves for those things 



BOOK I On the Gallic War. 5 

conficiendas ; confirmant lege profectionem 

to be accomplished; they established bylaw (their) departure 

in tertium annum. OrgetSrix^^ deligitur ad 

upon [for] the third year. Orgetorix is chosen for 

6as res conficiendas. Is suscepit sibi 

those things to be accomplished. He undertook to himself 

legationem ad civitates. In 60 itin^re persuadet 
an embassy to the states. In this journey he persuades 

Castico, fil!o Catamantaledis, Seqclno, pSter^^ 
(to) Casticus, son of Catamantaledes, a Sequanian, the father 

cujus obtinu6rat regnum in SequSnis multos 
of whom had held the kingdom in the Sequani many 

annos, et appellatus-6rat amicus Romani populi 
years, and had been called friend of the Roman people 

a Senatu, ut oocuparet regnum in 

by the Senate, that he should occupy the kingdom in 

sua civitate, quod pllter ante habu6rat : que 
h'sown state, which (his) father before had held: and 

item persuadet ^diio Dumnorigi, fratri 

likewise he persuades (to) the iEduan Dumnorix, the brother 

DivitiS^ci, qui ^o tempore obtinebat principatum 
of Divitiacus, who in this time was holding sovereignty 

in sua civitate, ac 6rat maxTme acceptus 

in his state, and was especially acceptable 

plebi, ut conaretur idem ; 

to the common people, that he should attempt the same (thing); 

que dat suam filiam in matrimonium ?i. 

and gives his daughter into [in] marriage to him. 

Prdbat illis esse perfacTle factu 

He proves to them to be [that it was] very easy to be done 

perficSre conata, propterga quod ipse 

to effect(the things) attempted, because (that) (he) himself 

esset (imp.subj.) obtenturus imperium suae 

was about to bold [obtain] the empire of his 

civitatis : esse non dubium quin 

state: to be [that it was] not doubtful but that 

Helvetii possent (imp.subj.) plurimum totius 

the Helvetians were able most [most powerful] of all 



6 The Commentaries of CcEsar. BOOK i 

GallTae; confirmat,^^ se conciliaturum 

Gaul; he confirms [assures], himself about to secure 

refjna illis suis copTis que suo exercTtu. 

the king^doms for them with his stores and with his army. 

Adducti hac oratione, dant inter se 

Induced by this speech, they give between themselves 

ftdem et jusjurandum ; et regno 

faith and oath; and the kingdom [government] 

ocoupato per tres potentissimos ac firmissimos 
being occupied by three most powerful and most steadfast 

populos, sperant sese posse potiri totius 

peoples, they hope themselves to be able to possess (of) all 

GallTae. 
Gaul. 

4. Ut 6a res enuntiata-est Helvetiis per 

When this thing [action] was declared to the Helvetii through 

indicium, siiis moribus coegerunt Orgetorigem dic6re 
a disclosure, by their customs they forced Orgetorix to say 

caussam ex vinculis. Oportebat pcenam 

[plead] (his) cause from [in] bonds. It must be punishment 

s6qui damnatum, ut cremaretur 

to [should] follow (him) condemned, (viz:) that he be burnt 

igni. Die constituta dictionis caussae, 

with fire. On the day appointed of saying [pleading] the cause, 

Orgetorix coegit omnem suam familiam, ad 

Orgetorix collected all his family, [clan] to [about] 

d6cem millTa hominum ad judicium ; et^^ 
ten thousand (of) men to the trial ; and 

conduxit eodem omnes siios clientes que 

he led together to the same place all his clients and 

obaeratos, quorum habebat magnum numgrum : 

debt bondsmen , of whom he was having a great number; 

per 60s, eriptiit se ne-dic6ret 

by these, he rescued himself that he might not plead 

causam. Quum civTtas, incitata ob 

the cause. When the state, excited on account of 

6am rem, conaretur (imp. subj.) ex6qui siium jus 
this thing, was endeavoring to execute its right 



BOOK 1 On the Gallic War. 7 

armis, que magistratus coggrent (imp. subj.) 

by arms, and the magistrates were collecting 

multitudinem hominum ex agris, Orget5rix mortuus-est ; 
a multitude of men out of the fields, Orgetorix died; 

nSque^^ suspicTo abest, ut Helvetii arbitrantur, quin 

nor suspicion is absent, as the Helvetii think, but that 

ipse conscivSrit (perf. subj.) mortem sibr. 
himself determined death to himself [committed suicide]. 

5. Nihilominus post mortem ejus Helvetii 
Nevertheless after the death of him the Helvetii 

conantur fac&re id, quod constitu6rant, ut 

endeavor to do this, which they had determined, that 

exgant e suis finibus. Ubi jam arbitrati-sunt 

they may go out from their borders. When now they deemed 

se paratos-esse ad §am rem, incendunt 

themselves to have been prepared to [for] this thing, they set fire to 

omnia sua oppTda, ad duodftcim num^ro, vicos 

all their towns, to [about] twelve in number, villages 

ad quadringentos, relTqua privata aedihcia; 

to [about] four hundred, the remaining private buildings; 

comburunt omne frumentum, praeter quod §rant 

they burn up all the corn, except (that) which they were 

portaturi cum se ; ut, spe reditionis 

about to carry with themselves; that, the hope of a return 

domum sublata, essent paratiores ad 

home being taken away, they might be more ready to 

omnia pericula subeunda : jiibent quemque 

all dangers to be undergone: they order each 

afferre domo sibi molita cibaria trium 

to bring from home for himself ground provisions of [for] three 

mensTum. Persuadent Rauracis, et Tulingis, 

months. They persuade (to) the Rauraci, and (to) the Tulingi, 

et Latobrigis, finitimis, uti usi 

and (to) the Latobrigi, (their) neighbors, that having adopted 

eodem consilio, siiis oppTdis que vicis 
the same plan, their towns and villages 

exustis, proficiscantur una cum eis : 

having been burnt up, they should denart together with them: 



8 



The Commentaries of Ccssar. 



BOOK I 



que 

and 



18 



adsciscunt 

they vote in 



sibi, Boios, 

to themselves, the Boii, 



receptos 

received 



qui 
who 



se 
themsei es 



et transiSrant in 

and had passed over into 

oppugnarant Noreiam. 
had beseiged Noreia. 

6. Erant omnino duo 
There were in all two 

possent exire 

they might be able to go forth 



ad 

to 

incolugrant tran 
had dwelt aero; 

Noricum 
the Norican 



SOCIOS 
as allies 

Rhenum 

the Rhine 



agi um, 
land, 



que 
and 



itinera, quibus 

roads, by which 

domo ; unum 

from home; one 



itineribus 
roads 

per 

through 



inter 
between 

qua 



montem 
Mount 

sinoftili 



Sequanos angustum et difficile, 
the Sequani narrow and difficult 

Juram et flumen Rhodanum, 
Jura and the river Rhone, by [in] which single 

carri vix ducerentur; autem altissimus 

wagons scarcely could be led; but [moreover] the highest [a very 

ut perpauci facile 



mons impendebat, 
high] mountain was overhanging , 



possent 

would be able [could] 



prohibere ; 

(to) prohibit; 



perpauci 

so that very few easily 

alt6rum per nostram 
the other through our 



provinciam, 

province. 



multo 

much 



propterga 
because 



quod 

(that) 

Allobrogum, qui 
of the Allobroges, who 

Rhodanus fluit, 

the Rhone flows. 



facilius 
more easy 

inter fines 
between the borders 



atque expeditius ; 

and more unimpeded; 

Helvetiorum et 
of the Helvetii and 



nuper pacati-6rant, 
lately had been reduced to peace [subdued] 



que 
and 



is nonnullis locis 
this in some places 



transitur 

is passed 

vado. Genava est extremum oppidum Allobrogum 
by ford. Geneva is the farthest town of the Allobroges 

que proximum finibus Helvetiorum; ex ?o 

and nearest to the hordes of the Helvetii; from that 

oppido pons pertinet ad , Helvetios. Existimabant 
town abridge reaches to the Helvetii, They were thinking 

sese ve persuasuros AllobrogTbus,(dat.) quod 
themselves either about to persuade the Allobroges, because 



BOOK I On the Gallic War. 9 

■ viderentur (imp. subj.) nondum b6no animo in 
they were seemin;^ not yet with good mind towards 

Romanum popiilum; vel coacturos vi, 

the Roman people; or about to force by violence, 

ut paterentur 60s ire per siios fines, 

that they should suffer them to go through their borders. 

Omnibus rebus comparatis ad profectionem, 

All things being prepared for (their) departure, 

dicunt diem, qua die omnes convenTant 

they say [appoint] a day, on which day all may assemble 

ad ripam Rhodiini. Is dies 6rat ante quintum 

at the bank of the Rhone. This day was before the fifth 

diem kalendarum Aprilis ; LucTo Pisone, 

day of the Kalends of April [27th March]; Lucius Piso, 

Aulo GabinTo consulibus. 

Aulus Gabinius (being) consuls. 

7. Quum id nuntiatum-esset (pl.perf.subj.) Caes5.ri, 
When this had been told to Caesar (that), 

60s conari fac6re iter per nostram 

them to [they would] endeavor to make a journey through our 

proviiicTam, maturat jjroficisci ab urbe, et 

province, he hastens to depart from the city, and 

contendit in ulteriorem GallTam itineribus^^ quam 
rushes into farther Gaul by journeys as 

maximis potest, et perv^nit ad Genavam. Imp^rat 
greatest he can, and arrives at Geneva. He orders 

toti provincTae quam maximum 

(to) the whole province (to furnish) as greatest [the greatest 

num^rum militum (una legTo 6rat omnino 
possible] number of soldiers (one legion was in all 

in ulteriore Gallia). Jiibet pontem, qui 6rat 
in farther Gaul). He orders the bridge, which was 

ad Genavam, rescindi. Ubi Helvetii facti-sunt 

at Geneva, to be cut down. When the Helvetii were made 

certiores de adventu ejus, mittunt nobilissTmos 

more certain [told] of the arrival of him, they sent the noblest 

civitatis legatos ad 6um ; cujus legationis 

of the state (as) ambassadors to him; of which embassy 



10 The Commentaries of Ccssar. BOOK 1 

Nummeius et Verudoctius obtinebant principem locum: 
Numeius and Verodoctius were holding the chief place: 

qui dicerent esse sTbi in ammo, 

who should say to be to themselves in mind (that they 

Sine ullo maleficTo fac6re iter per 

intended) .without any damage to make a journey through 

provinciam, propterea quod haberent (imp. subj.) nullum 
the province, because (thai) they were having no 

aliud iter: rogare," ut lic6at sTbi 

other journey [road]: to ask, that it may be lawful to themselves 

fac^re id voluntate ejus. Caesar, quod tenebat 

to do this by the will of him. Caesar, because he held 

memoria, Lucium Cassium consiilem occisum, que 
in memory, Lucius Cassias the consul being slain, and 

exercitum ejus pulsum ab Helvetiis, et missum 

the army of him driven [routed] by the Helvetii, and sent 

sub jiigum, putabat non concedendum ; ngque 

under the yoke, considered (it) not to be granted; nor 

existimabat homines inimico ammo, facultate 

did he think men with unfriendly mind, liberty 

faciundi itineris per provinciam data, 

of making a journey through the province being given, 

temperaturos ab injuria et maleficio : Tamen 

about to refrain [would refrain] from injury and damage: However 

ut spatium posset interced^re, dum milTtes, 

that a space [period] might be able to intervene, while the soldiers, 

quos imperav6rat, convenirent, respondit, 

whom he had ordered, might assemble, he replied, (to the 

se'' sumpturum diem ad deliberandum ; 

ambassadors) himself about to take a day [time] to deliberate; 

si vellent (imp. subj.) quid reverterentur ad 

if they w^re wishing any thing let them return at 

idus Aprilis. 
the ides of April. 

8. Interna 6a legione, quam habebat 

Meanwhile v^ith this legion, which he was having 

cum se que militibus qui conven^rant ex 

with himself and with the soldiers who had assembled from 



BOOK I On the Gallic War. 11 

provincla, perducit murum in altitudlnem 

the province, he constructs a wall into [in] height 

sexdgcim p6dum, que fossam a IScu Lemanno, 
(of) sixteen feet, and a trench from the lake Lemanus, 

qui infiuit in flumen Rhodanum, ad montem Juram, 
which flows into the river Rhone, to Mount Jura, 

qui divldit fines Sequanorum ab Helvetiis, 

which divides the borders of the Sequani from the Helvetii, 

d6cem'^^ et n6vem mill!a(pl.) pasiium. Eo opgre 

ten and nine [nineteen] thousand (of) paces. This work 

perfecto, disponit praesidia, communit castella ; 

being completed, he posts garrisons, (he) fortifies the redoubts; 

qu6 posset prohibere facilTus, si 

that he might be able to prevent more easily, if 

conarentur transire, se invito, 

they should endeavor to pass over, himself (being) unwilling. 

Ubi 6a dies venit, quam constitu^rat cum 
When that day came, which he had appointed with 

legatis, et legati reverterunt ad 6um ; 

the ambassadors, and the ambassadors returned to him; 

nggat^^ se more et exemplo Romani 

he denies himself, by the custom and example of the Roman 

poptili, posse d3.re Iter per provinciam ulli ; 

people, to be able to give a journey through the province to any; 

et ostendit prohibiturum, si conentur (pres. 

and shows (himself) about to prohibit, if they attempt 

subj.)fec6re vim. Helvetii dejecti 6a 

to make violence. The Helvetii cast down from this 

spe, alii, navibus junctis, que compluribus 

hope, others [some], ships being joined, and a great many 

ratibus factis, alii vadis Rhodani, qua 

rafts being made, others by fords of the Rhone, where 

minima altitudo flummis 6rat, nonnunquam interdiu, 
the least depth of the river was, sometimes in daytime, 

spppms noctu, conati si possent (imp. 

more often by night, having endeavored if they were able 

subj.)perrump6re, repulsi munitione (sing.) 

to break through repulsed by the fortifications 



12 The Commenta7'ies of CcBsar. BOOK i 

op6ris, et concursu et telis 

of the work, and by the charge and weapons 

militum, destiterunt hoc conatu. 

of the soldiers, they desisted from this endeavor. 

9. Una via per SequSnos relinquebatur ; 

One way through the Sequani was left; 

qua, SequSnis invitis, potgrant non 

by which the Sequani (being) unwilling, they were able not 

ire propter angustias. Quum possent (imp. 

to go on account of the defiles. When they were able 

subj.) non persuadere lis (dat.) sua sponte, 

not to persuade them by their own accord, 

mittunt legatos ad Dumnorigem ^dtium, 

they send ambassadors to Dumnorix the ^duam, 

ut, So deprecatore, impetrarent hoc a 

that, he (being) intercessor, they might obtain this from 

Sequanis. Dumnorix potSrat plurimum 

the Sequani. Dumnorix was able most [had very great in- 

apud Sequanos gratia et largitione, et 
fluence] with the Sequani by service and (by) lavishness, and 

6rat amicus Helveitiis, quod" duxSrat in 

was friendly to the Helvetii, because he had led into 

matrimomum filTam Orgetorigis ex S^i civitate ; 
marriage the daughter ofOrgetorix from that state; 

et^^ adductus cupiditate regni, studebat 

and induced by a desire of the kingdom, he was eager 

novis rebus ; et volebat habere quamplurimas 

for new things; and was wishing to have as many as possible 

civitates obstrictas sfio beneficio sibi. Itaque 

states bound by his favor to himself. Therefore 

suscipit ' rem, et impetrat a Sequanis, 

he undertakes the thing, and obtains from the Sequani, 

ut patiantur Helvetios ire per suos 

that they may suffer the Helvetii to go through their 

fines, que perficit uti dent obsTdes inter 

borders, and effects that they may give hostages between 

sese ; Sequani ne prohibSant 

themselves; the Sequani lest they may prohibit [that they may 



BOOK I 



On the Gallic War. 



13 



HelvetTos 

not prohibit] the Ilelvetii 

ut trans6ant sine 

that they may pass without 

10. Nuntiatur 
It is announced 

Helvetiis 

to [of] the Helvetii 

Sequanorum et 

of the Sequani and 

Sant5num, qui 

of the Santones, who 



itin^re ; 
from the journey 



Caesilri, 
to Caisar, 

fac6re 
to make 



maleficio 
damage 

esse 

to be [it is] 

iter 
the journey 



^duorum 
of the ^dui 

absunt 
are distant 



et 

and 

in 

in 

per 

through 

in 

into 



Helvetii, 

the Ilelvetii 

injuria, 
injury. 

animo, 
the mind, 

atrrum 
tlie land 

fines 
the borders 



non 

not 



lonf?e 
far 



a 

from 



finlbus Tolosatium, cjuae civTtas est in provincTa. 
the borders of the Tolosates, which state is in the province. 

Si id fi^ret (imp.subj.) intellifjebat futurum 

If this should be[were]done he understood (it) about to bc[it would 

cum magno periciilo provincial, ut haberet 

be] with great danger of the province, that it should have 

Roman i popiili, 
of the Roman people, 



bellicosos homines, inimicos 
warlike men, enemies 

finitlmos l6cis patentibus 

neighbors to places open 

frumentariis. Ob 

abounding in corn. On account of 

Titum Labienum leffatum 



et 

and 



maxime 
especially 



6as caussas praefecit 
these causes he appointed 



Titus 



Labienus 



fecgrat : 
he had made: 

ItalTam magnis 
Italy by great 

legiones ; 
legions; 



lieutenant 

ipse 
(he) himself 



^i munitioni quam 
to this fortilication which 



contendit 
hastens 



in 

into 



que ibi conscribit dtias 
and there he levies two 



quae 
which 



itineribus 
journeys 

educit ex hibernis tres, 

he leads from winter quarters the three, 

hiemabant circum Aquileiam ; et qua 
were wintering around Aquileia; and by which 



et 
and 



iter ^rat proxTmum in ulteriorem Galliam 

(way) the journey was nearest into farther Gaul 

per Alpes, contendit ire cum his 

through the Alps, he hastens to go with these 



14 The Commentaries of CcBsar. BOOK I 

quinque legionibus. Ibi Centrones et Graioceli, 

five legions. There the Centrones and the Graioceli, 

et Caturiges, superioribus locis occupatis 

and the Caturig-es, the higher places having been occupied 

conantur prohibere exercitum itingre. His 

endeavor to check the army on the journey. These 

pulsis compluribus prceliis, pervenit ab 

having been repulsed in several battles, he comes from 

Oc6lo, quod est extremum citerioris provinciae, 

Ocelum, which is the extreme(town) of the hither province, 

in fines Vocontiorum ulterioris provincTae 

into the borders of the Vocontii of the farther province 

septimo die ; inde in fines Allobr6gum ; 

on the seventh day; thence into the borders of the Allobroges; 

ducit exercitum ab Allobrogibus in Segusiavos. 
he leads the army from the Allobroges into the Segusiavi. 

Hi sunt primi extra provincTam trans Rhodanum. 
These are the first without the province beyond the Rhone. 

11. Helvetii jam transduxSrant siias copias 

The Helvetii already had led over their forces 

per angustias et fines Sequanorum et 

through the defiles and borders of the Sequani and 

pervengrant in fines ^duorum, que 

had come into the borders ofthe^Edui, and 

populabantur agros eorum. ^Edui, quum 

were laying waste the lands of them. The ^dui when 

possent (imp. subj.) non defend6re se que 

they were able not to defend themselves aad 

siia ab his, mittunt legates ad 

their own(effects) from these, send ambassadors to 

CaesSrem rogatum auxilTum ; se omni temp6re 

Caesar to ask aid; "themselves in all time 

;neritos esse ita de Romano populo, ut, 

/to) have deserved so of the Roman people, that, 

pene conspectu nostri exercitus, ^gri 

almost in sight of our army, (their) lands 

debu^rint (perf. subj.) non vastari, lib?ri 

ought not to be laid waste the children 



BOOK I On the Gallic War. 15 

eorum abduci in servitutem, oppTda 

of them to be led away into slavery, the towns 

expuffnari." Eodem temp5re, ^Ediii 

to be taken by storm." At the same time, the .Edui 

Ambarri quoque, necessarli et consanguin^i 
Ambarri also, friends and kinsmen 

iEduorum, facTunt Cii\sArem certiorem, 

ofthci^dui, make Caesar more certain [inform Caesar], 

**sese, agris^^ depopulatis, non facile prohibere 
"themselves, the lands being depopulated, not easily to prohibit 

vim hostTiim ab oppidis." Item 

the violence of the enemy from the towns." Likewise 

Allobr6ges, qui habebant vicos que 

the Allobroges, who were having villages and 

possessiones trans Rhodruuini, recijMunt se fu<ja 
possessions beyond the Rhone, betake themselves in flight 

ad Caesfirem ; et^ demonstrant, niliil rellqui 

to Caesar; and show, notliing of remaining 

esse sTbi prgeter s6lum agri. Adductus 

to be to themselves beside the soil of the land. Induced 

quTbus rebus, Caesar statnit non expectandum 
by which things, Caesar resolved not to be waited 

s!bi, num, omnibus 

to [by] himself [that he ought not to wait], until, all 

fortunis socioruni consuni])tis, Helvetti 

the fortunes of the allies having l)een consumed, the Helvetii 

pervenirent (imp.subj.) in Sant5nes. 
should come into the Santones. 

12. Arar est flumen, quod influit in 

The Arar [the Saone] is a river, which flows into 

RhodS.num incredibili lenitate per fines 

the Rhone with incredible smoothness through the borders 

^duorum et Sequanorum ; ita ut possit 

ofthCiEdui and of the Sequani: so that it is possible 

non judicari ociilis in utram partem 

not to be judged by the eyes in which part [direction] 

fliiat. (pres. sub.) Helvetii transibant id, ratibus ac 
it flows. The Helvetii were crossing this, rafts and 



16 The Commentaries of Cc^sar. BOOK I 

lintribus junctis. Ubi^^Caescar factus-est certlor 

boats being joined. When Cyesar was made more certain 

per exploratores, HelvetTos jam transduxisse 

by scouts (that), the Helvetii already to have [had] led over 

id flumen tres partes copiarum, vero quartam 
this river three parts of (their) forces, but the fourth 

partem esse reluiuam citra flumen Ararim ; 

part to be remaining on this side the river Arar [Saone]; 

de tertia vigilia profectus e 

from [at] the third watch [midnight] having set out from 

castris cum tribus legionibus pervenit ad 6am 
the camp with three legions he arrives [comes] to this 

partem, quae nondum transi^rat flumen. 

part, which not yet had passed the river. 

Aggressus $os impeditos et inopinantes 

Having attacked them encumbered and unaware 

concidit magnam partem eorum ; relTqui 

he out up [slew] a great part of them; the rest 

mandarunt sese fugae atque abdiderunt in 
committed themselves to flight and hid away into [among] 

proximas silvas. Is pagus appellabatur Tigurinus : 
the nearest woods. This canton was called the Tigurine: 

nam omnis Helvetia ci vitas divisa-est in 

for all the Helvetian state has been divided into 

quatfior pagos. Hie unus pagus, quum 

four cantons. This one canton, when 

exisset (pl.pref.subj.) d5mo, memoria 

it had gone out from home, in the memory 

nostrorum patrum, iuterfecfrat LucTum CassTum 
of our fathers, had slain Lucius Cassius 

Consiilem, et miserat exercTtum ejus sub 

the Consul, and had sent the army of him [his army] under 



jfigum. 


Ita 


sive 


casu. 


sive 


eonsilio 


the yoke. 


Thus 


whether 


by chance. 


or 


by the plan 



immortalium deorum, pars Helvetiae civitatis, 

of the immortal gods, the part of the Helvetian state, 

qua' intul^rat insignem calamitatem Romano 

which had brought on a remarkable calamity to the Roman 



BOOK I On the Gallic War. 17 

populo, 6a princeps persolvit poenas. In qua 
people, this chief [first] paid penalties. In which 

re Caesar ultus-est non solum publicas sed etiam 
thing Caesar avenged not only public but also 

privatas injurias ; quod Tigurini interfecSrant 
private injuries; because the Tigurini had slain 

LucTum Pisonem legatum, S^vum Lucii 

Lucius Piso the lieutenant, (general) grandfatlier of Lucius 

Pisonis soceri ejus, eodem proelio, 

Piso father in law of him [Caesar], in the same battle, 

quo CassTum. 

in which (they slew) Cassius. 

13. Hoc proelTo facto, ut posset 

This battle having been made, that he might be able 

consgqui relujuas copTas Helvetiorum, curat 

to reach the remaining forces of the Helvetii, he takes care 

pontem faciendum in Arare, atque ita transducit 

a bridge to be made on the Arar, [Saone] and so leads over 

exercitum. Helvetii commoti repentino adventu 
the army. The Helvetii moved by the sudden arrival 

ejus, quum^^ intelligerent (imp. subj.) ilium 

of him, when they were understanding him 

fecisse uno die id, quod ipsi 

to have [he had] done in one day that, which [they] themselves 

confecerant aegerrTme viginti diebus, ut 

had accomplished most grievously in twenty days, that 

transirent flumen, mittunt legatos ad 

they should pass the river, send ambassadors to 

Sum; cujus legationis DivTco fuit princeps, qui 
him; of which embassy Divico was chief, who 

fuerat dux Helvetiorum Cassiano belln. 

had been leader of the Helvetii in the Cassian war. 

Is ita egit cum Ceesare ; si Romanus 

He thus acts [treats] with Caesar; " if the Roman 

populus faceret pacem cum Helvetiis, Helvetios 
people would make peace with the Helvetii, the Helvetii 

Ituros in eam pastem, atque futuros 

about to go[would go] into that part, and about to [would] be 



18 



The Comrnentaries of CcEsar. 



BOOK 1 



ibi, ubi Caesar constituisset atque voluissit 

there, where Caesar might appoint and might wish (them) 



esse; 

to be; 



Sin 

but if 



perseveraret 
he sliould continue 



persSqui 
to pursue 



bello, 

with war, 



reminisceretur 
let him remember 



popfili, 
people, 

quod 
because 



et 

and 



vetgris 

(of) the old 

pristinae 

(of) the ancient 



incommSdi 

misfortune 

virtutis 
valor 



adortus-esset (pi. perf. subj.) 
he had assailed 



Romani 
of the Roman 

Helvetiorum : 
of the Helvetii: 

improviso 
unexpectedly 



unum 

one 



pagum, 
canton , 



quum 

when 



li, qui trans - 

these, who had 

issent (pi. perf. subj.) flumen, possent (imp. subj.) 
crossed the river, were able 



non 
not 

ne 
not 

6am 

this 



ferre 
to bring 

aut 
either 



rem, 

thing, 



auxilium 
aid 

magnop^re 

very greatly 

aut 

nor 



suis ; 

to their (people); 



tribufret 
let him attribute 



suae 
to his own 



virtuti 

valor 



ob 

on account of 



despicgret 
let him despise 



Se 

They themselves 



ita 
so 



que 
and 



majoribus, 
elders. 



didicisse a suis 
(to) have learned from their 

ut contendgrent 

that they should contend 



ipsos. 
themselves. 

pat rib US 

fathers 

mSgis 
more 



virtute 
by valor 

insidiis. 
stratagems. 

is locus, 
this place, 

cap^ret 
should take 



quam 

than (that) 



niterentur 

they should strive 



d6lo, 

by deceit. 



aut 
or 



Quare 
Wherefore 

llbi 
where 

nomen 

(its) name 



committSret ne, ut 

he should permit not, that 

constitissent (pi . perf. subj . ) , 

they had stood 



ac 

and 



prod^ret 

hand down 



memoriam 
the memory 



ex 

from 



calamitate 
the calamity 



Romani 
of the Roman 



popiili, 
people. 



et 
and 



internecione 
the destruction 



exercTtus. 
of the army. 

14. Caesar respond it 
Caesar answered 



ita his ; t^o 

thus to these (words); "Uierefore 



BOOK I On the Gallic War, 19 

minus dubitatiopis da.n sTbi, quod 

less (of) doubt to be [was] given to himself, because 

teneret (imp.subj.) 6as res memoria, quas 

he was holding these things in memory, which 

HelvetTi legati commemorassent (pi. perf. 

the Helvetian ambassadors had mentioned 

subj.),atque ferre 66 gravTus, 

and to bear [he bore it] for this the more heavily, 

quo accidissent (pi. perf. subj.) minus 

that they had befallen the less 

merito Romani popiili, qui si 

by the merit of the Roman people, which if 

fuisset (pi. perf. subj.) conscius sibi alicujus 

it had been conscious to itself of some 

injuriae, fuisse non 

injury (done to the Helvetii) to have been not [it would not have been] 

difficile cavere ; sed deceptum 

difficult to beware [to be on guard], but to have [it was] deceived in 

go, quod n^que intellig^ret (imp. subj.) 

this, because neither was it thinking (anything) 

commissum a se, quare timeret ; n6que 

to have [had] been committed by itself, wherefore it should fear; nor 

putaret (imp.subj.) timendum sine causa. 

was it thinking to be feared [it should fear] without cause. 

Quod si vellet (imp.subj.) oblivisci vet^ris contumelTae, 
But if he was wishing to forget (of)the ancient insult, 

num posset etiam depon^re memoriam 

whether would he be able also to lay aside the memory 

recentium injuriarum, quod, go invito, 

of the recent injuries, that, he (being) unwilling, 

tentassent (pi. perf. subj) iter per ProvincTam 

they had attempted a march through the Province 

per vim, quod vexassent (pi. perf. subj.) ^dtios, 
by violence, that they had harassed the ^Edui, 

quod Ambbarros, quod Allobroges? Quod 

that (also) the Ambarri, that (also) the Allobroges? That 

gloriarentur (imp.subj.) tam insolenter sua victoria; 
they were boasting so insolently in [of] their victory; 



20 The Commentaries of CcBsar. BOOK I 

que quod admirarentur se tulisse injurlas 

and that they wonder that they (to) have committed outrages 

impune tarn diu, pertinere eodem. 

with impunity so long, to pertain [pertains] to the same thing. 

Enim immortales d6os consuesse, 

For the immortal gods (to) have been accustomed, 

quo homines dol^ant gravius ex 

that men may grieve more heavily from [by] 

commutatione rerum, quos vMint (pr. subj.) ulcisci 
the change of things, whom they may wish to punish 

pro scelgre eorum, interdum concedSre 

for the wickedness of them [their wickedness], sometimes (to) grant 

secundiores res his, et diuturniorem 

more prosperous affairs to these, and more lasting 

impunitatem. Cum ?a sint (pres. subj.) 

impunity. Although these (things) are 

ita, tamen si obsides dentur(pres. subj.) sibi ab lis, 
so, yet if hostages may be [are] given to himself by them, 

uti intelligat facturos 6a 

that he may understand (that they) about to [will] do these (things) 

quae polliceantur (pres. subj.); et si satisfacTant 
which they promise; and if they satisfy 

^dtiis de injuriis, quas 

(to) fche ^dui concerning the wrongs, which 

intulgrint (perf. subj.) ipsis que sociis 

they have inflicted on them and on the allies 

eorum, Item si Allobrogibus, sese esse 

of them [their allies], likewise (if) (to) the Allobroges, he himself to be 

facturum pacem cum lis." DivTco respondit ; 

about to [will] make peace with them." Divico answered; 

"HelvetTos institutos-esse ita a majoribus, 

*'the Helvetii (to) have been instructed thus by (their) ancestors, 

ftti consuevgrint (perf.subj.) accip^re, non dclre 

that they should be accustomed to receive, not to give 

obsides; Romanum populum esse testem ejus rei." 
hostages; the Roman people to be [are] witness of this thing." 

Hoc responso dato, discessit. 

This answer having been given, he departed. 



BOOK I 



On the Gallic War. 



21 



15. Post6ro 
On the next 



l6co. 

place. 



Caesar 
Caesar 



die 

day 

file it 
does 



omnem equitatum 
all the cavalry 



ad 

to 



mSvent 

they move 

idem ; 
the same; 

numSrum 
the number 



quern 
which he 

et 

and 



habebat 
was having 

T^dtiis 

from the ^dui 



coactum 
collected 

atque 
and 



ex 

from 



castra 

the camp 

que 
and 

quatiior 
of four 

omni 
all 



ex 

from 



go 

that 



SOCUS 
from the allies 



qui vidSant 
who may see 



(their) 



iter : 
way: 



in 

into 

qui, 
who. 



quas 
what 



partes 
parts 



hostes 
the enemy 



praemittit 
sends forward 

millTum, 
thousand, 

provincla, 
the province, 

eorum ; 
of them ; 

faciant 
may make 



insecuti 
having followed up 



cupidms 
more [too] eagerly 



novissimum 

the last 



agmen, 
troop ( the rear 



cum 

with 

l6co, 
place, 



equitatu 
the cavalry 



Helvetiorum 
of the Helvetii 



et 

and 



pauci 
a few 



de 

of 



nostris 
our (men) 



committunt proelTum 

join battle 

alieno 

in strange [an unfavorable] 

c^dunt. Quo prcello 
By which battle 



Helvetii sublati, 

the Helvetii being lifted up [elated] 

equitibus propul^rant 

horsemen they had repulsed 



fall. 

quod 

because 



equitum, 
of horsemen, 

nonnunquam 

sometimes 



coeperunt 
began 



tantam 

so great 

subsistgre 

to withstand 



ex 

from 



proelTo 
with battle 

a 
from 

in 

in [for] 



nostros. 
our (men). 

proelio, 
battle, 



novissimo 
the last 

Caesar 
Caesar 



ac 

and 



rapinis, 
from rapines, 



Ita 

So 



praesentia 
the present 

pabulationibuS; 
from foragings, 



circiter quindgcim 
about fifteen 



agmme 
troop [the rear] 

continebat 

was restraining 

habebat 

was holding (it) 

prohibere 

to prohibit 



quingentis 
with five hundred 

multitudinem 
a multitude 

audacius ; 
more boldly, 

lacess^re 
to challenge 



SUOS 

his (men) 

satis 
enough 

hostem 

the enemy 



que populatiombus. 
and from devastations. 

dies fecerunt iter, 
days they made the march. 



22 



The Commentaries of CcBsar. 



BOOK I 



ftti 
that 



inter 
between 



novissimum 
the last 



nostrum 
our 

senis millibus 
six thousand 

16. Interim^ 
Meanwhile 



primum, 
first [front] , 



non 

not 



passuum 

(of) paces 



agmen 

troop [rear] 

am pi 1 US 
more (than) 

interesset. 
intervened. 



hostium 
of the enemy 

quinis 
five 



et 

and 

aut 
or 



i^diios 
the vEdui 

subj.) publice. 
publicly. 

Gallia posita est 
Gaul is situated 

(ut 

(as 



Caesar quotidie flagitare 

Caesar daily to demand earnestly from 

frumentum, quod polliciti-essent (p),perf. 
the corn, which they had promised 



dictum-est 

has been said 



grant 
were 



non 

not 



Nam propter frigora quod 
For on account of the cold because 

sub Septentrionibus (pl.)> 

under [toward] the North 

ante,) non m6do frumenta 

before, ) not only the corn (crops) 

sed 



matura 



ripe 



in 

in 



agris 
the fields 



but 



ne 

not 



39 



pabiili 
of forage 

suppetebat. 

was supplied. 



quid em 
t*^en 



satis 
a sufficently 



magna 

great 



Autem 

But 



pot6rat minus ut 
he was able less to use 



copTa, 
plenty, 

6o (abl.) 
this 



frumento, quod 
corn, which 

ArS,re, propterga 
Arar, because 



subvex&rat navibus 

he had carried up in ships 

quod Helvetii 
(that) the Helvetii 



iter ab Arftre, a 

the march from the Arar, from 

.Edui^^ 

The iEdui 



quibus 
whom 

due erg 



to leid [ put off] 



discedgre. 
to depart. 

die, dic6re 

day, to say (the corn) 

adesse. 
to be present [ready]. 

diutius, 
longer, 

instare, quo dte oporteret 

to be [is] at hand, on which day it would be due 



flumlne 
by the river 

avertgrant 
had turned away 

nolebat 

he was unwilling 

diem 



day 



ex 

from [after] 

comportari, 
to be conveyed, 

se duci 

(he) himself to be [is] led [put off] 



conferri, 
to be brought together 

Ubi intellexit 
When he understood 



et 

and 



diem 

the day 

metiri 
to measure out 



BOOK I On the Gallic War. 23 

frumentum militibus ; principTbus corum 

corn to the soldiers; the chiefs of them 

convocatis, quorum habebat magnum 

having been called together, of whom he was having a great 

copiam in castris, in his Diviti&co 

number in the camp, in [among] these Divitiacus 

et Lisco, qui praegrat summo magristratui 

and Liscus, who was over [invested with] the highest magistracy 

(quern ^dui appellant vergobretum, qui creatur 
(which the iEdui name vergobretus, which is created 

anniius que hS.bet potestatem vitae que n6cis 
annually and has the power of life and of death 

in siios), accusat 60s gravTter, 

over his own (people) ), he accuses them severely, 

quod quum posset (imp.subj.) ngcjue emi, 

because when it was possible neither to be bought, 

n6que sumi ex agris, tempore tarn 

nor to be taken from the liolds, in a time so 

necessario, hostibus tarn propinquis, 

necessary, the enemy (being) so near, 

sublevetur (pres.subj.) non ab lis; priesertim quum, 
he is succored not by them: especially when, 

ex ^ magna parte adductus precibus eorum 
from a great part induced by the prayers of them 

suscepSrit (perf.subj.) bellum, queritur etiam 

he has undertaken the war, he complains also 

multo gravius quod destitutus-sit (perf.subj.). 

much the more severely that he had been left destitute (of corn). 

17. Tum demum Liscus adductus oratione 

Then at last Liscus induced by the speech 

Caes^ris, proponit quod ant6a tacu§rat : 

of Caesar, sets forth (that) which before he had kept silent: 

Esse nonnullos, auctoritas quorum 

"To be [that there are] some, the authority of whom 

val6at (pres.subj.) plurimum apud plebem, 

avails most[very much] with the common people, 

qui privati possint (pres.subj.) plus 

■»vho (though) private (persons) are powerful more 



24 



The Commentaries of Ccesa7 



BOOK I 



quam 

than 



mcafjistratus 
the maiiristrates 



ipsi, 
themselves, 



et impr5ba oratione deterrere 
and wicked speech (to) deter 

conf^rant frumentum ; 

they may bring together the corn; 

(pres.subj.) praestare, si 

to be [it is] preferable if 



hos seditiosa 

these by seditious 

multitudTne ne 
the multitude lest 



quod 

because 



dicant 

they say 



jam possint 

now they may be able 



non 
not 



obtinere 
to obtain 



principatum 

the sovereignty 



imperia Gallorum quam 
the commands of the Gauls than 

debSant (pres.subj.) dubitare 



Galliae, 
of Gaul, 

Romanorum ; 

of the Romans; 



perferre 

to indure 

n^que 
nor 



ought they 

superav^rint 
should overcome 

erepturi 
about to snatch away 



cum 

with 



relTqua 

remaining 



to doubt 

HelvetTos, 

the Helvetii, 

libertatem 
liberty 

ab 

by 



qum, 
but that, 



si Romani 
if the Romans 

sint (pres. subj.) 
they are 



^diiis 
from the ^Edui 



una 
together 



Gallia 
Gaul: 



lisdem nostra 

the same (persons) our 



consilia, quaeque gerantur (pres. subj.) in castris, (pi.) 



councils, whatsoever are carried on 

enuntiari hostibus ; 

to be [are] announced to the enemy; 



in the camp , 



hos 

these 



posse 
to be [are] able 



non 

not 



coerceri 
to be restrained 



a 

by 



se: 
himself: 



enuntiarit (perf. subj.) rem 
he has told the thing 

sese intellio;6re 
himself to understand [that he is aware] 

fec^rit (perf. subj.) id; et 
he has done it; and 



Quin-etiam. 
Moreover, 

necessario 

necessarily 



quod 
because 

Caesiiri, 
to Caesar, 



cum quanto periculo 
with how great danger 



ob 

for 



^am 

this 



tacuisse 
to have [he] kept silent 

18. Caesar 
Caesar 



quamdiu potuSrit", 

as long as he could". 



DivitiAci 

of Divitiacus 



sentiebat 
was perceiving 

designari 
to be [was] indicated 



Dumnorigem 
Dumnorix 



caussam 

cause 

(perf. subj.) 



fratrem 
the brother 



liac 
by this 



oratione 
speech 



Lisc'i ; 
of Liscus; 



BOOK I 071 the Gallic War. 25 

sed, quod nolebat §as res 

but, since he was not wishing (that) these things to [shouldj 

jactari pluribus praesentibus, dimittit 

be tossed [debated], more (being) present, he dismisses 

concilium, celeriter, retinet Liscum : quaerit ex 

the council, quickly, he retains Liscus: he seeks from (him) 

solo $a, quae dix6rat in conventu. 

alone those (things), which he had said in the assembly. 

Dicit liberiiis, atque audacTiis. Quaerit 

He speaks more freely, and more boldly. He inquires 

e&dem ab aliis secreto, reperiter esse vera: 

the same (things) from others apart, he finds to be true: 

'Dumnorigem ipsum esse summa audacla, 

"Dumnorix himself to be [is] with (of) the highest boldness, 

magna gratia ftpud plebem propter 

in great favor with the common people on account of 

liberalitatem, cupidum novarum rerum ; 

(his) liberality, desirous of new things [revolution]; 

habere portoria que omnia relTqua 

to have [that he had] the customs duties and all the remaining 

vectigalTa ^Eduorum complures annos redempta 
taxes of the jEdui many years purchased 

parvo pretTo ; propter6a quod, ille licente, nemo 
for a small price; because (that,) he bidding, no one 

audfiat (pres. subj.) liceri contra; his rebus 

dares to bid against (him); by these things 

et auxisse suam familiarem rem, et 

both to have [he] increased his family estate, and 

comparasse magnas facultates ad largiendum : 

to have [he] procured great means for giving bribes: 

semper al^re magnum 

always to maintain [that he always maintained] a great 

numgrum equitatus stio sumptu, et habere 
number of horsemen at his own expense, and to have [had] (them) 

circum se : nSque posse largiter 

around himself: nor to be able (to bestow) largely [nor was he powerful] 

solum domi, sed etiam S^pud finitimas civitates ; 
only at home, but also with the bordering states; 



26 The Coinmentaries of Ccssar. BOOK I 

atque causa"*^ hujus potentlae, collocasse 

and by reason of this power, to have [he had] placed 

matrem in Bituriglbus, liomlni illic 
[married] (his) mother in the Bituri{?es, to a man there 

nobilissTmo et potentissTmo ; ipsum habere uxorem 
most noble and most powerful; himself to have [he had) a wife 

ex Helvetlis: collocasse sororem ex 

from the Helvetii: to have placed [he had given] a sister from [by] 

matre, et stias propinquas nuptuni in alias 

the mother, and his kinswomen to be married into other 

civitates. Favere'^ et cup^re Helvetlis 

states. To favor and to desire [wish well] to the Helvetii 

propter 6am affinitatem, etlam odisse 

on account of this alliance, also to hate 

Caesarem et Romanos stio nomine, 

Caesar and the Romans from his own name, 

quod potentia ejus diminuta-sit (perf. subj.) 

because the power of him had been diminished 

adventu eorum, et DivitiScus frater restitutus 

by the arrival of them, and Divitiacus (his) brother restored 

in antiquum l5cum grattae atque honoris : si 
into the ancient place of favor and of honor: if 

quid accTdat Romanis, venire in 

any (thing) may happen to the Romans, to come into 

summan spem regni obtinendi per 

the highest hope of the kingdom to be obbiined through 

Helvetlos; imperlo Romani populi, non^' 

the Helvetii; (under) the empire of the Roman people, not 

m6do desperare de refjno, sed etTam de 6a 

only to despair of the kingdom, [of reigning] but also of that 

gratia quam habgat. " (pres. subj.) Caesar etiam 

favor [influence] which he has." Caesar also 

reperiebat in quaerendo, quod adversum proellum 

was finding by inquiring, that [how] the adverse battle 

equestre (adj.) factum-esset (plup. subj.) pauci* 

of cavalry had been made [occured] a few 

diebus ante, initlum ejus ftigae 

days before, (that) the beginning of this flight 



BOOK I 



On the Gallic War. 27 



factum-esse a Dumnorige atque equitibus 

to have [had] been made by Dumnorix and by the horsemen 

ejus, (nam DumnSrix prae^rat equitattii (dat.), 

of him, ( for Dumnorix was over [commanded] the cavalry, 

quern ^dui misgrant auxilTo Caesari ;) que fuga 
which the^Edui had sent for aid to Caesar;) and by the flight 

eorum relTquum equitatum perterritum-esse. 

of them the remaining cavalry to have [had] been dismayed. 

48 

19. Quibus rebus cognitis, quum certissTmae 
Which things being known, since most certain 

res accedgrent (imp. subj.) ad has suspiciones ; 
facts were approaching [confirming] (to) these suspicions; 

quod traduxisset (pi. perf. subj.) Helvetios per 

because [that] he [Dumnorix] had led over the Helvetii through 

fines Sequanorum ; qu5d curasset (pi. perf. 

the borders of theSequani; because [that] he had taken care 

subj.)obsides dandos inter 60s: quod 

hostages to be [should] given between them: because [thatj 

fecisset (pi. perf. subj.) omnia 6a non m5d6 

he had done all those (things) not only 

suo injussu et civitatis, sed etiam 

without his order and (that) of the state, but also 

ipsis inscientibus ; quod accusaretur (imp. 

themselves not knowing; because [that] he was accused 

subj.) a magistratu ^Eduorum ; arbitrabatur"*^ 

by a magistrate ofthe/Edui; he [Caesar] was deeming 

s&tis caussEe esse quare, aut ipse animadvertgret 

enough (of) cause tobe[was] wherefore, either himself should attend 

in 6um, aut juberet civitatem animadvertSre. 

upon [to] him, or should order the state to attend (to him). 

Unum repugnabat omnibus his, quod cognovSrat 

One (thing) was opposing (to) all these, that he had known 

summum studium fratris Divitiaci in 

the highest zeal of (his) brother Divitiacus unto [towards] 

Romanum populum, summam voluntatem in 

the Roman people, (his) highest good will unto [toward] 

se, egregiam fidem, justitiam, temperantiam. 

himself, (his) preeminent faith, justice, temperance. 



28 The Commentaries of Ccesar. BOOK I 

Nam verebatur, ne ofFendSret anlmum Divitiaci 
For he was fearing, lest he should offend the mind of Divitiacus 

supplicTo ejus. It^que prTus quam 

by the punishment of him. Therefore sooner than [before that] 

conaretur quidquam, jubet DivitiS,cum 

he should attempt anything, he orders Divitiacus 

vocari ad se ; et quotidianis 

to be called to himself; and the daily [usual] 

interpretibus remotis, colloquitur cum 60. 

interpreters having been removed, he converses with him, 

per Caium Valerium Procillum, principem 

through Caius Valerius Procillus, chief 

provinciae Galliae, suum familiarem, cui 

of the province of Gaul, his intimate (friend), to [injwhom 

habebat summam fidem omnium rerum ; 

he was having the highest faith [confidence] of all things 

sTmul commonefacit, quae dicta-sint 

at the same time he reminds, (Divitiacus) what (things) were said 

de Dumnorige in concilio Gallorum, ipso 

of Dumnorix in the council of the Gauls, himself 

praesente ; et ostendit quae quisque dix^rit (perf. 

(being)present; and shows what every one has said 

subj.) separatim de §0 apud se. Petit 

separately of him to himself [Caesar]. He asks 

atque hortatur ut, sine offensione animi ejus, 
and exhorts that, without offence of mind of him, 

vel ipse statuat de^o, 

either he himself [Caesar] may determine of him [pass judgment on him], 

caussa cop^nTta ; vel jub^at 

(his) cause being known [the case being tried]; or may order 

rivitatem statuSre. 
the state to determine. 

20. Divitiilcus complexus Caesilrem cum multis 
Divitiacus having embraced Caesar with many 

lacrymis coepit obsecrare, nestatu(^ret 

tears began to beseech, "that he should not determine 

quid gravius in tratrem ; se scire 

any thing more severe against (his) brother; himself to know 



BOOK I On the Gallic War. 29 

ilia esse vera nee quenquam cap^re 

[that he knows] tliose (things) to be true nor anyone to take 

plus doloris ex 60, quarn se ; propter^a (juod 
more (of) grief from this, than himself; because (that) 

(quum ipse posset (imp.subj.) plurlmum gratia 

(when himself was able (to do) most in influence 

d5mi atque in relujua Gallia, ille minimum 

at home and in the remaining Gaul, he [Dumnorix] the least 

paopter adolescentiam) crevisset (pl.perf.subj.) 
on account of (his) youth had increased (in power) 

per se ; quibus opibus ac nervis'^ 

through himself [Divitiacus] ; which means and nerves (strength] 

uteretur (imp.subj.) non solum ad gratlam 

he was using not only to (Diviaticus) influence 

minuendam, sed pene ad sfiam perniciem ; 

to be diminished, but almost to his [Diviaticus] destruction; 

sese tamen commoveri et fraterno amore 
(that) himself however to be [was] moved both by fraternal love 

et existimatione volgi : (juod si 

and by the esteem of the common people: because if 

quid gravius accidisset 6i 

any (thing) more heavy [serious] should happen to him 

a Caes^re, cum ipse teneret (imp.subj.) 

from Caesar, when he himself was holding 

6um lOcum amicitiae S^pud ^um, neminem 

this place of friendship with him [Caesar], no one 

existimaturum non factum siia voluntate ; 

about to think [would think] (the thing) not done with his will; 

futurum ex qua re, iiti'^ animi 

about to [it would] be from which thing, that the minds 

totius Galliae averterentur a se." 

of the whole of Gaul would be turned away from himself." 

Quum flens pet^ret (imp.subj.) haec 

When weeping he was seeking these (things) 

a Caesare pluribus verbis, Caesar prehendit 

from Caesar with many words, Caesar takes 

dextram ejus ; consolatus, rogat (ut) 

the right hand of him; having consoled, he asks (that) 



30 The Commentaries of Cczsar. BOOK I 

faciat finem orandi : ostendit gratiam 

he make an end of entreating: he shows (that) the favor 

ejus esse tanti a,pud se, uti 

of him to be [is] of so much (account) with himself, that 

condonet et injuriam rei publicae et 

he forgives both the injury of the republic and 

suum dolorem, voluntati ac precibus 

his own grief, for the good will and for the prayc... 

ejus. Vdcat DumnorTgem ad se ; adhibet 
of him. He calls Dumnorix to himself; he summons 

fratrem ; ostendit quae reprehendat (pres. subj.) 
the brother; he shows what he blames 

in 60; proponit quae ipse intelligat, 

in him; he sets forth what (he) himself understands, 

(pres. subj.), quae civitas queratur (pres. subj.); 

what the state complains of; 

ni5net, ut vitet omnes suspiciones in 

he warns, that he may avoid all suspicions into [for] 

reliquum tempus. Dicit se condonare 

the remaining time. He says himself to forgive 

praeterita fratri Diviti^co; ponit 

past (things) for (his) brother Divitiacus; he places 

custodes Dumnorigi, ut possit scire 

keepers [spies] to [over] Dumnorix, that he may be able to know 

quae a,gat (p'res. subj.) cum quibus 

what (things) he does with whom 

ioquatur (pres. subj.) 
he speaks. 

21. Eodem die factus certior ab 

On the same day being made more sure [oeing informed] by 

exploratoribus, hostes consedisse sub 

scouts (that), the enemy to have [had] encamped under [at the 

montem, octo millTa passiium ab 

foot of] the mountain, eight thousand (of) paces from 

castris(pl.) ipsius ; misit qui cognoscgrent, 

the camp of himself; he sent (persons) who might learn, 

qualis esset natura montis, et 

what might be [was] the nature of the mountain, and 



BOOK I 



On the Gallic War. 



31 



qualis 
what 

55 



ascensus in circuTtu. Renuuntiatum-est 
the ascent in a circuit. It was reported 



esse 
to be 



tertla 
the third 



vigilla 
watch 



jubet 
he orders 



facllem. De 
easy. About [at] 

Titum Labienuml 
Titus Labienus 

cum duabus legionlbus, et iisdem duclbus, qui 
powers] with two legions, 



legatum 
lieutenant 



pro praetore 
for praetor [with praetorian 



and the same guides, who 



cognov6rant 
had learned 

montis ; 
of the mountain; 



Iter, 
the route. 



ascend^re 

to ascend 



summum 

the highest 



ostendit 
he shows 

Ipse 
He himself 



quid 
what 



sit 
may be 



sui 

(of) his 



de 

about 



quarta 
the fourth 



jUffum 
peak 

consilli. 
counsel. 

vigilla 
watch 



I design ]. 

eodem itingre, quo hostes 

by the same route, by which the enemy 

contendit ad ?os, que mittit ant6 omnem equitatum. 
hastens to them, and sends before all the cavalry. 

Publius Considius, qui habebatur 
Publius Considius, who was deemed 

r6i(sing.), et fu^rat in exerc!tu 



i^rant, 
had gone. 



peritissTmus 
most skilled 



militaris 

of [injmilitary atfairs. 



and had been 



Sylla?, 
Sylla, 



et 
and 



post6a 
afterwards 



in 

in (that) 



in the army 

Marci 
of Marcus 



praemittitur cum 
is sent forward with 

22. Prima'^ 
At the first 

teneretur (imp. subj.) a 
was held by 



exploratoribus. 
the scouts. 



luce, quum 

light [early dawn], when 

Tito 

Titus 



summus 

the highest 

Labieno, 
Labienus, 



Lucli 
of Lucius 

Crassi, 
Crassus, 



mons 
mountain 

ipse 
he himself 



abesset (imp. subj.) non longius 



was distant 

quingentis 
five hundred 



n$que, 
nor, 

aut 
either 



Ut 
as 



passibus 

paces 

comp^rit 
he found 



not 

ab 

from 



farther (than) 
castris (pi.) 



mille 
a thousand 



et 
and 



the camp 



adventus 
the arrival 



postSa 
afterwards 

ipsius, 
of himself, 



ex 

from 

aut 
or (that) 



hostium ; 
of the enemy 

captivis, 
the captives, 

Labieni 
of Labienus 



32 The Commentaries of Ccssar. BOOK I 

cognitus-esset (pi. perf. subj.); Cosindius, 6quo 

had been known; Considius, (his) horse 

admisso, accurrit ad 6um ; dicit. 

at full speed, rushes to him [Caesar]; he says, 

montem quern volu6rit (perf. subj.) occupari 

the mountain which he wished to be occupied 

a Labieno, teneri ab hostibus : se 

by Labienus, to be [is] held by the enemy: (that) he himself 

cognovisse id a GallTcis armis atque insignibus. 

to have known[knew] this from the Gallic arms and ensigns. 

Caesar subducit siias copias in proximum coUem, 
Caesar leads away his forces to the nearest hill, 

instriiit aciem. Labienus, ut praeceptum-6rat 

he arrays the line. Labienus, as had been directed 

6i a Caesare, ne-commitWret proelium, 

to him by Caesar, that he should not join battle, 

nisi copiae ipsius visae-essent (pi. perf. subj.) 

unless the forces of himself had been seen 

prope castra(pl.) hostium, ut impgtus figret 

near the camp of the enemy, that the attack might be made 

in hostes undique uno temp5re, 

against the enemy on every side at one time, 

monte occupato, expectabat nostros, que 

the mountain having been occupied, was awating our (men), and 

abstinebat proelTo. Denique, multo die Caesar 
was holding from battle. Finally, far in the day Caesar 

cognovit per exploratores, et montem teneri 

learned by scouts (that), both the mountain to be [was] held 

a siiis, et hostes movisse castra 

by his own (men) , and (that) the enemy to have [had] moved camp, 

(pi.), et Considium perterritum timore renuntiasse 
and Considius dismayed by fear to have [had] 

pro viso, quod non vidisset (pi. perf. 

announced for [as] seen, (that) which he had not seen. 

subj.). Eo die, intervallo quo consuerat. 

On that day, in the interval with which he had been accustomed, 

sequitur hostes, et ponit castra (pi.) tria 

he follows the enemy, and places (his) camp three 



BOOK I Oil the Gallic War. 38 

millTa passfium al) castris (pi.) eorum. 

thousand (ol) paces from the catnp of tliciu (their camp]. 

23. PostridTe ejus diei, (luod hidnum 

The (lay after this day, because a period of two days 

omnino supen'rat, (iiium oporteret (imp. subj.) 
altogether was remaining, \\ lu-n it was obligatory 

metiri frumentuin excrcTtu (exercitfii) ; et 

to measure [deal) out corn to the army; and 

(juod ah^rat a Bibracte, lonfje 

because he was distant from Uibracte, by far 

maxTmo ac ('oi)i()sissTino o|)pi(I() .'fAluoriini, 

the greatest and most wealthy town of the .Kdui, 

non amj)lTus octodcVim millTbus passfium ; 

not more (than) eighleen thoustind (of) paces ; 

existimavit ])rospi('it'nduin frunicntanic 

he believed it must be looked out |he must provide] for the grain 



r?i; 


et avertit iter ab 


HelvetTis 


supply; 


and he turns a^\ ay the route from 


the Helvetii 


ac 


contendit ire Bibracte. 


Ea'' res 


and 


hastens to go (to) Uibracte. 


This thing 



nuntiatur liostlbus per fufjitivos Lucli vEmilli, 
is announced to the enemy by fugitives of Lucius ^Emilius, 

decurionis equTtum Gallorum. Helvetii, 

captain of the horsemen of the Gauls. The Helvetii, 

seu quod existimarent (imp. subj.) Romani 

either because they were judging (that) the Romans 

disced^re a se perterritos timore, ?o mAgis 
(to) withdraw from them dismayed with fear, by this the more 

quod pridie superioribus locis occu])atis, 

because the day liefore the higher places having been occupied, 

commisissent (pi. perf. subj.) non proelTum, sive 
they had joined not battle, or 

qu6d^^ confid^rent (imp. subj) posse inter- 

because they were trusting (our men) to be able [could] (to) be inter- 

cludi frumentoria re ; consilio commutato 

«»epted from the corn supply; (their) plan having been altered 

atque itin^re converso, coeperunt insequi ac 

and the route havinf been changed, they began to pursue and 



34 The Commentaries of Ccesar. BOOK i 

lacess&re nostros a novissTmo agmine. 
to harass our (men) from the last marching-line [in the rear]. 

24. Postquam Caesar animadvertit id, subducit 
After (that) Caesar perceived this ; he leads up 

suas copTas in proxTmum collem que misit equitatum, 
his forces onto the nearest hill and sent cavalry, 

qui sustineret impetum hostium. Ipse 

which should meet the attack of the enemy. He himself 

interim instruxit triplicem aciem quatiior veteranaruro 
hieanwhile drew up a triple line of four veteran 

legionum in medio colle ; ita uti collocaret 

legions on the center (of the) hill; so that he might place 

supra se, in summo jugo, diias legiones quas 
above himself, on the highest peak, the two legions which 

conscrips^rat proxTme in citeriore Gallia, et omnia 
he had levied very lately in hither Gaul, and all 

auxilia, et compleret totum montem 

the aids [auxiliaries], and might fill the whole mount 

homimbus. Interna jussit sarcmas 

with men. In the mean time he ordered (that) the baggage 

conferri in unum l^cum et ^um 

(to) be brought together into one place and (that) this 

muniri ab lis, qui constit^rant in superiore 
(to) be fortified by those, who took stand in the higher 

acie. Helvetii, secuti cum omnibus stiis 

line. The Helvetii, having followed with all their 

carris, contulerunt impedimenta in unum 

wagons, brought together the baggage into one 

l5cum; ipsi confertissima acie, nostro equitatu 

place; (they) themselves in a very dense line, our cavalry 

rejecto, phalange facta, successerunt 

having been repulsed, a phalanx having been made, advanced 

sub nostram primam aciem. 

under [to] our first line. 

25. Caesar, siio primdm, deinde ?quis 
Caesar, his own (horse) first, then the horses 

omnium remotis e conspectu, ut periculo 

of all having been removed from sight, that the danger 



BOOK I On the Gallic War. 35 

a&quato, tollf^et spem fflffae, 

having been made equal, lie niight take away the hope of flight, 

cohortatus suos, commisit proellum. 

having encouraged his (men), joined battle. 

MilTtes, pilis missis e superiore l6co, 

The soldiers, javelins having been sent [cast] from the higher place, 

facile perfrefferunt phalanjyeni hostTum : ^a 

easily broke through the phalanx of the enemy: this 

disjecta, fecerunt impOtum in ^os districtis 

having been dispersed, they made an attack upon them with drawn 

jrladTis. Erat'^ majrno impedimento Gallis ad 

swords. It was (for) a great inipodiiuont to the Gauls for 

pugnam, quod plurTbus scutis eorum transfixis 
the fight, that many shields of them having been pierced 

et colligatis uno ictu piloruni, cum 

and bound together by one stroke of the javelins, when 

ferrum inflexisset (pi. perf. subj.) se, pot^rant 
the iron had bent itself, (in) they were able 

n6que evell^re, n^cjue, sinistra inipedita, 

neither to tear (it) out, nor, the left (hand) having been entangled, 

pugnare sfttis commode, ut multi, brachlo 

to fight sufficiently easily, so that many, the arm 

dlu jactato, praeoptarent (imp. subj.) 

a long time having t)een tossed about, were preferring 

emitt^re scutum m{\nu, et pugnare 

to discard the shield from the hand, and to fight 

nudo corp6re. Tandem defessi vulnertbus cceperunt 
with naked body. At length wearied with wounds they began 

et referre p^dem, et qutKl mons 

both to bear back the foot [to retreat], and because a mountain 

subSrat circiter mille passuum recip^re 

was near about a thousand (of) paces to betake 

se So. Monte capto, 

themselves [withdraw] thither. The mountain having been taken, 

et nostris succedentibus, Boii et Tulingi, 

and our (men) advancing, the Boii and Tulingi, 

qui claudebant agmen hostTum circiter 

who were closing the marching line of the enemy (with) about 



36 The Commentaries of Ccesar, BOOK I 

quind^cim millibus hominum, et ?rant pra?sidio 
fifteen thousand (of) men, and were (for) a guard 

novissimis, agressi^^ nostros, ex 

to the last [rear], having attacked our (men), from [upon] 

itin^re aperto latere circumvenire ; 

the march on the open flank , (began) to surround (them) ; 

et Helvetii qui recep?rant se in 

and the Helvetii who had betaken themselves to 

montem, conspicati id, cceperunt rursus 

the mountain, having beheld this, began again 

instare et redintegrare proelium. Romani 

to advance and to renew the battle. The Romans 

intulerunt signa conversa bipartite; 

bore on [charged] the standards (having been) turned in two directions; 

prima ac secunda acies, ut resist^ret 

the first and second line, that it [they] might resist 

victis et submotis ; tertia ut excip&ret 
(to) the conquered and routed; the third that it might receive 

venientes. 

(those) coming. 

26. Ita^^ pugnatum-est ancipiti proelio diu 

Thus it was fought with doubtful battle a long time 

atque acriter. Quum possent (imp. subj.) non 
and sharply. When they were able not 

sustinere imp^tum nostrorum diutius, alteri receperunt 

to sustain the attack of our (men) longer, others [some] betook 

se in montem, ut coepgrant; altgri 

themselves unto the mountain, as they had begun; others 

contulerunt se ad impedimenta et siios 

collected themselves to [at] the baggage and their 

carros. Nam hoc toto proelio, quum 

wagons. For in this whole battle, when [although] 

pugnatum-sit (perf. subj.) ab septima hora 
it was fought from the seventh hour [one o'clock] 

ad vespgram, nemo^^potuit videre hostem aversum. 

to evening, no one was able to see the enemy turned away^ 

Pugnatum-est etiam ad multam noctem ad 

It was fought also to [until] much [late] night at 



BOOK I On the Gallic War. 37 

impedimenta : propter^a quod objec^rant carros pro 

the l)af:Cf?aKt' : because (that) they had opposed wafjons for 

vallo, et oonjiciebant tela e superiore loco in 
a rampart, and were hurling weapons from a hifjher place upon 

nostros venientes, et nonnulli subjiciebant matftras 
our (men) advancing, and some were thrusting spears 

ac trap^ftlas inter carros que redas, que 
and javelins between the wagons and carts, and 

vulnerabant nostros. Quum ' pugnatum-esset 

were wounding our (men). When it had been fought 

(pi. perf. subj.) diu, nostri potiti-sunt 

a long time, our (men) won [captured] 

impedimentis que castris. I})i filTa OrfjetorTjjis, 
the baggage and camp. There a daughter ofOrgetorix, 

atque unus e filTis captus-est. Superfuerunt 

and one from [of] (his) sons was [were] taken. There survived 

ex ?o proelio circTter centum et trijjinta millTa 
from this battle about a hundred and thirty thousand 

hommum, que ierunt continenter (Vi totanocte: 

(of) men, and they went[traveled] incessantly this whole night; 

itin^re intermisso nullam partem noctis, 

the march being interrupted no part of the night, 

quarto die pervenerunt in fines Linfjc^num: 

on the fourth day they arrived to [at] the borders of the Lingones; 



juum 


nostri 


morati 


tridiium 


since 


our (men) 


having delayed 


the space of three days 


et 


propter 


vuln^ra 


militum et 


both 


on account of 


the wounds 


of the soldiers and 



propter sepulturam occisorum, potuissent 

on account of the burial of the slain, had been able 

(pi. perf. subj.) non s§qui ^os. Caesar misit 

not to follow [could not follow] them. Caesar sent 

lit^ras que nuntios ad Linorones, ne juvarent 

letters and messengers to the Lingones, that they should not assist 

60s frumento neve alia re : qui si 

them with corn nor with (any)other thing: who if 

juvissent,^^ se habiturum illos 

they (should have) assisted, he himself about to [would] hold them 



38 



The Cojnmentaries of Ccesar. 



BOOK I 



eodem l5co, 



quo 



Helvetlos. 



in the same place [light], in which [as] the Helvetii. 



tridiio 
the period of three days 



60s cum 
them with 



omnibus 
all 



intermisso, 
having intervened, 

copiis. 
(his) forces. 



coepit 
began 



Ipse, 

(He) himself, 

s6qui 
to follow 



27. Helvetii, 
The Helvetii, 

,65 



adducti 
induced 



mopia 

by want 



omntum 

of all 



rerum, 

things. 



miserunt"" legates 

sent ambassadors to him 



(pi. perf. subj.) 



6um 

him 



qui 
who 

in 

on 



cum convenissent 
when they had met 



itingre, 
the march. 



projecissent (pi. perf. subj.) se ad p6des, 
had thrown themselves at (his) feet. 



petissent 
sought 



que 

and 

que 
and 

(pi. 



locuti supplicTter, flentes 

having spoken suppliantly, weeping 

perf. subj.) pacem, atque jussisset (pi. perf. subj.) 

peace, and (when) he had ordered 

60s expectare siium adventum in 60 loco, quo 
them to await his arrival in that place, in which 

tum essent (imp. subj.), paruerunt. Postquam Caesar 
then they were, they obeyed. After (that) Caesar 

pervenit 60, poposcit obsides, arma, servos, qui 
came there, he demanded hostages, arms, the slaves, who 

Dum 6a 
to them. While these 



perfugissent (pi. perf. subj.) ad 60s. 



had fled 

(things) 

nocte 

a night 

homTnum 
(of) men 



conquiruntur et 

are sought for and 

intermissa, circiter 

having intervened, about 



conferuntur, 
are brought together, 

sex millTa 

six thousand 



ejus 
of this 



pagi, 
canton. 



qui 
which 



Verbigenus, 

Verbigenus, 
traditis. 



sive perterriti timore, ne, 
either alarmed by fear, lest, 

afficerentur 



appellatur 
is called 

armis 

(their) arms 



supplicTo ; 



having been delivered, they should be aflfected [visited] with punishment; 



sive 
or 



inducti 
induced 



spe 

by hope 



salutis, 
of safety, 



quod 
because 



in 

in 



tanta 
so great a 



BOOK I On the Gallic War. 39 

multitudTne deditieiorum,^^ existimarent (imp. subj.) 
multitude of (those) surrendered, they were thinking 

stiam fusam posse aut occultari aut ignorari 
their flight to be able either to be concealed or to be disregarded 

omnino; prima vigilTa noctis, egressi ex 

altogether; In the first watch of the night, having gone out from 

castris(pl.) Helvetiorum, contenderunt ad Rhenum 
the camp of the Helvetii, hastened to the Rhine 

que fines Germanorum, 

and borders of the Germans. 

28. Quod^^ nbi Caesar reseivit, imperavit his, 
Which when Caesar discovered, he ordered (to) these, 

per fines quorum i?rant, uti 

through the borders of whom they had gone, that 

conquir&rent et ' reduc^rent, si^ 

they should search out and should lead back, if 

vellent (imp. subj.) esse purfjati sTbi. Habiiit^ 
they were wishing to be blameless to himself. He held 

reductos in num^ro hostTum : accepit omnes 
(those) led back in the number of enemies: he received all 

relTquos in deditionem, obsidibus, armis, perfiifris 
the remaining into surrender, hostages, arms, deserters 

traditis. Jussit HelvetTos, Tulinfjos, 

having been delivered up. He ordered the Helvetii, Tulingi, 

Latobriffos, reverti in sfios fines, unde 

Latobrigi, to return into their territories, whence 

profecti-Srant ; et qudd, omnibus frug^Tbus amissis, 
they had set out; and because, all the crops having been lost, 

nihil ^rat d5mi, quo tolerarent fflmem, 

nothing was at home, by which they might bear hunger, 

imperavit Allobrogibus, ut fac^rent copTam 

he ordered (to) the Allobroges, that they should make plenty 

frumenti eis; jussit ipsos restitu^re 

[a supply] of corn for them; he ordered themselves to replace 

oppida que vicos, quos inc6nd?rant. Fecit 

the towns and villages, which they had burned. He did 

id maxTme §a ratione, quod noluit 

th:s chiefly with this reason, because he was unwilling 



40 The Commentaries of Ccesar. BOOK I 

Sum locum, unde Helvetii discess^rant, vacare; 
this place, whence the Helvetii had departed, to be vacant; 

ne ])ro])ter bonitatem agrorum, German! , 

lest on account of the excellence of the lands, the Germans, 

qui incolunt trans Rhenum, transirent e 

who dwell beyond the Rhine, should cross from 

suis finibus in fines Helvetiorum, et essent 

their borders into the borders of the Helvetii, and should be 

finitimi provinciae Galliae que Allobrogibus. 
neighbors to the province of Gaul and to the Allobroges. 

Concessit i^diiis petentibus, ut collocarent 

He granted to the yEdui asking, that they should place [settle] 

Boios in suis finibus, qu6d cognitierant 

the Boii in their borders, because they were known 

egreg'Ta virtute : quibus illi dederunt agros, que 
of excellent valor: to whom they gave lands, and 

quos^^ receperunt postea in parem conditionem 

whom they received afterwards into equal condition 

juris que libertatis atque ipsi grant, 

of right and of liberty as they themselves were. 

29. In castrisvpl.) Helvetiorum tabulae confectae 

In the camp of the Helvetii tablets prepared 

Graecis litgris repertae-sunt, et perlatae ad Caesfirem; 
with Greek letters were found, and brought to Caesar; 

in quibus tabiilis ratio confecta-(^rat 

in which tablets a computation had been made 

nominatim, qui num&rus eorum exisset(pl. 

name by name, [individually] what number of them had gone forth 

perf. subj.) domo, qui possent (imp. subj.)ferre arma, 
from home, who were able to bear arms, 

et item separatim pu^ri, s?nes que muli^res. 
and likcAvise separately the boys, old men and women. 

Summa omniumq uarum rerum grat, ducenta 

The sum of all which things [items] was, two hundred 

sexaginta et tria millia capitum Helvetiorum ; 
sixty and three thousand (of) heads [souls] of the Helvetii; 

triginta et sex millTa Tulingorum ; quatuord^cim 
thirty and six thousand of the Tulingi; fourteen 



BOOK I On the Gallic War. 41 

Latobrigorum ; Rauracorum viginti et tria ; Boiorum 
of the Latobrigi; of the Rauraci twenty and three; of the Boii 

triginta et diio. Ex his, qui possent (imp. subj.) 
thirty and two. Of those, who were able 

ferre arma ad nonaginta et duo millia. Summa 
to bear arms to [about] ninety and two thousand. The sum 

omnium fu6rat ad trecenta sexaginta et 

[total] of all was at [about] three hundred sixty and 

octo millTa. Censu habito, ut Ca?sar 

eight thousand. A census having been held, as Caesar 

imperav&rat, num^rus eorum, qui redierunt domum, 
had ordered, the number of those, who returned home, 

repertusest centum et decem millia. 

was found (to be) a hundred and ten thousand. 

30. Bello Helvetiorum confecto, legati^ 

The war of the Helvetii having been finished, ambassadors 

f^re totius Galliae, princTpes civitatum, convenerunt 

almost of the whole of Gaul, chiefs of the states, came together 

ad Caesftrem gratulatum : sese, intellig^re, 

to Caesar (to) congratulate: "(they) themselves, (to) understand , 

tametsi Romanus popiilus repetisset (pi. perf. subj.) 

although the Roman people had required 

poenas ab lis bello pro veteribus injuriis 
penalties from them in war for the ancient injuries 

Helvetiorum ; tftmen ?am rem accidisse non 

of the Helvetii; yet this thing to have [had] happened not 

minus ex usu terrae GallTae, 

less from [for] the use [advantage] of the land of Gaul, 

quam Romani popiili ; propterea quod So 

than of the Roman people; because (that) with this 

consilio, florentissTmis rebus, Helvetii reliquissent 
plan, in most flourishing affairs, the Helvetii had left 

(pi. perf. subj.) stias domos, ut inferrent 

their homes, that they might wage 

bellum toti GallTae (dat.) que potirentur imperTo(abl.); 
war on all Gaul and might gain empire; 

que deligSrent locum domicilio ex magna copia, 
and (might) choose a place for abode from a great supply. 



42 



The Comnie7iiaries of Ccesar. 



BOOK I 



quern 

whicli 



judiv-^assent 

they (might have) judged 



opportunissimum ac 
most advantageous and 



fructuosissTmum ex omni Gallia 



most fruitful 

relTquas 
the remaining 



from [of] all 



Gaul; 



que 
and 



haberent 

might have 



civitates stipendiarias. 
states as tributaries. 



Petierunt, 

They asked, 



titi 
that 



concilium 
a council 

fac6re id 

to do this 



liceret sibi indic6re 

it might be allowed (to) tliemselves to proclaim 

totius Galliae in certam diem, que 
of all Gaul upon a certain day, and 

voluntate Caesaris. Sese habere quasdan res, 

with the will of Caesar. They themselves (to) have certain things, 

quas vellent (imp. subj.) petere ab 60 e 

which they were wishing 

consensu. Ea re 
consent. This thing 



to ask from him from [with] 



communi 
the common 



permissa, 

having been permitted. 



constituerunt diem 
they appointed a day 

jurejurando inter 
by oath between 



concilio, et sanxerunt 

for the council, and ratified 

se, ne quis 

themselves, (that) not any one 



(that) 

enuintiaret nisi quibus mandatum-esset (pi. 

should divulge (it) unless to whom it had been enjoined 

perf. subj.) communi consilio. 
by common design. 

31 Eo concilTo dimisso, iidem 

This council having dismissed, the same 



principes 
chiefs 



civitatum, 
of the states, 

Caesftrem ; 
Caesar; 



qui 
who 

que 
and 



fu^rant 
had been 



petierunt, 
asked, 



ante, 
before, 

11 ti 
that 



reverterunt 
returned 



ad 
to 



sTbi 

(to) themselves 

sua salute 
their safety 



ag^re 

to act [treat] 

que 

and 



secretd 

secretly 



liceret 
it might be allowed 

?o de 
him about 



cum 

with 



omnium, 
(that) of all. 



Ea 
This 



re 
thing 



impetrata, omnes flentes projecerunt sese 

having been obtained, all weeping cast themselves 

ad p^des Caesciri; se non minus 

at the feet to [of] Caesar; "they themselves not less 



BOOK I On the Gallic War. 43 

contendere et laborare id, ne ea 

to strive and to labor for this, lest these (things) 

quae dixssent (pi. perf. subj.) enuntiarentur, 

which they had said should be divulged, 

quam titi impetrarent ?a, quae 

than that they might obtain these (things), which 

vellent (imp. subj.); propter^a qu5d si enun- 
they were wishing; because (that) if it 

tiatum-esset, viderent (imp. subj.) se 

was divulged, they were seeing (that) (they) themselves 

venturos in summum cruciatum." DivitiScus 

about to [would] come to the highest torture." Divitiacus 

^duus''^ locutus-est pro his : esse diias 

the iEduan spoke for these; to be [there are] two 

factiones totius GallTae; i^diios tenere 

factions of all Gaul; the ^Edui to hold 

principatum alterius harum, Arvernos 

sovereignty of the one . of these, the Arverni 

alterius. Quum hi contend^rent (imp. subj.) 

of the other. When these were contending 

tantopSre inter se de potentatu multos 

very greatly between themselves about dominion many 

annos, factumesse, uti Germani 

years, to have been done [it resulted], that the Germans 

accerserentur (imp. subj.) ab Avernis que Sequftnis 
were sent for by the Arverni and Sequani 

mercede. Primd circTter quindecim 

with [for] hire [as mercenaries]. At first about fifteen 

millTa horum transisse Rhenum ; posteSquam 

thousand of these (to have) crossed the Rhine; after (that) 

f^ri ac barbSri homines adamassent 

the wild and barbarous men had fallen in love with 

(pi. perf. subj.) agros, et cultum, et copTas 
the lands, and cultivation, and resources 

Gallorum, plures transductos : nunc esse 

of the Gauls, more (were) led over: now to be [they are] 

in Gallia ad numfrum centum et viginti 
in Gaul to the number of a hundred and twenty 



44 The Commentaries of CcEsar. BOOK I 

millium : ^duos,' que clientes eorum, 

thousand: the iEdiii, and clients [dependants] of them, 

s^mel atque iterum contendisse armis cum 

time and again (to) have contended in arms with 

his; pulsos accepisse magnam 

these; repulsed to (they) have received a great 

calamitatem ; amisisse omnem nobilitatem, 

calamity; to (they) have lost all (their) nobility, 

omnem senatum, omnen equitatum. Fractos 

all the senate, all (their) cavalry. Broken 

quibus proelTis que calamitatibus, qui 

by which [these] battles and calamities, (they) who 

ante potuissent (pi. perf. subj.) plurimum 

before had been able most [were most powerful] 

in Gallia, et sua virtute et 

in Gaul, both by their own valor and 

hospitio atque amicitia Romani popiili, 

by the alliance and friendship of the Roman people, 

coactos-esse dare obsides Sequanis, 

(to) have been forced to give hostages to the Sequani, 

nobilissTmos civitatis, et obstring&re civitatem 

the most noble (men) of the state, and to bind the state 

jurejurando, sese n^que repetituros 

by oath (that they), themselves neither about to [would] ask back 

obsides, neque imploraturos auxilTum 

the hostages, nor about to [would] implore aid 

a Romano popfilo, neque recusaturos, qu5 

from the Roman people, nor . about to [would] refuse, that 

minus-essent perpetfid sub ditione 

they might not be perpetually under the dominion 

atque imperio illorum. Se esse unum 

and empire of them. He himself to be [was] the only one 

ex omni civitate iEduorum, qui potuerit (perf. 
from [of] all the stiite of the iEdui, who has Ix^en able 

subj.) non adduci ut juraret, aut 

not to be induced that he should swear, or 

driret suos lib^ros obsides: Ob (\im rem 

should give his children (as) hostages: For this thing 



BOOK I 



On the Gallic War. 



45 



se profugisse ex civitate, et venisse 

he himself to have [had] fled from the state, and to have [had] come(to) 



, qu6d 
because 



Roman ad Senatum postulatum auxilTum 
Rome to the Senate to request aid, 

solus teneretur (imp. subj.) n?que jurjurando, 
( he ) alone was held neither by oath, 

n6que obsidibus. Sed accidisse pejus 

nor by hostages. But to have [it had] happened worse 

Sequanis victoribus, quam ^diiis victis : 

to the Sequani, the conquerors, than to the iEdui, the conquered; 

propterga quod Ariovistus,'^ rex Germanorum, 
because (that) Ariovistus, king of the Germans, 

consedisset (pi. perf. subj.) in finibus 

had settled in the borders 

que occupavisset (pi. perf. subj.) tertiam 
and had occupied the third 

Sequfini agri, qui esset (imp. subj.) optimus 

of the Sequanian land, which was the best 

totius GallTae; et nunc juberet (imp. subj.) 

of all Gaul; and now was ordering 

Sequanos deced^re de 
the Sequani to depart from 



eorum, 
of them, 

partem 
part 



altera 
the other 



tertia 
third 



parte ; 

part; 



propterea 
because 



quod, 

(that). 



paucis 
a few 



mensibus (abl.) ante, 
months before, 



viginti et quatiior millTa hominum Harudum 

twenty and four thousand (of) men of the Harudes 

venissent (pi. perf. subj.) ad ?um, quibus l6cus 

had come to him, for whom a place 

et sedes pararentur: futurum esse 

and habitations should be prepared: to be about to be [it would be] 



paucis 

in a few 

finibus 
the regions 

transirent 

would cross 



esse 

to be 



annis, fiti 
years, that 

Galliae, 
of Gaul, 

Rhenum : 
the Rhine: 

conferendum 
mentioned 



omnes 
all 

atque 
and 



pellerentur e 

would be driven from 



omnes 
all 



^nim 
for 

cum 
with 



ngque 

neither (is) 

agro 
the land 



Germani 

the Germans 

Gallicum 
the Gallic (land) 

Germanorum, 

of the Germans, 



46 The Commentaries of Ccesar. BOOK 1 

n6que banc consuetudinem victus comparandam 
nor is this custom of life to be compared 

cum ilia. Autem Ariovistum, ut s6mel 

with that. But Ariovistus, when once 

vic^rit (perf. subj.) copTas Gallorum proelio, 
he conquered the forces of the Gauls in battle, 

quod proelTum factum-sit (perf. subj ;) ad 

which battle was made [fought] at 

Magetobrigam, imperare superbe et crudeliter, 

Magetobriga, to command [commands] proudly and cruelly, 

posc^re lib^ros cuj usque nobilissimi 

to require [demands] the children of each (of the) most noble 

obsides, et ed6re omnia exempla crueiatus in 

(as) hostages, and to impose [imposes] all examples of torture upon 

60s, si qua res facta-sit (perf. subj.) non ad nutum ^ 
them, if any thing has been done not at the nod 

aut ad voluntatem ejus : hominem esse barbftrum, 
or at the will of him: the man to be [is] barbarous, 

iracundum, temerarium : imperia' ejus non posse 
irascible, headstrong: the commands of him not to be able 

sustineri diutms. Nisi quid auxilii 

to be sustained longer. Unless some (thing) (of) aid 

sit in CaesS^re que Romano populo, 

may be [is] in Caesar and the Roman people, 

idem esse faciendum omnibus Gallis, quod 

the same must (to) be done by all the Gauls, which 

Helvetii fec6rant, ut emigrent d5mo; 

the Helvetii had done, that they may emigrate from home; 

p?tant alTud domicilium, alias sedes remotas 
(that) they may seek another abode, others seats remote 

a Germanis, que experiantur fortunam, quaecunque 

from the Germans, and (that they) may try fortune, whatsoever 

accTdat. Si haec enunciata-sint 

may happen [befall them] . If these (things) were told 

Ariovisto, non dubitere,^^ quin sumat 

to Ariovistus, not to doubt, but that he may take 

gravissTmum supplicTum de omnibus obsidibus, qui 
the heaviest punishment upon all the hostages, who 



BOOK I On the Gallic War. 47 

sint (pres. subj.) Spud 6um. Caesarem, vel sua 
are with him. Caesar, eitlier by his 

auctoritate atque exercitus, vel recenti 

authority and (that) of (liis) army, or by (his) recent 

victoria, vel nomine Roman! populi, posse 
victory, or by the name of the Roman people, to be [is] able 

deterrere, ne major multitudo Germanorum 
to prevent, lest a greater multitude of Germans 

transducatur Rhenum, que posse defendgre 

(may) be led over the Rhine, and (to) be able to defend 

omnem GallTam ab injuria Ariovisti. 

all Gaul from the injury [wrongs] of Ariovistus. 

32. Hac oratione^^ habita a Divitiftco, omnes, 

This speech having been had[made] by Divitiacus, all, 

qui adgrant, coeperunt pet?re auxilTum a CaesSre 
who were present, began to ask aid from Caesar 

magno fletu. Caesar animadvertit Sequ^nos 
with great weeping. Caesar observed (that) the Sequani 

unos ex omnibus fac6re nihil earum rerum, 
alone from [of] all (to) do nothing of those things, 

quas caetfiri facerent (imp. subj.);sed tristes, capite 
which the rest were doing; but sad, (with) head 

demisso, intueri terram. Miratus, 

(being) cast down, (to) look upon the earth. Having wondered, 

quae esset caussa ejus r6i, quaesivit ex 
what was the cause of this thing, he inquired from 

ipsis. Sequ§,ni respondere nihil, sed 

them . The Sequani answered nothing , but 

permansere taciti in eadem tristitia. Quum quaer§ret 
remained silent in the same sadness. When he was asking 

(imp. subj.) saepius ab !is, n^que posset (imp. 
more often from them, nor was able 

subj.) exprimSre ullam vocem omnino; 

to extort any voice [word] at all; 



( <- 



idem ^duus Divitiacus respondit : Fortunam 

the same iEduan Divitiacus answered: "The fortune 

Sequanorum, esse hoc miseriorem que graviorem, 

of the Sequani, to be [is] in this more wretched and more heavy. 



48 The Commentaries of Ccesar, BOOK I 

quam reliquorum quod soli audereut (imp. 

than of the rest, because (they) alone were daring 

subj.) nec quidem queri in occulto, 

neither indeed to complain in private, 

nec implorare auxilium; que horrerent (imp. subj.) 
nor to implore aid; and were dreading 

crudelitatem absentis Ariovisti, v6lut si adesset 
the cruelty of the absent Ariovistus, as if he was present 

(imp. subj.) coram; propterga qu6d tSmen 

in person; because (that) notwithstanding 

facultas fiigae daretur 

[indeed] an opportunity [a resource] of flight was given 

(imp. subj.) reliquis ; vero omnes cruciatus essent 
to the rest ; but all tortures were 

(imp. subj.) perferendi Sequanis, qui 

to [must] be endured to [byj the Sequani, who 

recepissent (pi. perf. subj.) Ariovistum intra suos fines, 
had received Ariovistus within their borders, 

omnia oppTda quorum essent (imp. subj.) in 

all the towns of whom [whose towns] were in 

potestate ejus." 

the power of him [his power]." 

33. His rebus cognitis, Caesar confirmavit 

These things having been known, Caesar confirmed [cheered] 

amnios Gallorum verbis, que pollicitus-est 

the minds of the Gauls with words, and promised 

§am rem futuram curae sibi : 

"(that) this thing about to [would] be (for) a care to himself: 

se habere magnam spem, Ariovistum 

(he) himself to have [has] great hope, (that) Ariovistus 

adductum suo beneficio et auctoritate, facturum 
induced by his kindness and authority, about to [would] make 

finem injuriis." Hac oratione hablta, 

an end to [of his] wrongs." This speech having been delivered, 

dimisi concilium. Et secundum ?a (pi.) multae 

he dismissed the council. And besides this many 

res hortabantur ?um, quare putaret i\im 

things were urging liim, wherefore he shouUl think (that) this 



BOOK I On the Gallic War. 49 

rem cogitandum et suscipiendum 

thing to [must] be considered and to [must] be undertaken 

sibi: imprimis, quod videbat ^duos, 

to [by] himself: especially, because he was seeing (that) the ^Edui, 

saepenumgro appellatos fratres que 

oftentimes having [who had] been named brothers and 

consanguineos ab Senatu, teneri in servitute 

kinsmen by the Senate, to be [were] held in slavery 

atque in ditione Germanorum, que intelligebat 

and in dominion of the Germans, and he was understanding 

obsTdes eorum esse apud Ariovistum 

hostages of them [their hostages] to be [were] with Ariovistus 

ac Sequanos ; quod, in tanto imperio Romani 
and the Sequani ; which, in so great empire of the Roman 

poptili, arbitrabatur esse turpissimum sibi 

people, he was considering to be [was] most disgraceful to himself 

et reipublicae. Autem Germanos^' consuesc^re 

and to the republic. But (that) the Germans to be [are] accustomed 

paullatim transire Rhenum, et magnam 

little by little to cross the Rhine, and a great 

multitudinem eorum venire in Galliam, videbat 

multitude of them to come into Gaul, he was seeing (was) 

periculosum Romano popiilo : neque existimabat 
dangerous to the Roman people : nor was he thinking 

ftros ac barbaros homines temperaturos 

wild and barbarous men about to [would] restrain 

Sibi, quin, quum occupassent 

(to) themselves, but that, when they had occupied 

(pi. perf. subj.) omnem Galliam, ut Cimbri que 
all Gaul, as the Cimbri and 

Teutoni fecissent (pi. perf. subj.) ante, exirent 

Teutones had done before; they would go out 

in ProvincTam, atque inde contend^rent in 
into the Province, and thence would hasten into 

Italiam ; praesertim quum Rhodanus divid^ret (imp. 
Italy; especially since the Rhone was dividing 

subj.) Sequanos a nostra provincia. Quibus 
the Sequani from our province (To) which 



50 The Commentaries of CcEsar. BOOK I 

rebus putabat occurrendum quam-maturime. 

things he was thinking to [must] be met as early as possible. 

CI 

Autem Ariovistus ipse sumsfrat sTbi tantos 

Moreover Ariovistus himself had taken to himself so great 

spiritus, tantam arrogantiam, ut videretur (imp. 

spirits, [airs] so great arrogance, that he was seeming 

subj.) non ferendus. 

not to be borne [endured]. 

34. Quamobrem plactiit 6i, ut mittgret 

Wherefore it pleased (to) him, that he should send 

legates ad Ariovistum, qui postularent ab 

ambassadors to Ariovistus, who should demand from 

^o, ut deligSret alTquem l6cum medium 

him, "that he should choose some place midway 

utriusque colloquio ; sese velle aggre 

of each for a conference; (he) himself to will [wishes] to act [treat] 

cum $o de re publica et summis rebus 

with him about a public matter and the highest affairs 

utriusque." Ariovistus respondit 6i legation! : Si 
of each." Ariovistus answered to this embassy : "If 

quid^'^ esset (imp. subj.) opus ipsi a 

any (thing) was needful to himself from 

Caes^re, sese fuisse venturum ad Sum; 

Caesar, (he)hinself to have been about to [would] come to him; 

si ille v6lit (pres. subj.) quid a se, 

if he wishes any (thing) from himself, 

oportere ilium venire ad se; praeter^a, se 

to behoove [it behoves] him to come to himself: besides, he 

n^que audere venire sine exercitu in ^as 

neither to dare [dares] to come without an army into these 

partes Gallia?, quas Caesar possideret (imp. subj.); 
parts of Gaul, which Caesar was possessing; 

n^cjue posse contrahere exercTtum in unum 

nor to be [is he] able to gather an army into one 

l5cum sine magno commeatu atque molimento: 
place without great provisions and trouble : 

autem videri mirum sibi, quid negotTi 

moreover to seem [it seemsl wonderful to himself, what (of) business 



BOOK I On the Gallic War. 51 

esset aut Caesari aut omnino Romano 

might be either to Caesar or at all to the Roman 

populo, in sua Gallia, quam vicisset (pi. perf. subj.) 
people, in his Gaul, which he had conquered 

bello. 

in war. 

35. His responsis relatis ad Caes5.rem, 

These answers having been brought back to Caesar, 

Caesar it§rum mittit legatos ad 6um cum his 
Caesar again t-ends ambassadors to him with these 

mandatis : Quoniam afFectus tanto beneficio 

commands: "Since being affected with so great kindness 

stio que Romani populi (quum 

his own [Caesar's] and (that) of the Roman people (since 

appellatus-esset (pi. perf. subj.) in suo consulatu rex 
he had been named in his own consulship king 

atque amicus a Senatu,) referret (imp. subj.) banc 
and friend by the Senate,) he was returning this 

gratiam sibi que Romano populo, ut^^ 

favor to himself and to the Roman people, that 

gravaretur invitatns venire in 

he shoud be averse (though) invited to come into 

colloquium, n6que putaret dicendum 

a conference, nor should think (it) to [must] be spoken 

sibi et cognoscendum de communi 

to [by] himself and [nor] (to) be investigated concerning a common 

re; haec esse, quae postularet (imp. subj.) 

matter; these to be, [are] what he was demanding 

ab &o : primiim, ne-traduc6ret quam 

from him: first, (that) he should not lead over any 

multitudinem hominum ampliijs trans Rhenum in 
multitude of men more across the Rhine into 

Galliam : deinde redd^ret obsides quos 

Gaul: then (that) he should restore the hostages that 

haberet (imp. subj.) ab ^dtiis ; que permitt6ret^ 
he was having from the ^Edui; and should permit 

SequSnis, ut liceret voluntate 

(to) the Sequani, that it should be allowed by the will 



52 The Commentaries of Ccesar. BOOK 1 

ejus reddSre illis quos illi 

of him [his will] to restore to them [the ^edui] (those) whom they 

haberent (imp. subj.); neve lacessgret iEduos 

were having; nor should harass the ^dui 

injuria; neve inferret bellum his ve 

with violence nor should bring on war to these or 

sociis eorum; si fecisset id ita, 

to the allies of them; if he should do this thus, 

perpetuam gratiam atque amicitiam futuram 

perpetual favor and friendship about to [would] be 

sibi que Romano poptilo cum eo. Si 

toliinself and to the Roman people with him. If 

impetraret (imp. subj.)non, quoniam, Marco Messala, 
he was obtaining (it) not, since, Marcus Messala, 

Marco Pisone consulibus, Senatus censuisset 

Marcus Piso (being) consuls, the Senate had resolved 

(pl.perf.subj.) uti quicunque obtineret Galliam 
that whosoever should hold Gaul 

provinciam, defenderet ^duos que 

(as a) province, should defend the iEdui and 

caet§ros amicos Romani popiili, quod 

other friends of the Roman people, which [as] 

posset facere commodo rei publicae, 

he might be able to do to the advantage of the republic, 

se non neglecturum injurias ^Eduorum. " 

(he) himself not about to [would not] neglect the injuries ofthCiEdui." 

36. Ariovistus respondit ad haec : esse 

Ariovistus answered to these (things): "to be [it was] 

jus belli, ut qui vicissent (pi. perf. subj.), 

the right of war, that (they) who had conquered, 

imperarent lis (dat.), quos vicissent (pl.perf.subj.), 
should rule those, whom they had conquered, 

quemadmodum vellent : item Romanum 

in whatsoever manner they may wish; likewise the Roman 

populum consuesse imperare victis (dat.) 

people to have [had] been accustomed to rule the conquered 

non ad praescriptum alterius, sed ad siium 

not according to the edict of another, but according to their own 



BOOK I On the Gallic War. 53 

arbitrlum. Si^'*^ ipse praescribf^ret (imp. subj.) 

will. If he (himself) was dictating 

non Romano popiilo, quemadmodum uteretur 

not to the Roman people, how it should use 

suo jure(abl.)5 non oportere se impediri 

its right, (it was) not (to be) proper (that) himself (to) be hindered 

a Romano popfilo in sfio jure: yEdfios 

by the Roman people in his right: the iEdui 

factos-esse stipendarios sTbi, ciuoniam 

to have [had] been made tributary to himself, since 

tentassent (pl.perf.subj.) fortunam belli, et 
they had tried the fortune of war, and 

congressi-essent (pl.perf.sudj.) armis ac 

had engaged in arms and (had been) 

superati : Caesarem fac^re mafTnam injunam, qui 
overcome: Caesar to do [did] great injury, who 

SUO adventu fac?ret(imp. subj.) vectip^alia deteriora 
by his arrival was making the taxes worse [less] 

sTbi : se^ esse non redditurum 

for him: (he) himself to be [was] not about to restore 

obsTdes i^duis ; n?que illaturum bellum 

the hostages tothCiEdui; nor about to [would] bring on war 

injuria lis, neque sociis eorum, si 

with damage to them, nor to the allies of them [their alliep], if 

manerent in 60, quod convenisset (pi. 

they should abide in that, which had been agreed upon, 

perf. subj.), que pend^rent stipendTum quotannis : 

and should pay tribute yearly: 

si non fecissent id, fraternum nomem 

if they would not do this, the fraternal name 

Romani popfili abfuturum longe ab 

of the Roman people about to [would] be absent far from 

his; quod Caesar denuntiaret (imp. subj.) sibi, 
these; that Caesar was declaring to him, 

se non neglecturum injurias 

(that) he himself not about to [would not] neglect the injuries 

TEduorum^ neminem contendisse cum se 

ofthCiEdui, no one to have [had] contended with himself 



54 



The Com^nentaries of CcBsar. 



BOOK I 



sine 
without 

vellet ; 
he wishes; 



sua pernicle congrederetur quum 

his own destruction let him come on when 



intellecturum, quid invicti 

about to [he would] understand, what the invincible 



German!, exercitatissimi in armis, qui subissent 
Germans, most practiced in arms, who had gone under 

(pi. perf. subj.) non tectum 

not [no] roof 



intra quatuordficim 

within fourteen 



annos, 

years, 

37 



possent 

might be able (to effect) 



Eodem 

In [at] the same 

referebantur Caes&ri ; 
were reported to Caesar; 

^duis 

the NAvX 



tempore 
time 



virtute. " 
by valor." 

haec 

these 



mandata 
charges 

veniebant 
w^ere coming 



ab 

from 



et 

and 



questum, 
(to) complain, 



perf. subj.) 



in 

into 



eorum ; 
of them; 



et legati 

and [also] ambassadors 

Treviris : ^Ediii, 
Treviri: the ^dui, 

quod Harudes, qui nuper transportati-essent (pi. 
that the Harudes, who lately had been brought over 

Galliam, popularentur (imp. subj.) 
Gaul, were laying waste 

sese potuisse redim^re 

themselves to have [had] been able to purchase 

Ariovisti, ne obsidibus quldem 

of Ariovistus, not hostages indeed [even] 

datis. Autem Treviri, centum pagos 

having been given. But the Treviri, (reported) a hundred cantons 

Suevorum consedisse ad ripam Rheni, qui 

oftheSuevi to have [had]settled at the bank of the Rhine, who 

conarentur (imp. subj.) transire Rhenum; fratres 
were endeavoring to cross the Rhine; (that) the brothers 

Nasiiam et Cimbenum praeesse lis (dat.) Quibus 
Nasua and Cimberius to be [are] over these. By which 

rebus 



C. 91 

nnes 
the borders 

pacem 
peace 



and Cimberius to be [are] over these. 
Caesar commotus vehementer 



things Caesar being moved greatly 

maturandum sibi ne si 

to be (it must be.l hastened to [by] himself, lest, if 

Suevorum conjunxisset (pi. perf. subj.) 
of the Suevi should join 



existmiavit 
thought 

n6va mAnus 
the new band 



sese 
itself 



cum 
with 



BOOK I On the Gallic War. 55 

veterlbus copTis Ariovisti, posset^^ minus 

the old forces of Ariovistus, it miglit be able less 

facile resist! . ItSque, frumentarla re 

easily to be wilhslood. Therefore, the corn affair [grain] 

comparata, quam-celerrime potiiit, contendit 

having been procured, as quickly as he could, he hastened 

magnis itineribus ad Ariovistum. 

by great [forced] marches to Ariovistus. 

38. Quum^^ jam processisset (pi. perf. subj.) 

When now he had proceeded 

vTam tridui, nuntiatum-est $i, 

a course of three days, it was reported to him, 

Ariovistum^^ cum omnibus siiis copTis contendere ad 

Ariovistus with all his forces to hasten to 

occupandum Vesontionem, quod est maximum 
occupy Vesontio, which is the largest 

oppTdum Sequanorum, que processisse vlam 

town of the Sequani, and to have [had] proceeded a course 

tridui a siiis finibus. Caesar existimabat 

of three days from his borders. Caesar was thinking 

praecavendum sibi magnop^re, ne id 

to [it must] be guarded to [by] himself very greatly, lest this 

accid^ret : namque #rat summa facultas 

should happen: for indeed there was the highest [largest] supply 

in 60 oppTdo omnium rerum, quae ^rant usiii ad 
in this town of all things, which were for use to 

bellum,^^ que idem muniebatur sic natura 
war, and the same was fortified so by the nature 

I6ci, ut daret (imp. subj.) magnam facultatem 

of the place, that it was giving great means 

ad^^ ducendum bellum; propterga quod flumen 
to lead [protract] the war: because (that) the river 

Dubis, ut circumductum circTno, cingit 

Dubis [Doux], as (if) led [traced] around by a compass, girds 

pene totum oppidum; reliquum spatium, quod 

almost the whole town ; the remaining space, which 

est non amplius sexcentorum pedum, qua flumen 
is not more (than) (of) six hundred feet, where the river 



56 The Commejitaries of Caesar. BOOK I 

iiitermittit, mons continet, magna 

ceases, a mounlnin occupies, with (of) great 

altitiuline, ita*^^ ut radices ejus montis continuant 

heif?lit, so that the roots [foot] oftliis mountain reacli 

(j)res.subj.) ripae flnminis ex utraque 

[reaches] to the bank of the river from [on] each 

l^arte. Murus circumdiitus efficit hunc 

part [side]. A wall thrown around makes this (mountain) 

arcem et conjunoit cum oppTdo. Huc"^'^ 

a citadel and joins (it) with the town. Hither 

Caesar contendit magnis diurnis que nocturnis 
Caesar hastens by great day and night 

itineribus, que oppTdo occupato, collocat 

marches, and the town having been occupied, he places 

prsesidium ibi. • 

a garrison there. 

39. Dum moratur paucos dies ad Vescontionem 

While he delays a few days at Vescontio 

causa^ frumentarise r6i que commeatus, ex 

by cause of corn affair [grain] and of provision?, from 

percunctatione nostrorum que vocibus Gallorum 
the inquiry of our (men) and the expressions of the Gauls 

et mercatorum qui praedicabant Germanos 

and of the merchants who were proclaiming the Germans 

esse ingenti magnitudine corporum, 

to be [were] with [of] vast size of bodies, 

incredibili virtute atque exercitatione in armis, 

with (of) incredible valor and practice in arms, 

sese saepenum6ro congresses cum lis, 

(they) themselves oftentimes having encountered with them, 

potuisse ferre ne vultum quTdem atque 

to have [had] been able to bear not the look indeed [even] and 

aciem oculorum, tantus tTmor subiti^ 

edge [glance] of (their) eyes, sogn^at fear suddenly 

occupavit omnem exercTtum, ut j)erturbaret (imp. 

occupied all the army, that it wastlisturbing 

3ubj.) non mediocrTter mentes que antmos omnTum. 

in no moderate degree the minds and spirits of all. 



BOOK I 071 the Gallic War. 57 

Hie primum ortus-est a tribunis militum, 

This (fear) first arose [started] from the tribunes of soldiers^ 

ac praefectis, que reliquis, qui causa 

and prefects, and remaining (persons), who by cause [reasonl 

amicitiae secuti CaesSrem ex urbe, 

of friendship having followed Caesar from the city, 

miserebantur magnum periciilum, quod habebant 
were deploring the great danger, because tliey were having 

non magnum usum in militari re (sing.): 
not [no] great experience in military affairs: 

quorum alius, ^ alia causa illata, 
of whom one, one cause being brought [alleged], (another, 

quam dic6ret (imp. subj.) esse necessariam 
another) which he was saying to be [was] necessary 

slbi ad proficiscendum, patebat, ut liceret 

to himself for setting out, was asking, that it might be 

disced6re voluntate ejus ; nonnuUi 

allowed (him) to depart by the will of him [by his will]; some 

^dducti pudore, ut vitarent suspicionem 

prompted by shame, that they might avoid the suspicion 

timoris remanebant. Hi potSrant neque fing^re 
of fear were remaining. These were able neitlier to form [keep] 

vultum ngque interdum tenere lacrymas ; 
(their) countenance nor sometimes to hold (their) tears; 

abditi in tabernaculis, aut querebantur siium 

hidden in the tents, either they were bewailing their own 

fatum, aut cum siiis familiaribus miserebantur 
fate, or with their confidants were deploring (their) 

commune periciilum. Vulgo testamenta obsignabatur 
common danger. Everywhere wills were sealed 

totis castris (pi.). Vocibus ac timore horum 
in the whole camp. By the words and fear of these 

paullatim etiam li, qui habebant magnum usum 
gradually also they, who were having great experience 

in castris (pi.), militis que centuriones, que qui 

in camps, soldiers and centurions, and (those) who 

praegrant equitatiii (dat.), perturbabantur. Qui ^ ex 
commanded the cavalrv. were disturbed. Whoever of 



58 The Commentaries of Ccesar. BOOK i 

his volebant se existimari mTnus timldos, 

these were wishing themselves to be tlioujjht less alarmed, 

dicebant se non vereri hostem, sed timere 

were saying they (did) not (to) dread the enemy, but (to) fear 

angustias itin^ris et magnitudinem silvarum, 

the (hard) straits of the way and the vastness of the woods, 

quae interced6rent (imp. subj.) inter ^os e^tque 
which were intervening between them and 

Ariovistum, aut frumentariam rem, ut 

Ariovistus, or the corn affair [supply] , that 

posset commode satis supportari. 

it might be able [could] (not) conveniently enough (to) be carried up. 

Etiam nonnulli renuntiabant Caesfiri, cum 
Also some were reporting to Caesar, when 

jussisset (pi. pref. subj.) castra (pi.) moveri, ac 
he had ordered the camp to be moved, and 

signa ferri, milites non f5re 

the standards to be borne, the soldiers not to be about to [would not] be 

audientes dicto, ngque laturos 

hearing [obedient] to the word, nor about to [would] bear 

signa propter timorem. 

the standards on account of fear. 

40. Quum Caesar animadvertisset (pi. perf. subj.) 
When Caesar had observed 

haec, concilio convocato, que 

these (things), a council having been called together, and 

centurionibus omnium ordinum adhibitis ad 

the centurions of all ranks having been admitted to 

id concilium, incusavit 60s vehementer; primiim, 
this council, he blamed them vehemantly ; first , 

quod ^ putarent (imp. subj.) quaerendum aut 

because they were thinking to [it must] be inquired [investigated] or 

cogitandum sibi, aut in quam 

to [must] be considered to (by) themselves, either into what 

partem, aut quo consillo ducerentur (imp. subj.). 
part, or with what plan they should be led. 

Ariovistum, se consiile, cupidissTm^ 

Ariovistus, himself (being) consul, most eagerly 



BOOK I On the Gallic War. 59 

appetisse amicitiam Romani populi : 

to have [had] sought the friendship of the Roman people : 

cur quisquam judicaret hunc discessurum 

why should any one judge this (man) about to [would] depart 

tarn tem6re ab officio? QuTdem persuader! 
so rashly from (his) duty? Indeed to be [it was] persuaded 

sTbi, stiis postulatis coi^nTtis, atque aequitate 

to himself, his demands having been known, and the justice 

conditionum perspecta, §um (ace.) ngque repudia- 
of the conditions being clearly seen, he neither about to 

turum siiam gratiam ngque Romani 

[would] reject his favor nor (that) of the Roman 

poptili : qu6d si, impulsus furore atque amentia, 
people: but if, impelled by rage and by madness, 

intulisset bellum, quid tandem vererentur? 
he would wage war, what, pray should they fear? 

aut cur desperarent de sua virtute, 

or why should they despair concerning (their) own valor, 

aut de diligentia ipsius? Periculum 

or concerning the diligence of himself [Caesar] ? Danger [trial] 

ejus hostis factum memoria nostrorum 

of this enemy (was) made in the memory of our 

patrum, quum, Cimbris et Teutonis 

fathers, when, the Cimbri and Teutones 

pulsis a Caio Mario, exercitus 

having been routed by Caius Marius, the army 

videbatur^^^ meritus non minorem laudem, quam 

was seeming to have deserved not less praise, than 

imperator ipse : etiam factum nuper in 

the general himself: also (a trial was) made recently in 

Italia, servili^^^ tumultu, quos tSmen alTquis 

Italy, in the slave uprising, w^hom however some 

usus ac disciplina, quam accepissent 

experience and discipline, which they had received 

(pl.perf.subj.) a nobis, sublevarent. Ex^^^ quo 

from us, assisted. From which 

posse judicari, quantum boni constantia 

to be able [it can] (to) be judged, how much (of) good firmness 



60 The Com77ientaries of Ccssar. book i 

haberet (imp. subj.) in se; propter^a qu6d 
was having [had] in itself; because (that) 

quos aliquandm timuissent (pl.perf.subj.) 

(those) whom for some time they had feared 

sine causa inermes, superassent (pl.perf.sudj.), 
without cause, unarmed, they had subdued, 

hos postSa armatos ac victores. Denique, 

these afterwards armed and conquered. Lastly, 

hos esse Germanos cum quibus Helvetli 

these to be [are] the Germans with whom the Helvetii 

saepenumSro congressi non solum in siiis, 

oftentimes having engaged not only in their own, 

sed etiam in finibus illorum plerumque 

but also in the borders of them [their borders] generally 

superarint (perf. subj.); Qui t^men potu^rint 

have overcome; who notwithstanding have been able 

(perf. subj.) non esse p^lres nostro exercittii. 
not to be equal to our army. 

Si adversum proelium et fuga Gallorum 

If the adverse battle and flight of the Gauls 

commoveret quos, hos posse reperire, 

might move [affect] any, these to be able [can] (to) find, 

si quaerSrent (imp. subj.), GalHs defatigatis 

if they should inquire, (that) the Gauls being wearied 

diuturnitate belH, Ariovistum, quum 

by the long continuance of the war, Ariovistus, when 

continuisset (pi. perf. subj.) se multos menses 

he had kept himself many months 

castris (pi.) ac paludibus, n^que fecisset (pi. perf. 
in camp and marshes, nor had made 

subj.) potestatem siii, adortum 

power of himself [given an opportunity], having attacked 

sublto jam desperantes de pugna et 

suddenly (those) already despairing of battle and 

disperses, vicisse niAgis ratione 

scattered, to have [had] conquered more by reason [trickery] 

ac consilTo (]uam virtue: cui rationi 

and by counsel [njlcv I than by valor: for which trickery 



BOOK I On the Gallic War. 61 

locus fuisset contra barb^ros atque 

a place [chance] might have been against barbarous and 

imperitos homines : hac ne ipsum quideni 

unskilled men: by this not (he) himself even 

sperare nostros exercTtus posse capi. 

to expect [expected] our armies to be able [could] (to) be taken. 

Qui conferrent (imp. subj.) siium timorem in 
(They) who were assigning their fear upon 

simulationem frumentarTae r^i que anffustias 

the pretence of the corn affair [supply] and the difficulties 

itingrum, fac6re arroganter, qutim 

of the marches, (to) do (this) officiously, since 

viderentur (imp. subj.) aut desperare de officio 
they were seeming either to despair of the duty 

imperatoris, aut praescribgre. Haec 

of the commander, or to prescribe. These (things) 

esse curae sibi; SequS,nos, Leucos, 

to be [are] (for) a care to himself; the Sequani, Leuci, 

Lingones subministrare frumentum ; que jam 

Lingones to [will] supply corn; and now 

frumenta (pi.) esse matura in agris. De itingre 
corn to be [is] ripe in the fields. Of the route 

ipsos judicaturos br6vi tempore. 

(they) themselves about to [would] judge in a short time. 

Quod dicantur ^ (pres. subj.) non f(5re 

That they are [it is] said (they would) not (to be about to) be 

audientes dicto, neque laturi signa, 

hearing [obedient] to the word, nor (about to) bear the standards, 

se commoveri nihil 6a re ; enim 

(he) himself to be [was] moved nothing [not at all] by this thing; for 

scire, quibuscumque exercitus fugrit (perf. 

to know [he knew], to whomsoever an army has been 

subj.) non audiens dicto, aut, 

not hearing [obedient] to the word, either, 

re gesta male, fortunam defu- 

an affair having been carried on ill, fortune to have 

isse ; aut alTquo facinore comperto, 

[had] failed; or some crime being found out , 



62 The Commentaries of Ccesar. BOOK I 

w 114 • ^ 

avaritiam convictam-esse : siiam innocentiam 
avarice to have [had] been proved : his (own) innocence [integrity] 

perpetiia vita, felicitatem bello Helvetiorum 

in (his) whole life, (his) success in the war of the Helvetii 

perspectam-esse. It&que, se reprae- 

to have been [were] clearly seen. Therefore, (he) himself about to 

sentaturum quod fuisset (pi. perf. subj.) 

[would] do presently (that) which he had been 

collaturus in longiorem diem ; et 
(otherwise) about to defer to a more distant day ; and 

proxima nocte de quarta vigilia 

on the nearest [next] night from [at] the fourth watch 

moturum castra (pi.);, ut quam primum 

about to [he would] move the camp, in order that as soon as 

posset intelliggre, utrum pudor 

he might be able to [he may] understand, whether shame 

atque officTum, an timor valeret plus 

and duty, or fear may prevail the more 

apud 60s. Quod si nemo praeterga sequatur 
with them. But if no one besides follows, 

(pres. subj.), tSmen se iturum cum 

nevertheless (he) himself about [would] go with 

decima legione sola, de qua non dubi- 

the tenth legion alone, of which he was not doubt- 

taret (imp. subj.) que 6am futuram Praetoriam 

ing and this about to [would] be a Praetorian 

cohortem sibi." Caesar et induls6rat praecipiie 
cohort for himself." Caesar both had favored especially 

hulc legioni(dat.) et confidebat, maxTme propter 
this legion and was trusting, (it) very much on account of 

virtutem. 

(its) valor. 

41. Hae oratione habita, mentes 

This speech having been delivered, the minds 

omnium conversae-sunt in mirum modum, 

of all were changed into [in] a wonderful manner, 

que summa alacritas et cupiditas belli 

and the highest eagerness and desire of war 



BOOK I On the Gallic War. 63 

fferendi ' innata-est: que decTma 

to be carried on [of waging war] was born in [inspired] : and the tenth 

legTo princeps egit gratias ^i per tribunes 
legion first rendered thanks to him through the tribunes 

milTtum, quod fecisset (pi. perf. subj.) optimum 
of soldiers, tliat he had made the best 

judicium de se, que ^^ confirmavit se esse 

judgment concerning itself, and declared itself to be 

partisslmam ad gerendum bellum. Inde 

most prepared for carrying on war. Then 

rellquae legiones egerunt per tribunes 

the remaining legions acted through the tribunes 

milltum et centuriones primorum ordlnum, fiti 
of soldiers and centurions of the first ranks, that 

satisfac6rent Capsilri ; se n?que unquam 

they might satisfy (to) Caesar; "(they) themselves neither ever 

dubitasse, necjue timuisse. n?que existimavisse 
to be [had] doubted, nor to have [had] feared, nor (to) have thought 

judicium de summa (sing.) belli esse 

tlie judgment of the highest (concerns) of war to be [was] 

suum sed imperatoris. " Satisfactione^^^ 

their own but (the part) of the commander." The satisfaction [apology] 

eorum accepta, et itin^re exquisite 

of them [their apology] being received, and the way being reconnoitred 

per DivitiS^cum, quod habebat maximam 

by Divitiacus, because he was having the greatest 

fidem ?i ex aliis ut duc^ret 

faith to [in] hira from [of] the others [Gauls] that he might lead 

exercltum apertis l5cis, circuitu amplius 

the army in the open places, by a circuit of more 

quadraginta milllum, profectus-est de quarta 

(than) forty miles, he set out from [at] the fourth 

vigilia, iitl dix^rat. Septimo die, quum 

watch, as he had said. On the seventh day, when 

non intermitt^ret (imp. subj.) Iter, factus-est 
he was not ceasing the march, he was made 

certlor ab exploratorlbus, coplas 

more certain [was informed] by scouts, (that) the forces 



64 The Commentaries of Ccesar. BOOK I 

Ariovisti abesse a nostris quatiior et 

ofAriovistus to be [were] distant from our (forces) four and 

viginti millibus (abl.) passuum. 
twenty thousand (of) paces. 

42. Adventu Caesaris cognito, Ariovistus 

The arrival of Caesar being known Ariovistus 

mittit legates ad 6um ; id licere 

sends ambassadors to him ; "this to be [is] allowed 

fieri per se, quod antfia postulasset 

to be done by himself, which before he had demanded 

(pi. perf. subj.) de colloquTo, quoniam 

concerning a conference, since 

accessisset (pi. perf. subj.) propiiis; que existimaret 

he had approached nearer; and he was thinking 

(imp. subj.) se posse facSre id sine 

(he) himself to be able [could] (to) do this without 

periciilo." Caesar non respuit conditionem, que^ 

danger." Caesar did not reject the condition, and 

arbitrabatur 6um jam reverti ad sanitatem, 

was thinking him [he] now to [would] return to soundness [reason], 

quum polliceretur (imp. subj.) ultro id, quod 

since he was offering spontaneously that, which 

ant^a denegasset (pi. perf. subj.) petenti; 

before he had denied to (him) asking; 

que veniebat in magnam spem, pro suis 

and he was coming [entering] into great hope, for his 

tantis beneficiis que Romani popiili 

(so) great benefits and (those) of the Roman people 

in §um, siiis postulatis cognitis, f5re 

towards him (that), his demands having been known, to be about to be 

uti desisteret pertinacia. Quintus 

[it would be] that he would cease from (his) obstinacy. The fifth 

dies ex 60 die dictus-est colloquTo. 

day from that day was said [appointed] for the conference. 

Interim, quum legati mittei'entur (imp. subj.) 

Meanwhile, when ambassadors were sent 

sa^pe citro que ultro inter 60s. Ariovistus 
oft'm hither and thither between them, Ariovistus 



BOOK I On the Gallic Wa7 . 65 

postulavit; Caesar ne adducSret quern pedTtem 
requested; Ctesar should not lead up any foot soldiers 

ad colloquium, se vereri 

to the conference, "himself to dread [he feared] 

ne circumveniretur ab ^o per 

lest he should be circumvented by him through 

insidias (pi.)- uterque veniret cum 

ambush: each should come with 

1 ^ 122 

equitatu, aJia ratione se esse 

cavalry, in other method [manner] (he) himself to be 

non venturum." Caesar, quod volebat 

not about to [would not] come." Caesar, because he was willing 

n6que colloquium tolli, causa 

(that) neither the conference to [should] be taken away [be lost], cause 

interposTta ; n^que audebat committ^re sfiam 
being interposed; nor was daring to commit his 

salutem equitatu Gallorum, statiiit esse 

safety to the cavalry of the Gauls, determined to be 

commodissTmum, omnibus Gallis equitlbus 

[it was] most convenient [fitting], all the Gallic horsemen 

detractis Squis, impon^re ?6 

having been withdrawn from the horses, to place upon there [them] 

leffionarios milTtes decTmae legionis, cui(dat.) 

the legionary soldiers of the tenth legion, in which 

confidebat quam-maxime ; ut haberet 

he was confiding as much as possible ; that he might have 

praesidium quam-amicissTmum, si quid 6pus 
a guard as friendly as possible, if any need 

esset facto (abl.). Quum quod fi^ret 

should be of deed [action]. When which [this] was done, 

(imp. subj.), quidam ex militibus decTmae 

a certain one of the soldiers of the tenth 

legionis dixit non irridiciile, CaesSrem fac^re 
legion said not unwittily, "Caesar to do [does] 

plus quam pollicitus-esset (pi. perf. subj.); 

more than he had promised; 

pollicTtum habiturum decimam legionem 

having promised about to [he would] have the tenth legion 



66 



The Commentaries of CcBsar. 



BOOK I 



in 

in 



praetoriae 

of a pretorian 



cohortis ; nunc 
cohort ; now 



rescribgre^'^^ 

to enroll (it) 



gquum. ' 

the horse." 



l6co 

place 

ad 
[he enrolls it] to 

43. Erat magna planities et in 6a 

(There) was a great plain and on it 

terrgnus sMis grandis. Hie l5cus 

of earth sufficiently large. This place 

spatio f§re a?quo ab castris Ariovisti 

by a space nearly equal from the camps of Ariovistus 



turn 111 US 
a hillock 

abgrat 
was distant 

et 

and 



Caesaris. E5, ut dictum-6rat, venerunt ad 

Caesar. Thither, as had been said [appointed], they came to 

Caesar eonstitiiit legionem, quam 
Caesar arranged the legion, which 

6quis, ducentis passibus (abl.) 

two hundred paces 



eolloquTum. 
the conference. 

devex6rat 



he had brought down with horses, 



ab 

from 



6o 

this 



Ariovisti 
of Ariovistus 

Ariovistus 

Ariovistus 



tumulo. 
hillock . 

eonstiterunt 
took stand 



Item 

Likewise 

pari 
with [at] an equal 



equites 
the horsemen 



intervallo. 
interval. 



postulavit, ut colloquerentur 
demanded, that they should converse 



6quis 
horses 



adducgrent 
they should lead up 

se ad colloquium. Ubi 



et 
and 



Ut 

that 



denos 

ten each 

ventum-est 



ex 

from [on] 

praeter 

besides 

66, 



themselves to the conference. When it was come [they came] there, 



Caesar, initio 

Caesar, in the beginning 



brationis, 

of (his) speech. 



commemoravit 

recounted 



sua que 

his own and 

qu6d 
that 

Senatu, 
the Senate, 

amplissTma 
most ample 

docebat, 
he was showing. 



beneficTa Senatus in 6um, 

the benefits of the Senate towards him, 

appellatus-esset (pi. perf. subj.) rex a 

he had been called king by 



quod amicus, 

that (he had been called) a friend. 



munera missa ; quam 

gifts (had been) sent; which 

et contigisse 

both to have [had] happened 



quc)d 

that 

rem, 
thing, 

paucis, 
to few. 



BOOK I 



Oh the Gallic War. 



67 



et 

and 



tribui a 

to be granted by 

Romanis pro maximis officTis hominum, 

the Romans for the greatest services of men, 

ilium, quum haberet (imp. subj.) n^Que aditum, 

him [that he], although he was having neither access, 



consuevisse 
to have [had] been accustomed 



n6que justam causam 
nor just cause 

ac sua liberalitate 

and by his liberality 

consecutum 6a 

having [he had] obtained these 



postulandi, 
of demanding, 

ac 

and (that) 

praemia. 
rew^ards [honors] 



beneficto 

by (his) bounty 

Senatus, 
of the Senate, 

Docebat 
He was showing 



ettam, quam vet6res, que quam justse 

also, how ancient, and how just 

intercedgrent^ ^ (imp. subj.) 
were existing 

quae consulta Senatus, 
what decrees of the Senate, 



necessitudinis 
of alliance 

cum T^dfiis ; 
to themselves with tlie jEdui 



causae 
causes 

ipsis 



quoties, 
how often, 



que 

and 



quam 
how 



hoiiorifYca 
honorable 



perf. subj.) in 60s; 



facta-essent (pi. 
had been made 

ut omni temp6re. 



towards them [in their behalf]; that in all time, 

jEdiii tenuissent (pi. perf. subj.) principatum 

the iEdui had held the supremacy 



totius Galliae, etiam prTusquam appetissent 

of the whole of Gaul, even before that they had sought 

(pi. perf. subj.) nostram amicitiam. Hanc esse 

our friendship . "This to be [was] 

Romani populi, ut v6lit 

of the Roman people, that it wished 



consuetudlnem 
the custom 



atque 
and 



socios 
(its) allies 

nihil sui, 

nothing of their own, 

dignitate, honore 
in dignity, in honor 



amicos 
friends 



sed 

but 



non 

not 

esse 

to be 



deperd^re 

to lose 



m6d5 
only 

auctiores gratia, 
more increased in favor. 



[could] 



pS,ti 

(to) suffer (that) 



vero 
but 

id 

this 



quis 
who 



posset 
would be able 



eripi 
to be [should be] snatched 



68 The Conunentaries of Ccesa7\ BOOK I 

iis(dat.), quod attulissent (pi. perf. subj.) ad 
from them, which they had brought to 

amicitiam Romani populi?" Deinde 

the friendship of the Roman people?" Afterwards 

postulavit eadem, quae ded6rat in mandatis 

he demanded the same, which he had given in the charges 

legatis ne inferret bellum aut 

to the ambassadors that he should not bring on war either 

^diiis, aut socTis eorum; redd&ret 

to the iEdui, or to the allies of them [their allies]; (that) he should 

obsTdes ; si posset (imp. subj.) 

restore the hostages; if he was able 

remittgre domum nullam partem Germanorum ; 
to send back home no part of the Germans ; 

at ne pateretur quos amplius transire 

still that he should not suffer any more to cross 

Rhenum. 
the Rhine. 

44. Ariovistus respondit pauca ad postulata 

Ariovistus answered a few (things) to the demands 

Caesaris : praedicavit multa de siiis 

of Caesar: he declaimed many (things) of his own 

virtutibus ; sese transisse Rhenum 

virtues; (that he) himself to have [had] crossed the Rhine 

non siia sponte, sed rogatum et arcessitum 

not on his own accord, but (having been) asked and sent for 

a Gallis : reliquisse dSmum que propinquos 

by the Gauls: to have [he had] left home and relations 

non sine magna spe que magnis praemiis : 

not without great hope and great rewards: 

habere sedes in Gallia concessas ab 

to have [he has] settlements in Gaul granted by 

ipsis, obsTdes ipsorum dS^tos voluntate, 

themselves, hostages of them given by (their) free will, 

cap^re stipendTum jure belli, quod 

to take [he takes] tribute by the right of war, which 

victores consuev6rint (perf. subj.) impon^re 

conquerors have been accustomed to impose 



BOOK I On the Gallic War. 69 

victis ; se non^^^ intulisse bellum 

to [on] the conquered; (he)himself not to have[has notjbrought on war 

Gallis, sed Gallos sibi ; omnes civitates 

to the Gauls, but the Gauls to himself; all the states 

Galliae venisse ad oppugnandum se, ac 

of Gaul to have I had] come for opposing [to oppose] himself, and 

habuisse castra contra se ; omnes ^as coplas 

to have had [had] camps against himself; all these forces 

pulsas (esse) ac superatas esse abs se uno 

to have [had] been routed and overcome by himself in one 

proelio. Si v6lint (pres. subj.) experiri it6rum, 

battle. If they wish to try again, 

se paratum iterum decertare : sin malint 

he himself (is) prepared again to contend : but if they prefer 

(pres. subj.) uti pace (abl.), esse iniquum 

to use peace, to be [it is] unjust 

recusare de stipendio, quod pepend^rint (perf. 

to object concerning the tribute, which they paid 

subj.) sua voluntate ad id tempus: 

by their own will [volition] to this time: 

oportere amicitiam Romani populi 

to be [it is] proper (that) the friendship of the Roman people 

esse ornamento et praesidTo sibi, non 

(to) be (for) an ornament and a guard to himself, not 

detrimento; que se petisse id 6a 

(for) a detriment ; and (he) himself to have [had] sought it in this 

spe. Si stipendium remittatur (pres. subj.) per 

hope. If the tribute be remitted by 

Romanum populum, et dedititii subtrahantur 

the Roman people, and the surrendered be withdrawn, 

(pres. sudj.), sese recusaturum non minus libenter 

(he) himself about to [would] refuse not less willingly 

amicitiam Romani populi, quam appeti&rit 

the friendship of the Roman people, than he sought (it). 

(perf.subj.). Quod traducat (pres. subj.) multitudmem 
That he leads [brings] over a multitude 

Germanorum in GallTam, se ^^ fac6re id 

of the Germans into Gaul, he himself to do [did] this 



70 The Commentaries of Ccesar. book i 

causa muniendi, sui non impugnandae 

for the sake of protecting:, himself not of fighting against 

Galllae ; esse testimonium ejus 

Gaul ; to be [it was] a testimony [proof] of this 

r6i quod venSrit (perf. subj.) non ^^ nisi 
thing that he came not except (when) 

rogatus, et quod non intulerit (perf. supj.) 

asked, and that he has not waged 

bellum, sed defend^rit (perf. subj.) : se 

war, but has defended (himself): (he)himself 

venisse in Galliam prius quam Romanum 

to have [had] come into Gaul earlier than the Roman 

populum. Nunquam ante hoc tempus exercitum 
people. Never before this time an army 

Romani popiili egressum finibus provinciae 
of the Roman people [has] gone out of the borders of the province 

Galllae: quid vellet (imp. subj.) s!bi? cur 

of Gaul: what did he wish for himself ? why 

veniret (imp. subj.) in suas possessiones? banc 
did he come into his possessions ? this 

Galliam esse suam provinciam, sicuti illam 

Gaul to be [is] his province, even as that (is) 

nostram: ut oporteret (imp. subj.) non 

ours: as it was proper [it ought] not 

concedi sibi, si fac^ret imp6tum in 

to be permitted to himself, if he should make an attack upon 

nostros fines; sic item, nos esse iniquos, 

our borders; so also, us to be [we are] unjust, 

qu6d interpellaremus (imp. subj.) se in siio 

because v.'e interfered with himself in his 

jure: qu()d dic^ret (imp. subj.) ^^duos appellatos 
right: that he was saying (that) the .lildui wore called 

amicos ex consulto Senatiis, se esse 

friends from [by] a decree of the Senate, (he) himself to be [was] 

non tam barbarum, n^que tam imperitum 

not so barbarous, nor so inexperienced 

rerum, ut non, sciret (imp. subj.) ^Edfios 

of [in] affairs, that he did not, know the i£dui 



BOOK I On the Gallic War. 71 

ngque tulisse auxilium Romanis 

neither (to) have brought aid to the Romans 

proximo bello Allobr5gum, ngque 

in the nearest [latest] war of the Allobroges, nor (tliat they) 

ipsos in his contentionibus, quas ^^dui 
themselves in these contests, which the NA\i\ 

habuissent (pi. perf. subj.) cum se et cum 

had had with himself and with 

Sequanis, usos-esse auxilTo (abl.) Romani 

the Sequani, to have [had] used the aid of the Roman 

poptili : se debere suspicari, amicitia 

people: (he) himself to owe [ought] to suspect, friendship 

Simula ta, Caesarem, qu6d habSat (pres. subj.) 

being [was] pretended, Caesar, because he has 

exercitum in Gallia, habere causa opprimendi 

an army in Gaul, to have [has it] for the sake of crushing 

siii : qui nisi decedat (pres. subj. aut 

himself: who unless he depart or 

deducat (pres. subj.) exercitum ex his regionibus, 
lead away (his) army from these regions, 

sese habiturum ilium non pro amico, sed 

he himself about to [would] hold him not for a friend, but 

pro hoste : quod si interfecgrit (perf. subj.) 6um, 
for an enemy: that if he killed him, 

sese esse facturum gratum multis 

he himself to be about to [would] do a grateful (thing) to many 

nobilibus que principibus Romani populi : 

nobles and chiefs of the Roman people: 

se habere id compertum ab ipsis 

he himself to have [has] this thing found out from themselves 

per eorum nuntios ; gratiam atque amicitiam 

by their messengers ; the favor and friendship 

omnium quorum posset (imp. subj.) redimgre 

of all of whom he was able to purchase 

ejus morte : quod si discessisset (pi. perf. subj.) 

by his death: that if he should depart 

ac tradidisset (pi. perf, subj.) Iib6ram possessionem 
and should deliver free possession 



72 The Commentaries of Ccesar. BOOK I 

GallTae sTbi, se remuneraturum 

of Gaul to himself, (he) himself about to [would] remunerate 

ilium maji^no prsemTo, et confecturum, 

him with great reward, and about to [would] dispatch, 

quaecunque bella vellet (imp. sudj.) geri 

whatever wars he was wishing to be carried on 

Sine ullo labore et periciilo ejus, 

without any labor and danger of him [on his part]. 

45. Multa dicta-sunt a Caesare in 6am 

Many (things) were said by Caesar upon this 

sententiam, quare posset (imp. subj.) non 

opinion, wherefore he was able [could] not 

desist^re negotio. N^que stiam ngque 

(to) desist from the business[undertaking]. Neither his nor 

consuetudinem Romani popfili pftti, uti 

the custom of the Roman people to suffer [permits], that 

deser^ret socTos ^ meritos optime; 

he should desert allies having[who have] deserved the best ; 

ngque se judicare Galliam esse 

nor (does) (he)himself (to) judge(that) Gaul to be[is] 

potius Ariovisti, quam Romani popiili. 

rather (the possession) of Ariovistus, than of the Roman people. 

Arvernos et Rutenos superatos-esse bello 

The Arverni and Ruteni to have [had] been overcome in war 

a Quinto Fabio Maximo; quibus (dat.) Romanus 
by Quintus Fabius Maximus ; whom the Roman 

populus ignovisset (pi. perf. subj.), n^que 

people had pardoned, nor 

redegisset (pi. perf. subj.) m provinciam n^que 
had reduced (them) (in)to a province nor 

imposuisset (pi. perf. subj.) stipendlum: quod^^^ si 
had imposed tribute: that \f 

oporteret (imp. subj.) quodque antiquissTmum tempuJ 
it was proper (that) every most ancient time 

spectari, imperium Romani popfili in Gallia 
(to) be considered, the empire of the Roman people in Gaul 

esse justissimum; si oporteret (imp. subj.) 

to be [was] raost iust-, if it is proper (that) 



BOOK I 



On the Gallic War. 



73 



judicium 

the judgment 



esse 

to be 



Senatus observari, 
of tlie Sc.Tia'e (to) be kept, 



Galliam debere 

Gaul to owe [ought] 

libgram, quam victam bello 

free, which (though) conquered in war 

voluisset (i)l. perf. subj.) uti suis 

it [the senate] had willed to [should] use its own 

legibus" (abl.). 
laws." 

46. Dum haec geruntur in colloqulo, 

While these (things) are transpiring in the conference. 



nuntiatum-est Caesari, equTtes Ariovisti 

it was reported to Caesar, (that) the horsemen of Ariovistus 

accedSre^^^ propTus tumfilum, et adequitare ad 
(to) approach nearer the hillock, and (to) ride up to 



nostros, 
our (men), 

nostros. 

our (men). 

se ad 
himself to 



conjicere 

(to) throw 



lapTdes que 

stones and 



tela 

weapons 



in 

against 



Caesar fecit finem loquendi que recepit 

Caesar made an end of speaking and betook 

siios, que imperavit suis (dat.) 

his own (men), and ordered his own (men) 



ne rejicerent 
that they should not throw back 



in 

against 

proelium 
a battle 



hostes : 

the enemy: 



nam 

for 



fore 



quod 

any 

etsi 
although 

cum 



telum omnino 
weapon at all 

videbat 

he was seeing (that) 



equitatu 
the cavalry 



to be about to [would] be with 

ullo periculo delectae legionis ; tS^men putabat 

any danger of (his) chosen legion; yet he was thinking (it) 



Sine 
without 

136 



non, committendum ut, hostibus pulsis, 

not, [must not] be permitted that, the enemy having been routed 

posset dici, 60s circumventos a 

itmight be able [it could] (to) be said, them [they were] circumvented by 

se per fidem in colloquTo. Posteaquam 

himself through (broken) faith in the conference. After that 

137 



elatum-est in 

it was published among 

arrogantia (abl.) Ariovistus 
arrogance Ariovistus 



volgus 
the mass 



militum, 
of soldiers, 



qua 
what 



usus 
having used 



m 
in 



Golloquio 
the conference 



74 The Commentaries of Ccesar. BOOK I 

interdixisset (pi. perf. subj) Romanis (dat.) omni 
he had forbidden the Romans from all 

Gallia; que equites ejus fecissent 

Gaul; and that the horsemen of him [his horsemen] had made 

(pi. perf. subj.) imp6tum in nostros; 

an attack upon our men; 

que 6a res diremisset (pi. perf. subj.) colloquium; 
and this thing had broken up the conference; 

multo major alacritas que majus studium 

much greater activity and a greater desire 

pugnandi injectum-est exercitui. 

of fighting was incited to [in] the army. 

47. Biduo post Ariovistus mittit Icgatos 

Two days afterwards Ariovistus sends ambassadors 

ad Caesarem, se velle ag&re cum 

to Caesar, (to say), "he himself to wish [wishes] to treat with 

6o de his rebus, quae coeptae-essent (pi. perf. subj.) 
him about these things, which had been begun 

agi inter 60s, n6que perfectae-essent 

to be treated between them, nor had been completed: 

(pi. perf. subj. ) : titi aut constitu6ret it6rum 

that either he would determine [fix] again 

diem colloquio, aut si vellet (imp. subj.) 

a day for a conference, or if he was wishing 

minus id, mitt6ret alTquem ex suis 

less (for) this (that), he would send some one from his 

legatis ad se. Causa colloquendi visa-est 

lieutenants to himself. A cause of conferring seemed 

non Caesari ; et 60 magis, quod pridie, 

not to Caesar; and fortius ttemore, that the day before, 

ejus diei, Germani potu6rant non retineri 

this day, the Germans had been able [could] not (to) be restrained, 

quin conjic6rent tela in nostros. 

but that they should throw weapons against our (men). 

Existimabat sese missurum 

He was thinking (that he) himself about to [would] send 

legatum ex siiis cum magno pericfilo ad 

an ambassador from his own (men) with great danger to 



BOOK I On the Gallic War. 75 

6um, et objecturum ftris homintbus. 

him, and about to [would] expose (him) to savage men. 

Visum-est commodissTmum mittere ad 6um CaTum 
It seemed most convenient to send to him Caius 

ValerTum Procillum, filTum Caii . Valerii 

Valerius Procillus, a son of Caius Valerius 

Caburi, adolescentem summa virtute et 

Caburus, a young man w^ith [of] the highest virtue and 

humanitate, (p^ter cujus donatus-6rat 

politeness, (the father of whom had been presented 

civitate a CaTo Valerio Flacco et 

with citizenship by Caius Valerius Flaccus both 

propter fidem et propter scientlam 

on account of (his) fidelity and on account of (his) knowledge 

GallTcae linnjuae, qua (abl.) Ariovistus utebatut 
of the Gallic tongue, which Ariovistus was using 

multa (adj.) jam longinqua consuetudlne, et 

much [fluently] now by long custom, and 

qu6d causa^^^ peccandi esset non 

because a cause of transgressing [offense] was not 

Germanis in 60); et Marcum MettTum, qui 
to the Germans in him); and Marcus Mettius, who 

utebatur hospitio (abl.) Ariovisti. Mandavit 

was enjoying the hospitality of Ariovistus. He charged 

his (dat.), ut quae Ariovistus dic^ret, 

these, that what (things) Ariovistus might say, 

cognosc6rent et referrent ad se. Quos 

they should learn and should bring back to himself. Whom 

quum Ariovistus conspexisset (pi. perf. subj.) in 
when Ariovistus had beheld in 

castris (pi.) &pud se, siio exercitu 

(his) camp with himself, his army (being) 

praesente, conclamavit : Quid venirent (imp. subj.) 
present, he cried out: "Why did they come 

ad se .^ an causa speculandi ?" Prohibiiit 

to himself? (was it) for the sake of spying?" He stopped 

conantes dic^re, et conjecit in catenas, 

(them) endeavoring to speak, and cast (them) into chains. 



76 



The Commentaries of Ccrsar. 



BOOK I 



48. 
et 

and 



Eodem 

On the same 

consedit 

pitched (it) 



promovit 
he moved forward 



passuum 
(of) paces 



a 

from 



castra (pi.)? 
(his) camp, 

monte sex millibus (abl.) 
a mountain six thousand 

castris (pi.) Caes^ris. Postridte 

the camp of Caesar. The day after 



die 

day 

sub 
under 



ejus diei traduxit suas copTas praeter castra (pi.) 



this 



day 
Caes^ris 

of Caesar 

millTbus (abl.) 
thousand 



he led over his 



et 

and 



consilTo, 
design, 



fiti 

that 



forces beyond 

castra (pi.) 
a camp 

ultra 6um 

beyond him, 

interclud^ret Caesarem 

he might shut off Caesar 



fecit 
made 

passuum 

(of) paces 



que 

and 



commeatu, 
provisions. 



Sequ^nis 
the Sequani 

produxit 
led forth 



et 

and 

suas 
his 



qui 
which 

^duis. 
the .Edui, 



supportaretur 
was [were] brought 



the camp 

duobus 
(by) two 

with this 

frumento 
from corn 
141 



Ex 

From 



eo 

this 



die 

day 



ex 

from 

Caesar 
Caesar 



copias 
forces 



quinque 
five 



continiios 
continual [successive] 



dies 
days 



pro 

before 



aciem 

(his) battle line 



instructam 

drawn up, 



castris (pi.), et habiiit 
the camp, and had 

Ariovistus vellet contendere 
Ariovistus might wish to contend 

proelio, potestas^^" non deesset fi. 

in battle, the power [opportunity] might not be wanting to him. 

Ariovistus omnibus his diebus continuit exercTtum 
Ariovistus on all these days kept (his) army 

castris (pi.); 



ut si 

that if 
.142 



in camp ; 

Hoc Srat 
This was 



contendit quotidie equestri 
he contended daily in a cavalry 



proelTo, 
battle 



143 



g6nus 
the kind 



pugnae, 
of fight. 



quo 

in which 



Germani 
the Germans 



exercu6rant 
had exercised 

equTtum, 

(of) horsemen, 



ac 

and 



se. 

themselves. 



Erant sex niillia 
(There) were six tliousand 

totidem pedites num^ro velocissTmi 
as many foot soldiers in numlx^r most swift 

fortissimi, sin<Tulos quos sin«;uli 

most brave, each (of) whom (the horsemen) each 



BOOK I 



On the Gallic War. 



77 



delegerant 
had chosen 

suae 

their own 



ex 

from 



omni 
all 



copia, 
the force, 



causa 
for the sake of 



salutis (gen.) . 
safety. 



Versabantur 
They were engaged 



cum 
with 



his 

these 

se 
themselves 



in 

in 



proeliis ; 

the battles; 



ad 
to 



hos : 

these 



equites 
the horsemen 

hi, 
these, 



Sl 
if 



recipiebant 

were betaking 

quid 
any (thing) 



^rat 
was 



durius, 
more difficult. 



concurrebant : si 

were rushing up : if 



qui, 

any. 



graviore 

a heavier 



[rather severe] 

6quo, 
from (his) horse, 

prodeundum 
to be advanced 



volngre accepto, 

wound having been received, 

circumsistebant : 
they were rallying around : 



decidfirant 
had fallen down 
.144 



SI 
if 



6rat^ 
it was 



longTus 
farther 



aut 
or 



celerius 
more quickly 

horum 

of these 



quo, 
any where. 



exercitatione, 
by exercise. 



tanta 6rat 

so great was 

ut, sublevatl 

that, supported 



recipiendum 
to be retreated 

celeritas 
the speed 

jiibis 
by the manes 



equorum, 
of the horses, 

49. Ubi 

When 



adaequarent 
they would equal 



cursum. 

(their) course [speed]. 



Caesar intellexit 6um tenere 

Caesar learned (that) him [he] to hold 

se castris (pi.), ne prohiberetur 

in camp, (that) he might not be prohibited 

delegit locum idongum 

he chose a place suitable 

sex-centos passus ab 

six hundred paces from 

locum, in quo loco 
place, in which place 



[was holding] himself 

diutius commeatu, 

longer from provision, 

castris (pi.), circiter 
for camp, about 

his ultra 6um 

them beyond this 

Germani consedSrant, 
the Germans had encamped, 

instructa, venit 

having been drawn up, he came 

primam et secundam 
the first and second 



que 
and 



triplici 
a triple 



ad 
to 



6um l6cum. 

this place. 



aciem 

line 



esse 

to be 



in 
in 



acle 
battle line 

Jussit 
He ordered 

armis, 
arms, 



78 



The Commentaries of CcEsar. 



BOOK I 



tertTam 

the third 

dictum-est, 
has been said, 

sex -centos 
six-hundred 

numgrum 
a number 

expedita, 
liglit armed. 



munire 

to fortify 



castra (pi.)* Hie l5cus, uti 



the camp. 

ab^rat ab 

was distant from 



passus. 
paces. 

hominum 
of men 



E6 

Tliither 

circiter 
about 



Tliis place, 

hoste 
the enemy 

Ariovistus 

Ariovistus 



as 

circiter 
about 

misit 
sent 



sexd6cim 
sixteen 



cum 

with 



omni 

all 



equitatu ; 
the cavalry; 



qu£e 
which 



millTa 
thousand 

copTae 
forces 



perterrerent nostros, et prohiberent munitione. 

should alarm our (men), and should check (them) from fortifying. 



Nihilo secTus, Ctesar, 
Nevertheless, C«sar, 



jussit 
ordered 



dlias 
the two 



Ut 
as 

acies 
lines 



tertiam perficere opus, 
the third to complete the work. 



constitu^rat ante, 

he had determined before, 

propulsare hostem, 
to repel the enemy, 

Castris (pi.) munitis, 
The camp having been fortified. 



reliquit 

he left 

iorum ; 

iliaries; 

majora 

the greater 



ibi duas legiones et partem auxil- 
there two legions and part of the aux- 



reduxit quatiior 

he led back the four 

castra (pi.)* 
camp. 



reliquas in 

remaining (legions) into 



50. Proximo 

On the next 



eduxit 

led forth 



siias 

his 



die, 
day, 

coplas 

forces 



Caesar 
Caesar 



SllO 
by his 



instituo 
practice 



ex 

from 



utrisque 
both 



castris ; 
camps; 



que 
and 



progress us 
having advanced 

a CI em cjue 

(his) line and 



paullulum a majorlbus, instruxit 
very little from the greater, drew up 

fecit hostlbus 

made [gave] (to) the enemy 

pugnandi. Ubi intellexit $os 

of fighting. When he understood (that) them [they 

lum cjuTdem prod ire, circiter meridiem 

then indeed (even) 1o [would] come forth, about midday 

reduxit exercltum in castra (pi.)* Tum demum 
he led back the army into camp. Then at last 



potestatem 
an opportunity 



ne 

not 



BOOK I On the Gallic War. 79 

Ariovistus misit partem suarum copiarum, quae 

Ariovistus sent part of his troops, which 

oppugnaret^^'^ minora castra (pi.)- Pugnatum-est 

might assault the lesser camp. ^ It was fought 

acriter utrimque usque ad vesperum. Occasu 

sharply on both sides quite to [till] evening. With the setting 

solis Ariovistus reduxit siias copTas in 

of the sun Ariovistus led back his troops into 

castra (pi.)? multis volneribus et illatis 

camp, many wounds both having been inflicted 

et acceptis. Quum Csesar quaergret (imp. subj.) 
and received. When Caesar was inquiring 

ex captivis, quamobrem Ariovistus decertaret 
from the captives, wherefore Ariovistus was contending 

(imp. subj.) non proelTo, reperiebat banc 

not in battle, he was ascertaining this 

causam, quod ea consuetudo esset (imp. 

was the cause, because this custom was common 

subj.)S,pud Germanos, ut matresfamilTas 

with the Germans, that the mothers of family [matrons] 

eorum declararent sortibus et vaticinatiombus, 
of them should declare by lots and by divination, 

utrum esset ex usu proelTum committi 

whether it might be from [of] use that battle to [should] be joined 

necne : 6as dic6re^*^ ita. '*Non esse fas 

or not: them [they] (to) say thus. "Not to be [it is not] right 

Germanos superare, si contendissent proelio 

the Germans to [should] conquer, if they should contend in battle 

ante novam lunam." 
before the new moon." 

51. Postridie ejus diei, praesidTo relicto 

The day after (of) this day , a guard having been left 

utrisque castris, quod visum-est satis, constituit 

for both camps, which seemed sufficient, he arranged 

omnes alarios in conspectu hostTum pro 

all the auxiliaries in sight of the enemy before 

minoribus castris (pi.), quod valebat^^^ 

the lesser camp, because he did avail [was strong] 



80 



The Commentaries of Ccssar. 



BOOK I 



minus 
less 



multituflTne 
in the multitude 



pro 

for 



numgro 
the number 



hostium ; 
of the enemy; 



letrionariorum milTtum 

of leg^ionary soldiers 

ut uteretur alariis (abl.) 

that he might use the auxiliaries 



ad specTem. Ipse, triplici acTe instructa, 

for a show. (lie) himself, a triple battle line having been arrayed, 

usque ad castra (pi.) hostium. Tum 
quite to the camp of the enemy. Then 



accessit 
approached 

demum 
at last 



German! 
the Germans 



necessario 

necessarily 



eduxerunt 

led out 



suas 

their 



copias 
forces 



e 
from 



castris (pi.); que 



generatim ; que 
by nations ; and 

Marcomannos, 

Marcomanni, 



the camp ; 

paribus 
at equal 

Triboces, 
Triboces, 



and 



constituerunt 

arranged (them) 



intervallis, 
intervals, 

Vangiones, 

Vangiones, 



Harudes, 
the Harudes, 

Nemetes, 

Nemetes, 



Sedusios, 

Sedusii, 



Suevos ; 

Suevi ; 



que 
and 



circumdederunt 
surrounded 



suam 
their 



aciem 

line 



rhedis 

with carriages 



et 

and 
manibus 



earns, 
wagons. 



omnem 

all 

Eo 

There 



proficiscentes 

setting out 



imposuerunt mulieres, quae, manibus passis, 

they consigned the women, who, (their) hands (having been) spread, 

flentes implorabant milites 

weeping were imploring the soldiers 

ad proelTum, ne trad6rent se in 

to battle, that they should not deliver themselves into 

servitutem Romanis. 

slavery to the Romans. 

52. Caesar praefecit legatos singulos 

Caesar appointed lieutenants one each 

et quaestorem singulis legionibus (pi.), uti 
and a quaestor to each legion, that 



quisque 
every one 



haberet ?os testes suae virtutis. Ipse 

might have them (as) witnesses of his valor. (He) himself 



a 

from [on 



animadvert^rat 
he had observed 



dextro cornu, quod 

the right horn [wing], because 

gam partem hostium esse minime firmam, 

(that) this part of the enemy to be [wasl least firm, 



BOOK I 



0)1 the Gallic War. 



81 



commisit proelium. Nostri, signo dS.to, 

joined battle. Our (men), the sif?nal (having been) given, 

fecerunt imp6tuin ita acriter in hostes : que 
made an attack so sharply upon the enemy: and 

hostes procurrerunt ita repente que celeriter, ut 
the enemy charged so suddenly and quickly, that 

spatium conjiciendi pila in hostes non 

space [timej of [for] tlirowing javelins against the enemy was not 

daretur. PiHs rejectis,^'^^ puo'natum-est 

given. The javelins (having been) thrown aside, it was fought 

cominus gladiis. At Germani celeriter 

hand to hand witli swords. But the Germans quickly 

ex sua consuetudine, phalange facta, 

from [after] their custom, a phalanx having been formed, 

exceperunt impetus gladiorum. Complures nostri 
received the attacks of the swords. Very many (of) our 

milites(nom.) reperti-sunt, qui insilirent in phalanges 
soldiers were found, who would leap up upon the phlanxes 



et revellSrent scuta 

and would tear away the shields 

vulnerarent desuper. Quum 

would wound from above. When 

pulsa-esset (pi. perf. subj.) a 

from [on] 



manibus, et 

with (their) hands, and 



acies 

the line 



hostium 
of the enemy 



had been routed 



atque 
and 



conversa 
turned 



in 
into 



fugam, 

flight, 



sinistro cornu, 
the left horn [wing], 

premebant 
they were pressing 



nostram 
our 



aciem 
line 



a dextro 

from (on) the right 



cornu 

horn [wing] 

Publius 
Publius 



qui 

who 



vehementer 

urgently 

multitudine suorum. 

by the multitude of their (men). 

Crassus adolescens, 

Crassus a young man, 

equitatui (dat.) animadvertisset (pi. perf. subj.) id 

the cavalry, had perceived 

editior quam hi, 

isengaged than these, 

versabantur inter acTem, misit tertiam 

were employed among [within] the line, he sent the third 



quod 
because 



6rat' 
he was 



Quum 

When 

praegrat 
commanded 



this 

qui 
who 



82 



The Commentaries of CcBsar. 



BOOK I 



aclem nostris labomntibus subsidTo. 

line to our (men) toiling [struggling] for [as] a reinforcement. 

53. Ita proelium 
Thus the battle 



restitutum-est 
was restored 



atque 
and 



omnes 

all 



hostes 

the enemy 

fuggre, 
to flee, 

Rhenum, 

Rhine, 



verterunt 
turned 

prTus 
before 



terga, 
(their) backs, 



ngque 
nor 



destiterunt 

ceased 



quam 
that 



pervenerunt 
they arrived 



ad 

at 



flumen 
the river 



Ibi 

There 



circTter quinque millTa passuum ex 60 
about five thousand (of) paces from this 

aut confisi viribus 

either having trusted their strength, 

transnatare ; aut, lintribus 
strove to swim over; or, boats 



l(3co. 

place. 

(dat.pl.) J contenderunt 



perpauci, 
very few, 



inventis, reppererunt salutem 

having been discovered, found safety 



In his ftiit 

In [among] these was 



Ariovistus, 
Ariovistus, 



qui, 

who, 



navictilam 

a small skiff 



deligatam 
fastened 



ad 

at 



ripam, 

the bank. 



sTbi. 

for themselves. 

nactus 
having found 

prof u git 6a : 
escaped in it: 



nostri equites consecuti 

our horsemen having overtaken 

reliquos. Uxores 

the remaining. The wives 
c 152 

una sueva 

one a Suevian (woman) 

adduxgrat secum 

he had brought up with himself 

Norica, soror 

a Norican (woman), sister 



interfecerunt omnes 
slew all 

fuerunt 



Ariovisti fuerunt duae, 
of Ariovistus were two, 

natione, quam 

by nation [nationality], whom 

d5mo ; altera 

from home ; the other 

regis Voccionis, 

of king Voccio, 



periit 
perished 



duxgrat Gallia, 

he had led [married] in Gaul, 

fratre : utr^que 

(her) brother: each 

duae filiae 

(there were) two daughters 

occisa-est, altera 
was slain, the other 



quam 
whom 



ftiga: 
fight: 



missam 

sent 



in 

in 



a 

by 

6a 

this 



harum, altera 

of these, the one 

capta. CaTus Valerius 

taken [captured]. Caius Valerius 



BOOK I On the Gallic War. 83 

Procillus, quum traheretur (imp. subj.) in 

Procillus, when he was dragged in (their) 

fiiga vinctus trinis catenis a custodibus, 

flight bound with triple chains by (his) keepers, 

incTdit in CaesSrem ipsum persequentem 

fell upon [fell in with] Caesar himself pursuing 

equitatum hostium. Quae res quidem 

the cavalry of the enemy. Which thing [circumstance] indeed 

atttilit non minorem voluptatem Caes^ri, quam 
brought not less pleasure to Caesar, than 

victoria ipsa ; quod videbat honestissTmum 

the victory itself; because he was seeing a most honorable 

hominem provinclae GallTae, stium familiarem 
man of the province of Gaul, his acquaintance 

et hospitem, ereptum e mantbus hostium, 
and host, rescued from the hands of the enemy, 

restitutum s!bi : n6que fortuna diminu6rat 
restored to himself : nor [and] fortune had [not] diminished 

quidquam de tanta voluptate et gratulatione 
any thing from so great pleasure and congratulation 

calamitate ejus. Is dicebat 

by a disaster of [to] him. He was saying 

consultum (-esse) sortibus ter, se 

to have [it had] been consulted by lots thrice, himself 

praesente, de se, utriim necaretur 

(being) prest nt, about himself, whether he should be put to death 

stS^tim iffni, an reservaretur in alTud 

immediately with fire, or should be reserved unto [for] another 

tempus : se esse incolumen beneficio 

time: (that he) himself to be [was] safe by the favor 

sortium. Item Marcus MettTus repertus-est 

of the lots. Likewise Marcus Mettius was found 

et reductus ad §um. 
and led back to him. 

54. Hoc proelio nuntiato trans Rhenum, 

This battle having been reported beyond the Rhine, 

Suevi, qui venSrant ad ripas Rheni, 

the Suevi, who had come to the banks of the Rhine 



84 The Commentaries of Ccesar. BOOK I 

coeperunt reverti domum: quos UbTi, qui 
began to return home: whom the Ubii, who 

incc3lunt * proxlme Rhenum, insecuti 

dwell nearest the Rhine, having followed up 

perterritos, occiderunt magnum num^rum ex his. 
dismayed, slew a great number from [of] these. 

Caesar, duobus maxTmas bellis confectis 

Caesar, two very great wars having been finished 

una aestate, deduxit paullo maturius, quam 
in one summer, conducted a little earlier, than 

tempus anni postulabat, exercitum in 

the time of the year was demanding [requiring] the army into 

hiberna in Sequfi,nos : praepostiit 

winter quarters into [among] the Sequani : he appointed 

Labienum hibernis : ipse profectus-est 

Labienus for the winter quarters: (he) himself departed 

in citeriorem GallTam ad agendos conventus. " 
into hither Gaul for holding assembles. 



BOOK II 



On the Gallic War. 



85 



SECOND BOOK 



The second book contains an account of Caesar's expeditions aganist 
the Belgae, the Nervii. the Aduatuci, and the Amorici, in the six hundred 
and ninety seventh year after the founding of Rome, B. C. 57. Learning 
that the Belgae had entered with the other tribes into a confederacy 
against the Roman people, Caesar immediately moves with his army 
against them. First the Remi are conquered, from whom valuable infor- 
mation is gained relating to the movements of the Belgae. Crossing the 
Aisne, Caesar relieves Bibrax then under attack by the Belgae. It is not 
long before the Belgae and the Suessiones are forced to surrender. The 
war then turns against the Nervii, who in spite of their extraordinary 
courage, are at last subdued. The Aduatuci then through sheer treach- 
ery seek to overthrow Caesar's troops. But they like the other tribes are 
quickly brought under Roman rule. Caesar returns to Italy and a Thanks- 
giving is voted by the senate. 



1. Quum 
When 



ita 

just 



uti 

as 



Caesar 
Caesar 

supra 
above 



esset 

was 



in 

in 



citeriore 
hither 



demonstravimus, 



Gallia 

Gaul, 

crebri 

frequent 



rumores 
rumors 
1 



que 

and 



we have shown, 

afferebantur ad 6um, 

were brought to him, 

item^ fiebat certior litSris (pi.) Labieni, 

likewise he was made more sure [informed] by letters of Labienus, 

dixeramus 

we have said 



omnes Belgas, 
(that) all the Belgae, 



quam 
which 



esse tertiam 

to be [are] the third 



partem Galliae, conjurare contra Romanum popiilum, 
part of Gaul, (to) conspire against the Roman people, 



que dare 

and (to) give 



obsTdes inter se. Has esse 

hostages between themselves. These to be [are] 



primum, quod vererentur 

first, because they were fearing 



causas conjurandi: 
the causes of conspiring: 

(imp.subj.) ne, omni Gallia pacata, noster 

lest all Gaul having been subdued, our 



86 The Commentaries of Ccssar. BOOK ii 

exercTtus adduceretur ad 60s; deinde, qu6d 
army should be led up to them ; then, because 

sollicitarentur (imp. subj.) ab noiinullis Gallis, partim 
they were solicited by some Gauls, partly 

qui, ut nollent (imp. subj.) Germanos 

(those) who, as tliey were unwilling that the Germans 

versari diutius in Gallia, tta 

to be [should] be emploj'ed longer in Gaul, so 

ferebant moleste exercTtum Romani 

were bearing (it) uneasily (that) the army of the Roman 

poptili hiemare atque inveterascSre in 

people to [should] winter and to grow old [continue] in 

GallTa; partim qui, mobilitate et levitate 

Gaul; partly (those) who, by fickleness and lightness 

animi, studebant nSvis imperiis; etiam 

of mind, were eagar for new governments ; also 

ab nonnullis, quod in Gallia regna 

by some, because in Gaul the kingdoms [the thrones] 

vulg6 occupabantur a potentioribus atque 

commonly were occupied by the more powerful and 

lis, qui habebant facultates ad conducendos 

by those, who were having means for hiring 

homines, qui potgrant minus facile cons^qui 
men, who were able less easily to attain 

6am rem nostro imperTo. 

this thing (under) our government. 

2. Caesar commotus Tis nuntiis que 

Caesar moved by these messages and 

litSris conscripsit duas n6vas legiones in citeriore 
letters levied two new legions in hither 

Gallia, et aestate inita, misit Quintum 

Gaul, and summer having begun, he sent Quintus 

PedTum legatum qui deduc6ret in 

Pedius (his) lieutenant who might lead (them] down into 

interiorem GallTam. Ipse, quum^ primum incip- 

inner Gaul. (He) himself, when first there was 

6ret (imp. subj.) esse, copTa pabuli venit ad 
begining to be, plenty of forage came to 



BOOK II 



On the Gallic War. 



87 



exercitum. Dat negotium 

the army. He gives the business [task] 

Gallis, 

Gauls, 
,4 



Senonibus 

to the Senones 



que 
and 



relTquis 
to the remaining 



qui 

who 



grant 
were 



finitimi 
neighbors 



Belgis, uti 

to the Belgae, that 

gerantur (pres. subj.) 
are carried on [transpiring] 



cognoscant'' 6a, quae 

they learn [ascertain] these (things), which 



&pud 
with 



60s. 



et 

and 



them, 

se certiorem de his rebus, 

himself more certain [inform him] about these 



hi 

these 



constanter 

continually 



things. 

nunciaverunt, 
reported, (that) 



facTant 
may make 

Omnes 
All 

mSnus 
bands 



COgl, 
to be [were being] brought together. 



assembled 



in 

to 



unum 

one 



exercitum conduct 

an army to be [was being] 

l6cum. Turn ver6 

place. Then indeed 

5 



existimavit non dubitandum,' quin 

he thought (it) [he must] not to be hesitated [hesitate], but that 

ad 60s. 

to them. 



proficisceretur 
he should set out 



Re 

The 



provisa, 
having been provided, 



movet 

he moves (his) 



frumentaria 

grain supply 

castra (pi.) 



camp 



circiter quindScim diebus pervSnit 

in about fifteen days arrives 

fines Belgarum. 

the borders of the Belgae. 

3. Quum venisset (pi. perf. subj.) 66 

When he had come there 



que 
and 

ad 

to [at] 



de 

from 



improviso que celerms opinione 

unforseen [unexpectedly] and more quickly (than) the opinion [belief) 



omnium, 
of all, 

Belgis 

the Belgae 
IccTum 

Iccius 

civitatis, 
state, 



Remi. 



qni 

who 



sunt 
are 



the Remi, 

Galilee, miserunt ad 
to Gaul, sent to 

et Andocombogium 
and Andocombogius 



qui dic6rent, 
who should say, 



proximi 

nearest 

6um 

him 

primos 
first (men) 
6 



ex 

from [of] 

legatos, 
ambassadors, 

suae 
of their 



permitt6re se 

"to [that they] entrust themselves 



88 



The Co)?n?if}ifan'rs of Cccsar. 



BOOK II 



que omnia sua 

and all their (effects) 



in fidem atque potestatem 

into [to] the faith and power 



Romani 
of the Roman 

consensisse 
(to) have combined 

conjurasse 
(to) have conspired 

esse 

to be [they are] 



popiili, 

people. 

cum 

with 



neque 

(that) neither 

relTquis 
the remaining 



se 

(they) themselves 



Belgae, 
Belgae, 



ngque 



nor 



contra Romanum populum, que 
against the Roman people, and (that) 



paratos 
prepared 



et 
both 



dare 

to give 



obsides, 
hostages, 



et 

and 



fac6re imperata, et 

to do (the things) commanded, and 

et juvare frumento 
and to aid with corn 



recip^re 

to receive (them) 



oppidis 
in the towns 



que 
and 



caeteris 
in other 



rebus ; 

things [matters]; 



omnes 
(that) all 



reliquos 
the remaining 



que Germanos, 
and the Germans, 



qui 
who 



esse 

to be [are] 

(•is 
on this side 



HI 

in 



Bel gas 
Belgae 

incolunt cis Rhenum 

dwell on this side the Rhine 

his ; 

these [Belgae] ; 

tantum esse furorem omnium eorun 

so great to be [is] the fury of all of then 

poturgrint (perf. subj) deterrere ne Suessiones 
they have been able to restrain not the Suessiones 

fratres 



conjunxisse 

(to) have united 



sese 
themselves 



cum 
with 



armis : 
arms: 



que 

and 



Ut' 
that 



and 



quid em, siios 
even, their brothers 

utantur (pres. subj.) eodem 

use the same 

legibus, hab^ant (pres. subj.) unum 
laws, have one 



que consanguin^os, qui 



kinsmen, 

jure, 
right, 



who 

iisdem 
the same 



imperium, 
government. 



que 

and 



unum magistratum cum ipsis, 

one magistracy with themselves, 



quin 
but that 



consentirent cum his. 
they should conspire with these. 

4. Quum quaerdret (imp. subj.) ab his, 

When he was inquiring from these, 

civitates que quantae essent (imp. subj.) in armis, 

states and how great were in arms, 



quae 

what 



BOOK II 



On the Gallic War. 



89 



et quid possent (imp. subj.) 

and what they were able 



in 
in 



Sic; 

thus ; 



reperiebat 

he was acertaining 

ortos-esse 
(to) have sprung 

traductos 

(were) led over 

propter fertilitatem 
on account of the fertility 



plerosque 

(that) the most of 



Germanis 

from the Germans 



que 

and 



bello, 

war, 

Belgas 
the Belgae 

antiquitus 
of old 



Rhenum, 
the Rhine, 



consedisse Ibi 

to [that they] have settled there 



agri ; que expulisse 

of the land; and (to) have driven out 



Gallos, qui incol^rent (imp. subj.) 6a l5ca ; que 
the Gauls, who were inhabiting these places ; and 

esse solos, ^ qui, memoria nostrorum patrum, 

to be [are] alone, (those) who, in the memory of our fathers, 

prohibu6rint(perf. subj.) 

prohibited 



omni Gallia vexata, 

all Gaul having been harassed, 

Teut5nes que Cimbros 
the Teutones and Cimbri 

fines. Ex qua 

borders. From which 

sumerent (imp. subj.) 
they were taking [assuming] 



ingrgdi 
to enter 



intra 

within 



re 

thing 



figri 
to be done [it resulted] 



magnam 

great 



auctoritatem 

authority 



suos 
their 

titi 
that 

que 

and 



magnos 
great 



spiritus 

spirits [airs] 



in 

in 



militari 
military 



memoria earum rerum. 

by the memory of these things. 

se habere omnia 

(that) they themselves (to) have all (things) 



re 

matters 

Remi 

The Remi 



explorata 

investigated 



sibi, 
to themselves, 

dicebant 

were saying 

de 

about 



numgro eorum, propterSa quod conjuncti 

the number of them [their number], because (that) joined together 



(pi.) 



atque 
and 



propinquitatibus 
by kindship 

cognov6rint (perf. subj.) 
they knew 

pollicitus-sit (perf. subj.) 



quantam 
how great 



affinitatibus, 
by marriage alliances, 

multitudinem 
a multitude 



quisque 
each 



promised 



in 
in 



concilio Belgarum ad id bellum. 

council of the Belgae to [for] this war, 



communi 
the common 

Bellov&cos^ 
The Bellovaci 



90 



The Commentaries of Ccesar. 



BOOK 11 



valere plurlmum inter 60s, et virtute, et 
(to) prevail most among them, both in valor, and 

auctoritate, et numgro homlnum ; hos posse 

in authority, and in the number of men ; these to be [are] able 



conficfire 

to convene [muster] 



centum 
a hundred 



millla 
tliousand 



armata ; 
armed (men); 



pollicitos 
having [that they had] promised 



sexaginta 

sixty 



millla 
thousand 



electa 
chosen 



ex 

from 



60 

this 



numgro, 
number. 



que 

and 



imperium belli 
the control of the war 



SUOS 
their 



finitimos ; 

neighbors ; 



feracissimos agros 
most productive lands ; 

Spud 60s, 

with [over] them. 



sibi. 
for themselves. 

possidere 
to (they) possess 

Diviti^cum 
Divitiacus 

potentissimum 
the most powerful 



postulare 
to demand [demanded] 

Suessiones esse 
The Suessiones to be [are] 

latissTmos que 

the most broad and 

fuisse r6gem 

to have [has] been king 



etiam 
even 



nostra 
in our 



(perf. subj.) 



regionum, 
regions, 



memoria, 
memory, 

imperium 
the empire 



qui 
who 



totius 
of entire 

cum 
not only 



magnae 
of a great 



tum 
but also 



nunc 
now 



esse 

to be [is] 



etlam 

even 

regem ; 

(their) king; 



partis 

part 

Britanniae ; 
of Britain ; 



GallTae, 
Gaul, 

obtinu6rit 
had held 

harum 

of these 

Galbam 
Galba 



suramam 

the sum [chief command] 



totius 

of the whole 

voluntate 
by the will 

num6ro, 
in number. 



belli deferri ad hunc 

war to be [was] conferred to (on) this (man) 

omnium; habere duod6cim opplda 

of all; to have [they have] twelve towns 

millla 



polliceri 

and (to) promise 



quinquaginta 



armata: Nervlos, totidem, 
armed (men): the Nervii, just as many, 

(pres. subj.) maxtme fferi inter 
the most fierce among 



fifty 

qui 

who 

ipsos 
them 



thousand 



habeantur 

are held [deemed] 



(pres. subj.) 



longisslme ; 
farthest ; 



Atrebiltes, 
the At rebates, 



que absint 
and are distant 

quind6cim 
fifteen 



BOOK II On the Gallic War. 91 

millTa; Ambianos, decern millTa; Morinos, 

thousand; the Ambiani, ten thousand; the Morini, 

viginti quinque millia : Menapios, novem millia ; 
twenty five thousand : the Menapii, nine thousand ; 

Cal6tos decern millia ; Veliocasses et 

the Caleti ten thousand ; the Veliocasses and 

Veromanduos totidem; Aduatucos, viginti nSvem 
Veromandui just as many ; the Aduatuci, twenty nine 

millia; arbitrari Condrusos, Eburones, Caerosos, 

thousand; to [they] believe the Condrusi, Eburones, Caerosi, 

Paemanos, qui appellantur uno nomine Germani, 
Paemani, who are called by one name German, 

ad quadraginta millia. 

(promise), to [about] forty thousand. 

5. Caesar, cohortatus Remos, qu6 

Caesar, \iaving encouraged the Remi, and 

prosecutus liberaliter oratione, jussit 

having followed up liberally [kindly] with a speech, ordered 

omnem senatum convenire ad se, que 

all (their) senate to assemble to himself, and 

libgros principum adduci obsTdes ad 

(that) the children of the chiefs (to) be brought (as) hostages to 

se. Omnia quae facta-sunt diligenter 

him(self). All which (things) were done exactly 

ab his ad diem. Ipse cohortatus 

by these to the day. He himself having encouraged 

magnopgre i^diium Divitiacum, docet 

very greatly [earnestly] the ^Eduan Divitiacus,. shows 

quantopSre intersit (pres. subj.) rei publicae (gen.) 
how greatly it concerns the republic 

que communis salutis, manus hostium 

and the common safety, (that) the bands of the enemy 

distineri, ne sit confligendum uno temp6re 
(to) be separated, lest it must be fought at one time 

cum tanta multitudine; id posse 

with so great a multitude ; that it to be able [could] 

fi6ri, si iEdui introdux§rint (perf. subj.) 

to) be done, if the ^dui should introduce 



92 



The Commentaries of Ccssar. 



BOOK II 



siias copTas in fines Bellovacorum et 

their forces into the borders of tlie Bellovaci and 

coep&rint (perf. subj.) popular! agros eorum. 

should begin to ravage tlie lands of them [their lands]. 

His mandatis, dimittit^^ 6um ab 

These (things) having been enjoined, he dismisses him from 



se. 

himself. 



Postquam 
After that 



quos mis^rat, et 
whom he had sent, and 



coonovit ab 
he knew from 

ab Remis, 
from the llemi, 



his exploratoribus, 
these scouts, 



omnes 
(that) all 



Belgarum 
of the Belgae 



venire 

to come [were coming] 

abesse^^ 

to be [were] distant 



coactas 
(having been) collected 

ad 

to 



in 
into 



se, 

him(self), 



unum 

one 

ngque 
nor 



longe; 

far; 



maturavit 
he hastened 



copias 
the forces 

l6cum 
place 

jam 

now 

traduc^re 
to take over 



flumen 
the river 



quod 

which 



est 

is 



in 

in 



extremis 
the extreme [remotest] 



Axonam 
Axona, 

finibus Remorum, 

borders of the Remi, 

posfiit castra (pi.)- 

pitched (his) camp. 

muniebat unum Itltus castrorum (pi.) ripis 

by the banks 



exercTtum, 

the army, 

Quae 

Which 



atque 
and 

res 
thing [action] 



Tbi 

there 

et 
both 



was fortifying one 



side 



fluminis 
of the river 

quae 

which 



et 
and 



of the camp 

reddebat 
was rendering 



grant 

were 



post, 
behind. 



tuta 

safe 



ab 

from 



efficiebat 
was effecting 

portari 
(to) be carried 



ut 
that 



ad 

to 



commeatus 
provisions 

ab 

from 



?a 

these (things) 

hostibus, et 
the enemy, and 

possent 
might be able [could] 



6um 

him 



Remis, 

the Remi, 



que 

and 



relTquis civitatibus 

the remaining states 



sine periciilo. Pons ?rat 
without danger. A bridge was 



in 


go 


flumine ; 


ibi 


ponit 


praesidium, 


on 


this 


river; 


there 


he places 


a guard. 



et reliquit Quintum Titurium Sabinum leo^atum 
and left Quintus Titurius Sabinus (his) lieutenant 



BOOK II 



On the Gallic War. 



93 



in altfira parte 
on the other part [side] 



fluminis cum sex cohortibus ; 

of the river with six cohorts; 

munire castra(pl.) vallo in 

to fortify the camp with a rampart into [in] 

duod6cim p6dum que fossa 

(of> twelve feet and with a trench 

p6dum. 
feet (deep). 

6. OppTdum Remorum, nomine Bibrax, abgrat 
A town of the Rem!, byname Bibrax, was distant 



jfibet 

he orders (him) 

altitudinem 
height 

duodeviginti 

(of) eighteen 



octo 
eight 



millTa 
thousand 



passuum 
(of) paces 



ab 

from 



castris 
the camp 



ipsis (pi.) 
itself; 



Belgae coeperunt oppugnare id magno 
the Belgae began to assault it with great 



ex itingre : 

from [on] the march : 



60 

on this 



die. 

day. 

Belgarum 
of the Belgae 

hommum 



Eadem 

The same 



sustentatum est 
it [the assault] was sustained 

oppugnatTo Gallorum 

assault of the Gauls 



impgtu 
violence 

aegre 
hardly 

atque 
and 



est 

is 



haec 

this: 



Hi, 

These, 



ubi, 
when, 



multitudine 
a multitude 



circumjectii 



totis moenibus (dat.), 



of men having been thrown around the whole wall. 



lapTdes 
stones 

undTque 
on all sides 

testudine 
a testudo 



ccepti-sunt 
were begun 



jaci 

to be thrown 



m 

against 



murum 
the wall 



que 
and 



murus 
the wall 



facta, 
having been formed, 



que 
and 

facile. 

easily. 

lapTdes 
stones 

muro 
the wall 
( 



subruunt 
undermine 



murum. 

the wall. 



nudatus-est 

was stripped 

succedunt 
approach 

Quod 

Which 



defensoribus ; 

from defenders 

portis (dat.) 
the gates 



tum 
then 



fiebat 
was done 



Nam 
For 

ac 

and 

erat 

was 



cum 

when 

tela, 

darts, 



tanta 

so great 



14 



multitudo 
a multitude 



conjiciebant 

were hurling 



protestas 
a power [ability] 

nuUi. Quum 

to none. When 



consistendi in 

of standing on 

nox fecisset 

night had made 



vpl. perf. subj.) finem 
an end 



oppugnandi, Remus Iccius, 
of assaulting , the Remian Iccius, 



94 



The Commentaries of Ccssar. 



BOOK II 



summa 
with [of the] highest 



nobilitate 
nobility 



et 

and 



gratia 
favor 



inter 
among 



siios, qui turn praegrat oppido, unus ex 

his own (people), who then commanded (to) the town, one from [of] 



lis, 
those, 



qui 

who 



legati 

(as) ambassadors 



nisi 
unless 



vengrant ad Caes3.rem 
had come to Caesar 

de pace, mittit nuntios ad Sum, 

about peace, sends messengers to him, 

subsidium submittatur (pres. subj.) sibi, se 

aid is sent to him(self), he himself 

non sustinere diutiiis. 
not (to) hold out longer. 

de media nocte, Caesar usus 

about mid night, Caesar having used 



posse 

to be able [could] 



7. E6 
Thither 

iisdem 
the same 



duclbus, 
guides. 



qui 

who 



venSrant 
had come 



IccTo, 

Iccius, 



mittit 
sends 



Numidas 

the Numidian 



et 

and 



nuntii 

(as) messengers 

Gretas 
Cretan 



ab 
from 

sagittarios 
archers 



et Baleares 

and Balearic 

Adventu 
By the arrival 

cum 

with 

Remis (dat.), 
the Remi, 



funditores subsidio 
slingers for a reinforcement 



quorum, 
of whom, 

spe 
a hope 



et 
both 



studium 
a zeal 



et 

and 



de 

from 



defensionis 
of defence 

eadem 
the same 



oppidanis. 

to the townsmen. 

propugnandi 
of resisting 

accessit 

approached 



causa 
cause 



potiundi 

of gaining 



oppTdi 
the town 



Itaque 
Therefore 



morati 
having delayed 



discessit 

departed from [left] 

paulisper Spud 

a little while at 



spes 

the hope 

hostibus. 
the enemy. 

oppTdum 
the town 



que 
and 



depopulati 

having laid waste 



agros Remorum, omnibus 
the lands of the Remi, all 



vicis 

the villages 



que 
and 



quo 

where 



potgrant 
they were able 

ad castra (pi.) 
to the camp 



aedificTis incensis, 

buildings having been burnt, 

adire, contenderunt 

to approach, they strove [hastened] 



Caesftris 
of Caesar 



cum 
with 



omnibus 
all 



copiis, 
(their) forces, 



BOOK II 



Of the Gallic War, 



95 



et posuerunt castra (pi.) a minus duobus 

and pitched (their) camp from [at] less than two 

castra (pi.) 
camp 



millibus 
thousand 



passuum, 
(of) paces, 



quae 
which 



Ut 

as 



significabatur 
was indicated 



fumo 

by smoke 



atque 
and 



ignibus, 
by fires, 



in latitudinem 
into [in] breadth 

passQum. 
(of) paces. 



amplius octo 

more (than) eight 



patebant 

was extending 

millibus 
thousand 



8. Caesar 
Caesar 



primo 
at first 



proelio (abl.) et 



a battle 

hostium 
of the enemy 

virtutis ; 
of (their) valor 



both 



statuit 
determined 

propter^ 
on account of 



supersedere 

to defer 

multitudlnem 

the multitude 



et propter eximiam opinionem 

and on account of the extraordinary reputation 



tS,men periclitabatur 

yet he was making trial 



quotidie 
daily 



equestribus proelTis, quid hostis 

in cavalry battles, what the enemy 

virtute, et quid nostri auderent. 

in valor, and what our (men) might dare. 

intellexit nostros esse non inferiores, 

he understood (that) our (men) to be [were] not inferior, 

l6co pro castris (pi.) opportuno 

the place before the camp (being) favorable 



posset 
might be able 

Ubi 

When 



atque 
and 



15 



idon6o "^ natura 
suitable by nature 

is collis ubi 
this hill where 



ad instruendam acTem ; quod 
for drawing up the line; because 

castra (pi.) posita-^rant, editus 
the camp had been placed, being raised 



paulliilum 
a little 

latitudinem 
breadth 

acies 



ex 

from 



planitie, 
the plain, 



patebat 

was extending 



in 

into [in] 



adversus 
opposite 

instructa 



tantum 

so much 



l6ci, quantum 

of place [distance] as 



the line (of battle), arrayed, 

habebat dejectus lat^ris 



pot^rat 

was able 



was having 



descents 



of the side 



occupare 

to occupy, 

ex 
from [on] 



atque 
and 

utraque 
either 



96 The Commentaries of Ccssar. BOOK li 

parte, et leniter fastij^iatus in fronte, paullatim 

part [hand], and gently sloping in front, gradually 

redihat ad planitTem : ab utroque latere 

was returning to the plain : from each side 

ejus collis obduxit transversam fossam circlter 
of this hill he led over a transverse trench about 

quadringentorum passuum, et ad extremas 

(of) four hundred paces, and at the extreme [both ends of] 

fossas constituit castella, que ibi collocavit 

the trenches he planted redoubts, and there placed 

tormenta; ne, quum instruxisset (pi. perf. subj.) 

engines; lest, when he had arrayed 

aciem, hostes (quod potfirant tantum 

(his) battle line, the enemy (because they were able so much 

multitudine) possent circumvenire a 

by (their) multitude) might be able [could] (to) surround from [on] 

lateribus suos pugnantes. Hoc facto, 

the flanks his (men) fighting. This having been done, 

duabus legionibus, quas conscrips&rac proxTme, 
two legions, which he had levied last, 

relictis in castris (pl.)j ut, si quid 5pus 

having been left in camp, that, if any need 

esset possent duci subsidio,^^ constituit 

should be, they might be able to be led for reinforcement, he formed 

relujuas sex legiones in acTe pro castris (pi.), 
the remaining six legions in battle line before the camp. 

Item hostes instruxgrant siias copTas eductas 

Likewise the enemy had drawn up their forces led forth 

ex castris (pi.), 
from the camp. 

9. Pillus non magna ^rat inter nostrum atque 
A marsh not great was between our (men) and 

exercitum hostTum ; hostes expectabant, si 

the army of the enemy; the enemy were awaiting, if 

nostri transirent hanc ; autem nostri ^rant 

our (men) would cross over this ; but our (men) were 

parati in armis ut, si initium transeundi 

prepared in arms that, if a beginning of crossing 



BOOK II 



On the Gallic War. 



97 



fiSret ah illis, aggrederentur impeditos. 

should be made by those (forces) they might attack (them) entangled. 



Intfirim 
Meanwhile 

inter 

between 

initmm 
a beginning 



contendebatur 

there was fighting 

duas acies. Ubi 



the two 



acies. 
lines. 



When 



equestri 
in a cavalry 

neutri 

neither 



trans^undi, 
of crossing, 



proelio 

the battle 



nostrorum 
of our 



proelTo 

battle 

faciunt 
make 

equitum 
horsemen 



secundiore, 

(being) more successful, 

castra (pi.)- 
the camp. 



Caesar 
Caesar 



reduxit 
led back 



SUOS 
his (men) 



in 

into 



Hostes 

The enemy 

60 loco ad 

that place to 

demonstratum-est esse 
has been shown 



ex 

from 



vadis 
fords 

partem 

part 



protinus contenderunt 
forthwith strained [hastened] 

flumen Axonam, quod 
the river Axona, which it 

post nostra castra (pi.): ibi 

there 

traduc6re 
to lead over 



to be [is] behind our camp; 

repertis, conati-sunt 

being found, they endeavored 



suarum 
of their 



copiarum. 

forces. 



60 

with this 



si possent, 

if they should be able, 

cui Q. Titurius 

over which Q. Titurius 



expugnarent 
they might storm 



consilTo, ut, 
design, that, 

castellum, 

the fortress. 



legatus praeerat, 

the lieutenant held command. 



que 
and 



interscindgrent 
might cut down 



rentur 
ravage 

Usui 
use 



agros 
the lands 

nobis 
to us 

20 



pontem : 

the bridge : 

Remorum, 
of the Remi, 



SI 
if 



minus, 

less [not], 



popula- 
they might 



qui 

which 



ad 

for 



gerendum 
carrying on 



6rat magno 
were for [of] great 

bellum^^ 
the war 



que 

and 



prohibgrenf^" nostros commeatu. 

were cutting off our (men) from supplies. 

10. Caesar factus certior a Titurio, 

Caesar being made more certain [informed] by Titurius, 

traducit pontem omnem equitatum, et Numidas 
leads over the bridge all the cavalry, and Numidians 

l6vis armaturae, funditores que sagittarios, atque 
of light armor, the slingers and archers, and 



98 



The Commeiitarics of Ccrsar 



BOOK II 



Puf^natuin-est acrlter 

It was foufflit sharply 

affj^ressi 
having attacked 



22 



111 

in 



contendit ad Cos. 

strains [liastcns] to them. 

Co loco : nostri a^ j^ressi liostes 

this place : our (men) having attacked the enemy 

impeditos in flumine, occiderunt maonum numCrum 
entangled in the river. slew a great number 

multitudine 



eorum : repulerunt 

of them ; they [our men] repulsed 

relTquos conantes 

the remaining (men) endeavoring 



with a multitude 

audacissime 
most boldly 



telorum 
of weapons 

transire 
to cross 



per corp5ra eorum : interfecerunt primos, qui 

among the bodies of those (slain); they killed the first, who 

transiCrant, circumventos equitatu. Hostes (pl.)> 
had passed, surrounded by cavalry. The enemy 

ubi intellexerunt spem fefellisse se 

when they understood hope to have [had] deceived themselves [them] 



et de 
both of 

flumine, 
the river, 



expugnando oppido, 
storming the town, 

viderunt 



et 
and 



de 

of 



nCque 



saw 



in iniquiorem 

into a more unequal (disadvantageous) 

pugnandi, atque frumentaria 
of lighting, and corn 



nostros 
our (men) 

l6eum 

place 

res 



transeundo 

crossing 

progrCdi 
advance 

causa 
for the sake 



ccepit 

thing [provisions] began 



deficCre 
to fail 

erunt 
resolved 

domum: 
home : 

endos, 

ing, 



Cos ; 
them ; 

esse 

it was 



concilio 
a council 

optimum 
best (for) 



convocato, 
having been convened. 



quemque 
each 



reverti 

to return 



et 

and 

Cos 

those 



convenire 
to assemble 



undique 
from all sides 



ad 

for 



in 
into 



fines 

the borders 



quorum 

of whom 



constitu- 
they 

stiam 

(to) his 

defend- 

defend- 

Romani 

the Romans 



primum introduxissent exercTtum ; ut decertarent 
first should lead on the army; that they might contend 

potiiis in siiis, quam alienis finlbus, et 

rather in their own, than in foreign borders, and 

uterentur domesticis copiis (abl.) frumentarlse rCi. 
might use domestic supplies of corn thing 



BOOK II 



On the Gallic War. 



99 



[provisions! 

causis, 
causes, 

quod 
because 



Qu6que 

Also 



haec 
this 



deduxit 

led 



60s 

them 



ad 

to 



ratio, 
reason, 

6am 
this 



cum reiiquis 

with remaining [other] 



sententiam, 
opinion [resolution]. 



cognov6rant 
they had known 

.25 



Diviti&cum 
Divitiacus 



atque 
and 



appropmquare" finibus 
(to) approach (to) the borders 

non persuader! 
not to (be) persuaded [persuade] 



Bellovacorum. 
of the Bellovaci. 



^duos 
the iEdui 

Potgrat 
It was possible 



his, ut morarentur 
(to) these, that they should delay 
26 



diutlus, neque ferrent auxillum suis. 

longer, nor should bring aid to their (countrymen). 

11. Ea re constituta, secunda vigilia, 

This thing being resolved, in the second watch. 



egressi 
having gone out 



castris cum magno strepitu 

from camp with great noise 

ac tumultu, nullo certo ordine n6que imperTo, 
and tumult, with no certain order nor command, 

quum quisque pet6ret (imp. subj.) primum 

since each was seeking the first 

l6cum itingris sibi, et properaret (imp. subj.) 

place of the road for himself, and was hastening 

pervenire d6mum, fecerunt, ut profectio 

to reach (to) home, they did [acted] so, that (their) departure 



re 
thing 

Caesar veritus 

Caesar having feared 

spexgrat^'^ 
seen clearly 



equitatum 
cavalry 



cognita 
being known 



videretur (imp. subj.) consimllis 
was seeming very like 

statim 
immediately 

insidias, 
snares, 

nondum de qua 

not yet on [for] what 

6rent (imp. subj.) continuit 
departing 

castris. 

in camp. 

confirmata ab 

being confirmed by 



ftigae. 

(to) a flight. 



Hac 

This 



per speculatores, 

through scouts. 



qu6d 
because 

causa 
cause 



per- 

he had 

disced- 
they were 



held 

Prima 

At the first 



exercitum, 

the army, 

1 28 

luce, re 

light, thethinj 



que 
and 



[fact] 



exploratoribus, 
scouts. 



praemisit 
he sent before 



100 The Commentaries of Ccesar. BOOK ii 

omnem equitatum, qui m )raretur 

all the cavalry, which should delay [detain] 

novissTmum affmen. His praefecit Quintum 

the last troop [rear]. Over them (he) appointed Quintus 

Pedium, et Lucium Aurunculeium Cottam 
Pedius, and Lucius Aurunculeius Cotta 

leg-atos §i : jussit Titum Labienum 

lieutenants to him [his lieutenants]: he ordered Titus Labienus 

legatum subs&qui cum tribus legiombus. 

the lieutenant to follow close with three legions. 

Hi adorti novissimos et prosecuti 

These, having attacked the last [rear] and having pursued 

multa millTa passuum, conciderunt magnam 
(them) many thousand (of) paces, cut up a great 

multitudmem eorum fugentium. Quum hi ab 
multitude of them fleeing When those from [on] 

extremo agmine, ad quos ventum-6rat, 

the last troop [rear], to whom it had been [they had] come, 

consist^rent (imp. subj.), que sustinereni (imp. subj.) 
were standing together and were sustaining 

fortiter impgtum nostrorum militum ; priores, 
bravely the attack of our soldiers ; the former [the 

quod viderentur (imp. subj.) abesse a 

van], because they seemed to be distant from 

periculo, n^que continerentur (imp. subj.) ulla 

danger, nor were held together bj' any 

necessitate neque imperio, clamore exaudito, 

necessity nor command, the din being heard, 

ordinibus perturbatis, omnes ponerent 

the ranks being disturbed [confused], all put 

praesidium sibi in fiiga. Ita sine ullo 

protection for themselves in flight. Thus without any 

periciilo nostri interfecerunt tantam multitudmem 

danger our (men) killed so great a multitude 

eorum, quantum spatium diei fiiit ; que 

of them, as the space of the day was [permitted]; and 

sub occasum solis destiterunt 

under [just before] the going down of the sun they ceased 



BOOK II 



On- the Gallic War. 



101 



sequi, 
to follow. 



que receperunt se in castra, liti 

and betook themselves into camp, as 



imperatum-6rat. 
it had been commanded. 

12. Postridie 
The day after 



recipgrent 
might recover 



ejus diei, prius-quam hostes(pl.) 

this day, before (that) the enemy 

se ex terrore ac fiiffa, 

themselves from terror and flight, 



Caesar 
Caesar 

onum, 

ones, 

maffno 
a great 

oppidum, 
the town. 



duxit 
led 



exercTtuiii 
(his) army 



111 

into 



fines Suessi- 

the borders of the Suessi- 



qui 

who 



?rat 

were 



proximi 

nearest 



Remis ; 

to tlie Remi; 



itinfre confecto, contendit 

march having been completed, he hastened 

Noviodunum. Conatus 

Noviodunum. Having attempted 



et 

and 

ad 
to 



id 

this 



ex 

from 



itin?re, quod 

the way [on his march], because 



esse 
(it) to be [was] 



oppuo^nare 
to storm 

audiebat 

he was hearing 
l31 



vacuum ab defensorlbus, potuit" 

clear from [of] defenders, he was able 



non 

not 



expuf^nare 
to storm (it) 



propter latitudinem fossae, 
on account of the breadth of the ditch, 

muri, paucis defendentlbus.^^ 

of the wall, few (men) defending (it). 

Castris(pl.) munitis coepit ajr^re vin^as, 

The camp having been fortified he began to drive [push] the sheds. 



que altitudinem 
and the height 



que comparare quae 

and to prepare (the things) which 

ad oppuojnandum. Interim 

for storming. Meanwhile 



?rant 
were 



USUI 
for use 



Suessionum 
of the Suessiones 



conv^nit 
comes together [gathers] 



omnis 
all 

ex 

from 



multitudo 
the multitude 

fli.ffa 
flight 



in 
into 



oppidum proxTma nocte. Vin^is actis 

the town on the nearest [next] night. The sheds having been pushed 

celeriter ad oppidum, agfg^re jacto, que 

quickly to the town, a mound having been thrown up, and 

turribus constitutis, Galli permoti 

towers (having been) erected, the Gauls much moved [alarmed] 



102 



The Commentaries of CcBsar. 



BOOK II 



magnitudlne 

by the vastness 



op^rum, 
of the works, 



quae 

which 



ante 

before 



n6que 

nor 



audi^iant, 
had heard (of), 



Romanorum, 
of the Romans, 



mittunt 
send 



de 
about 



deditione ; 
a surrender ; 



et, 

and, 



legates 
ambassadors 

Remis 

the Remi 



nSque vidSrant 
neither they had seen 

et celeritate 

and by the quickness 
ad Caes^rem 

to Caesar 

petentibus, 
seeking [petitioning], 



34 



ut conservarentur, 

that they may be preserved, 

13. Caesar obsidibus 

Caesar hostages 



impgtrant. 

they obtain (it). 

acceptis 
having been received 



primis 
the first (men) 



civitatis, 
of the state, 



atque 
and 



duobus 

two 



filiis 
sons 



regis 
of king 



Galbae 

Galba 



ipsius que omnibus armis traditis ex oppTdo, 

himself and all arms having been delivered from the town, 



Caesar accipit 

Caesar received 



Suessiones 
the Suessiones 



in deditionem f^ que 



into a surrender ; 



duxit exercitum in Bellovacos : 
led the army among the Bellovaci : 

contulissent (,pl. perf. subj.) se 

they had brought together themselves 



qui 

and 

que 
and 



and 

quum 
when 

omnia 
all 



sua in 

their (things) into 



Caesar, 
Caesar, 



cum 

with 



6o 

this 



oppido 
town 



oppidum 

the town 

exercitu, 
the army, 

circiter 
about 



Bratuspantium, atque 
Bratuspantium, and 

abesset (imp. subj.) ab 
was distant from 



qumque 

five 



millla 

thousand 



passuum, 

(of) paces. 



omnes 

all 

oppido, 
the town. 



ma j ores natu 
(the) greater by birth [the elders] 



coeperunt 

began 



tendSre 
to stretch 



Caes^rem, significare voce, 



egressi 
having gone out 

manus 
(their) hands 

sese 



ex 

from 

ad 

to 

venire 



Caesar, 



to signify 

fidem 
faith [protection] 

contendere contra Romanum 
(to) contend against the Roman 



by voice, (that they) themselves (to) come 



m 
into 



ejus 

his 



ac 

and 



potestatem 

power 



populum 
people 



n^que 
nor 

36 



armis : 
with arms 



BOOK II On the Gallic War. 103 

item, quum accessisset (pl.perf. subj.) ad oppldum, 
also, when he had approached to the town, 

que pongret (imp. subj.) castra (pi.) ibi, pugri que 
and was placing [pitching] (his)camp there, the boys and 

mulieres ex muro, manibus passis, suo 

women from the wall, (with) hands stretched out, by their 

more, petierunt pacem a Romanis. 

custom, sought peace from the Romans. 

14. Diviti&cus f&cit verba pro his (nam 

Divitiacus makes words [intercedes] for these (for 

post discessum Belgarum, copiis v^duorum 

after the departure of the Belgae, the forces of the ^Edui 

dimissis, revertgrat ad Sum): 

having been sent away, he had returned to him [Caesar] ) ; 

BellovS^cos omni tempore fuisse in fide 

the Bellovaci in[for]all time (to) have been in the faith [confidence] 

atque amicitia ^Eduse civitatis ; impulsos a 

and friendship of the ^Eduan state; impelled by 

suis principibus, qui dicSrent (imp. subj.) ^Eduos 
their chiefs, who were saying the iEdui, 

redactos in servitutem a CaesSre, perferre omnes 
reduced into servitude by Caesar, (to) endure all 

indignitates que contumelias, et defecisse ab 

indignities and outrages, (both) (to) have revolted from 

^duis, et intulisse bellum Romano populo.^^ 
the iEdui, and have waged war upon the Roman people. 

Qui fuissent (pi. perf. subj.) principes hujus 

(Those) who had been chiefs [authors] of this 

consilTi, quod intelliggrent (imp. subj.) quantam 
counsel, because they understood how great 

calamitatem intulissent (pi. perf. subj.) civitati (dat), 
a calamity they had brought on the state, 

profugisse in Britanniam. Non soliam Bellovacos 

to have [had] fled into Britain. Not only the Bellovaci 

petgre, sed etiam ^diios, pro his, 

to seek [entreated] but also the ^Edui, for these 

ut utatur stia dementia ac mansuetudine (abl.) 
that he may use his clemency and mildness 



104 



The Commentaries of Caesar. 



BOOK 11 



in ?os : ciuod si fecerit, amplificaturum 

towards them: which if he shall have done, about to [it would] 

^duorum 
of the ^dui 



auctoritatem 
enlarge the authority 

Belj^as, auxilis atque oi)Tl)us 

the Belgae, by the troops and resources 

consuev^rint (perf. subj.) sustentare, 
they have been accustomed to endure, 

qua bella incid^rint. 

any wars may have happened [occurred]. 



a pud omnes 

at [among] all 



quorum 
of whom 



38 



15. Caesar, 
Caesar, 



tiSci 
tiacus 



atque 
and 



causa 
for the sake 

^duorum, 
of the iEdui, 



honoris 
of the honor 

dixit 

said 



SI 
if 



Divi- 

of Divi- 



sese 
(that he) himself 



recepturum ^os 

about to [would] receive them 

conservaturum ; 

about to [would] preserve (them); 



mafjna 
great 



et 

and 



praestabat 

it was excelling 



in 

into 

et 

and 

inter 
among 



fid em 

faith [allegiance] 



quod 
because 

Bellas 
the Belgae 



civitas 
the state 



et 

and 

?rat 
was 



ac multitudme hominum, proposcit 
and in multitude of men, he required 



auctoritate 
in authority 

sex-centos 
six hundred 



obsTdes : his traditis que omnibus armis 

hostages: these having been delivered and all (their) arms 

collatis ex oppido, pervenit ab ^o 

(having been) brought together out of the town, he passed from this 

loco in fines Ambianorum, qui dediderunt 

place 



in 

into 



the borders of the Ambiani, 



qui 

who 



surrendered 



se que omnia sua 

themselves and all their (possessions) 



Sine m5ra. 
without delay. 



Nervii attingebant fines eorum : de 

TheNervii were touching upon the borders of them [their borders]: con- 



natura 

cerning the nature 

quaer^ret (imp. 
was inquiring, 



que 

and 



moribus quorum, quum 

manners of whom. when 



jubj.), 



reperiebat 
he ascertained 



sic ; 

thus 



Caesar 

Caesar 

nullum 

no 



adltum esse mercatoribus ad eos ; ])ati 

access to be [was] for merchants to them; to (they) suffer 



BOOK II On the Gallic War. 105 

nihil vini, que reliquarum rerum pertinentium 

nothing [no] (of) wine, and (of) remaining things tending 

ad luxuriam, inferri: qu6d 

to luxury, to be brouglit in [imported]: because 

existimarent (imp. subj.) animos eorum 

they thought (that) the minds of them [their minds] 

relanguescgre, que virtutem remitti 

(to) grow feeble, and (their) virtue [valor] to be [is] relaxed 

his rebus: homines esse f6ros, que magnae 

by these things: the men to be [are] fierce, and of great 

virtutis : increpitare atque incusare reliquos 
valor: to (they) upbraid and (to) blame the remaining 

Belgas, qui dedissent (pl.perf.subj.) se 

Belgae, who had surrended themselves 

Romano fjopulo, que projecissent (pi. perf. subj.) 
to the Roman people, and had cast aside 

patriam virtutem ; confirmare, 

(their) native virtue [national honor]; to (they) affirm (that they), 

se ngque missuros legatos, n6que 

themselves neither about to [would] send ambassadors, nor 

accepturos ullam conditionem pacis.^^ 

about to [would] receive any condition of peace. 

16. Quum fecisset (pl.perf.subj.) iter triduo 

When he had made a journey of three days 

per fines eorum, inveniebat 

through the borders of them [their borders], he was learning 

ex captivis, flumen Sabin abesse ab 

from the captives, (that) the river Sabis to be [was] distant from 

suis castris non amplius decern millia 

his camp not more (than) ten thousand 

passuum : omnes Nervios consedisse 

(of) paces : (that) all the Nervii to have [had] halted 

trans id flumen, que ibi una cum 

beyond this river, and there together with 

Atrebatibus et Veromanduis, suis finitimis, 
the Atrebates and Veromandui, their neighbors, 

expectare adventum Romanorum ; nam 

to [were] awaiting the arrival of the Romans ; for 



106 The Commentaries of Ccesar. BOOK II 

persuasgrant utrisque his,^^ ut experirentur 
they had persuaded both these, that they should try 

eandem fortunam belli ; etlam coplas 

the same fortune of war: also (that) the forces 

Aduatucorum expectari ab his, 

of the Aduatuci to be waited for [were expected] by these, 

atque esse in itingre: 

and (that they) to be [were] on tlie way [march]? 

conjecisse muliSres, que 

to have [that they had] thrown [put] together the women, and 

qui per aetatem viderentur (imp. subj.) 

(those) who through age were seeming 

inutiles ad pugnam, in eum locum, qu6 
useless for a battle, into this place, in which 

propter paludes aditus non esset exercitui.^ 

on account of the marshes access might not be for an army. 

17. His rebus cognitis, Caesar praemittit 

These things having been known, Caesar sends forward 

exploratores, que centuriones, qui delTgant 
scouts, and centurions, w-ho may choose 

l6cum idongum castris : que quum complures 
a place suitable for camp: and since many 

ex Belgis que reliquis Gallis 

from the Belgae and remaining Gauls 

dedititiis, secuti Caesarem, fac6rent 

(who had) surrendered, having followed Caesar, made 

(imp. subj.) iter una: quidam ex 

(their) way together: certain ones from [among] 

his, ut postga cogmtum-est ex captivis, 
these, as afterwards it was known from the captives, 

consuetudine itin^ris nostri exerc!tus 

the custom of the journey [march] of our army 

eorum dierum perspecta, pervenerunt nocte 

of those days being fully seen, repaired by night 

ad Nervlos atque demonstraverunt lis 

to the Nervii and showed to them (that) 

magnum num^rum impedimentorum interced^re 
a great number of baggage wagons (to) come between 



BOOK II 



On the Gallic War. 



107 



[intervened] 



inter 
between 



singulas 
the several 



legiones ; 
legions; 



ngque 
nor 



42 



esse quidquam negotii,' cum prima 

to be [was] (there) any thing of business [any difficulty], when the first 



legio 

legion 
legiones 

legions 

banc 

this (one) 



venisset 
had come 



in 
into 



abessent 
were distant 



castris, 

camp, 

magnum 
a great 



que 

and 



reliquae 
the remaining 

spatium, adoriri 

space [way], to attack 



sub sarcinis : qua 

under packs [baggage]: which 



impedimentis 

the baggage wagons 



direptis, 
having been plundered. 



pulsa, 
being routed, 

futurum, 



que 
and 



43 



about to [it would] be, 



ut reliquae 

that the remaining (legions) 



non auderent consistere 
would not dare to stand 



contra. 

against [in opposition]. 

qui deferebant 
who were proffering 



Etiam adjuvabat consilium eorum, 
Also it was aiding the design of these, 



rem, 

the thing [plan], 



antiquitus, 
anciently, 

equitatu, 
with cavalry, 



quod Nervii 

because the Nervii 

quum possent (imp. subj.) nihil 

since they were able (to do) nothing 

(?nim n^que ad hoc tempus 

(for neither to this time 



rSi, sed, quidquid possunt, 
thing, but, (in) whatever they are able. 



student 6i 

are they zealous for this 

vS^lent pedestribus copTis,) quo impedirent 
they are strong in foot forces,) that they might hinder 



facilms 
more easily 

ad 
to 



60s 
them 



mcisis 
being cut 



equitatum finitimorum, si venissent 

the cavalry of (their) neighbors, if they might come 

causa praedandi, ten^ris arboribus 

for the sake of robbing, pliant trees 

inflexis, que crebris ramis 

bent in, and thick boughs 



atque 
and 



enatis 
having sprouted forth 

que sentibus 
and 



in latitudinem, et rubis 

into breadth [sidewise], and brambles 



interjectis, 



efFecgrant, 



ut 
that 



thorns having been cast between, they had brought to pass, 
hae saepes praeberent (imp. subj.) munimenta 



these hedges were affording 



fortifications 



108 



The Commentaries of Ccssar. 



BOOK U 



instar 

like 

non 

not 

Quum 
When 



muri ; qu5 
a wall; where 

intrari, 

to be entered, 



sed 

but 



posset (imp. subj.) non m5do 
it was possible not only 

ne perspici'*'* quidem. 

not to be seen throuirh even. 



iter 
the march 



nostri 
of our 



ajj^mniis 
army 



impediretur 
should be hindered 



( 



imp. su 



bj.) 



his 
by these 

existimaverunt consilium 
thought the advice 

sibi (dat.). 
[neglected] by themselves. 

18. Haec &rat natura 

This was the nature 



rebus NervTi 

things [conditions] the Nervii 

non omittendum 

(must) not (to) be omitted 



l5ci, 
of the place, 



nostri deleg^rant castris. Collis 

(our) men had chosen for camp. A hill 



quem 
which 

aequaliter 

equally 



declivis ab summo vergebat ad 

sloping from the highest (point) was receding to 

flumen Sabim, quod nominavTrnus supra: 

the river Sabis iSambre], which we have named [mentioned] above: 



ab 

from 



60 
this 



flu mine 
river 



pan 

with equal 



acclivitate 
ascent 



nascebatur 

was rising 



adversus et contrarius huic, 
opposite and facing this. 



(portion) 
silvestris 



circiter 

about 



ducentos 

two hundred 



pass us 

paces 



collis 
a hill 

infimus 
the lowest 

apertus, 
clear. 



superiore 
the higher 



(being) 
parte ; ut posset (imp. 



perspici 



">art: so that it was possible 
facile introrsus. ^ Intra 



within. 



ab 

woody from [on] 

subj.) non 

not to be seen through [to see] easily 

^as silvas hostes 

these woods the enemy 

occulto. In aperto loco, secundum 

secret [hiding] . In the open place, near [along] 

paucae stationes equTtum videbantur. 
a few pickets of horsemen were seen. 

flumlnis ^rat circiter trium pedum. 
of the river was about (of) three feet. 



Inside 



continebant > se in 

were holding themselves in 

flumen, 
the river, 

Altitude 
The depth 



BOOK II 



On the Gallic War, 



109 



19. Caesar, equitatu praemisso, subsequebatur 

Caesar, the cavalry having been sent before, was following closely 

omnibus copTis : sed ratio que ordo 

with all (his) forces; but the manner and order 

agminis habebat se aliter ac 

of the marching line was keeping itself otherwise and [than] 

Belffae detul^rant ad Nervios. Nam, 

the Belgae had carried [reported] to the Nervii. For» 

qu5d hostis appropinquabat, Caesar sua 

because the enemy was approaching, Caesar by his 

consuetudlne ducebat sex expeditas legiones : 
custom was leading six light armed legions: 

collocabat impedimenta 

he was putting the baggage 

inde duae legiones, 

then (the) two legions, 

claudebant 



post 

after [behind] 



totius 
of the whole 



6a s 
these 

exercitus ; 

army; 



quae 

which 

totum 
the whole 



conscriptae-grant 
had been enrolled 



proxime, 

last, 



agmen, 



impedimentis. 
to the baggage. 



line of march, 

Nostri 



que 

and 



grant 

were 



were closing up 

praesidio 
(for) a safeguard 



que 
and 



toribus 
slingers 

commiserunt 
joined 

Quum illi 
When they 



Our 

sagittariis 
archers 



equites 
horsemen 



cum 

with 



transgressi 
having passed 



fundi- 
the 

flumen, 
the river, 



proelium 
battle 



cum 

with 



se 

themselves 



in 

into 



identidem 
now and then 

silvas 
the woods 



ad 
to 



equitatu hostium. 
the cavalry of the enemy. 

recipSrent (imp. subj.) 

were betaking 

suos, ac 

their (men), and 



in nostros 
upon our (men) 



rursus 
again 

ex 

out of 



facgrent (imp. subj) impetum 
were making an attack 

silva; neque nostri auderent (imp. subj.) insgqui 
the wood ; nor our (men) were daring to pursue 

cedentes longms, quam ad quern finem 
(those) yielding farther, than to which end [the limit] 

l6ca pertinebant : 



porrecta 

the extended 



ac 
and 



aperta 
open 



places 



were reaching : 



110 The Commentaries of Ccesar. BOOK li 

interim sex legiones, quae vengrant primae, 

meanwhile the six lejfions, which had come first, 

op^re dimenso, coeperurit munire castra. 

the work having been measured, began to fortify (the) camp. 

Ubi prima impedimenta nostri exercitus visa- 
When the first baggage wagons of our army were 

sunt ab eis, qui latebant abditi in silvis, 
seen by these, who were lying concealed in the woods, 

quod tempus conven^rat inter 60s 

which time had been agreed upon between them 

committendi proelium : ut constitu^rant intra 
of [for] joining battle : as they liad stationed within 

silvas aciem que ordines, atque 

the woods the battle line and ranks, and 

ipsi confirmav^rant sese/^ subito 

they themselves had encouraged themselves, suddenly 

provolaverunt omnibus copiis, que fecerunt 

they flew forth with all (their) forces [troops], and made 

impetum in nostros equites. His pulsis 

an attack upon our horsemen. These having been routed 

facile ac proturbatis, decucurrerunt incredibili 
easily and disordered, they ran dow^n, w-ith incredible 

celeritate ad flumen; ut paene uno temp6re 
speed to the river ; so that almost at one time 

hostes viderentur (imp. subj.) et ad silvas, 

the enemy were seen both at the woods, 

et in flumine, et jam in nostris 

and in the river, and now in our 

manibus. Autem contenderunt eadem 

hands [close at hand]. But they hastened with the same 

celeritate adverso colle ad nostra castra, atque 60s 
speed on the opposite hill to our camp, and (to) these 

qui 6rant occupati in op6re. 
who were occupied in the work. 

20. Omnia 6rant ajrenda Caesilri (dat.) uno 

All (things) were to be acted [managed] by Ca?sar atone 

tempore: vexillum proponendum, cpiod ?rat 
time: the stiindard to [must] be set up, which was 



BOOK II On the Gallic War, 111 

insigne, quum opporteret concurri (passive verb) 
the sign, when it was proper to make a rush 

ad arma : signum dandum tuba : 

to arms : the signal to [must] be given with the trumpet: 

milites revocandi ab op^re : qui 

the soldiers to [must] be recalled from the work : (those) who 

processSrant paulo longTus, causa agggris 

had proceded a little farther, for the sake of the rampart 

petendi arcessendi, acies 

[materials] to [must] be sought, to [must] be summoned, the line 

instruenda : milTtes cohortandi : 

(of battle) to [must] be arranged : the soldiers to [must] be exhorted : 

signum dandum. Magnam partem quarum rerum 

the signal to [raust]be given. A great part of which things 

brevitas temp6ris, et successus et incursus 
the shortness of the time, and the approach and charge 

hostium impediebat (sing.). Duae res ^rant subsidio 

of the enemy were hindering. Two things were (for) an aid 

his difficultatibus, scientia atque usus 

to these difficulties, the knowledge and experience 

militum, quod, exercitati superioribus 

of the soldiers, because, having been exercised informer 

proeliis, pot^rant ipsi praescrib^re 

battles, they were able themselves to prescribe [assign] 

sibi quid oporteret fi^ri, non minus 

to themselves what was proper to be done, not less 

comm5de quam doceri ab aliis : 

conveniently [fitly], than to be shown by others; 

et quod Caesar vetu^rat singulos legates 
and because Caesar had forbidden the several lieutenants 

disced^re ab op$re que singulis legionibus, 

to depart from the work and (their) several legions, 

nisi castris (pi.) munitis. Hi, propter 

unless the camp having been [was] fortified. These, on account of 

propinquitatem et celeritatem hostium, 

the nearness and swiftness of the enemy, 

spectabant nihil jam imperium CaesSris; 

were awaiting not at all now the command of Caesar; 



112 The Commentaries of Ccssar. BOOK II 

sed per se, administrabant quae 

but by themselves, were managing what (things) 

videbantur. 
seemed (best). 

21. Necessartis rebus imperatis, Caesar 

The necessary things having been commanded, Caesar 

decucurrit ad cohortandos'^ milites in partem, 

ran down for exhorting (to exhort) the soldiers into the part, 

quam fors obttilit; et devenit ad decTmam 
which chance presented ; and came down to the tenth 

legionem. Cohortatus-est milTtes non longiore 
legion. He exhorted the soldiers not witli longer 

oratione, quam uti retinerent memoriam 

speech, than that they should retain the memory 

suae pristinae virtutis, neu perturbarentur animo 
of their former valor, nor should be confused in mind 

que sustinerent fortiter imp&tum hostlum ; 

and should sustain bravely the attack of the enemy ; 

et, quod hostes ab^rant non longius, 

and, because the enemy were distant not farther, 

quam quo telum posset adjTci, dedit 

than where a weapon might be able [could] (to) be cast, he gave 

sijrnum committendi^^ proelTi atque profectus 

the signal of [for] joining battle and having set out 

item in alteram partem, causa cohortandi, 
likewise into another part, for the sake of exhorting, 

occurrit pugnantibus. Tanta fiiit exig- 

he meets (them) fighting. So great [such] was the brief- 

uitas temporis, que tam paratus animus hostium 
ness of the time, and so prepared the mind of the enemy 

ad dimicandum, ut tempus defu^rit (perf. subj ;) 
for battling, that time failed 

non modo ad accommodanda insiofnia, 

not only for fitting on the ensigns [badges], 

sed etiam ad induendas gal^as, que detrahenda 
but even for putting on the helmets, and (for) drawing off 

52 T 

tegmenta scutis. In quam partem 

the coverings from the shields. Into what [whatever] part 



BOOK II On the Gallic War. 113 

quisque devenit casu ab op§re, que 

each v^ came down by chance from the work, and 

quae signa conspexit prima, constitit 

what (whatever) standards he beheld first, he took stand 

ad haec, ne dimitt^ret tempus pugnandi 

at these, lest he mi {?ht let pass [lose] the time of fighting 

in quaerendo siios. 

in seeking his own (comrades). 

22. ExercTtu instructo, magis ut natura 

The army having been drawn up, rather as the nature 

loci que dejectus collis, et necessitas 

of the place and the declivity of the hill, and the necessity 

temporis postulabat (sing.), quam ut ratio 

of the time were requiring, than as [according to] the plan 

atque ordo militaris r6i (sing.); quum aliae 

and arrangement of military affairs; since some 

legiones in alia parte resistgrent (imp. 

legions in one part (others in another) were resisting 

subj.) hostibus (dat.) diversis locis, que densissTmis 
the enemy in different places, and very thick 

sepibus interjectis, ut demonstravimus 

hedges having been interposed [intervening], as we have shown 

ante, prospectus impediretur (imp. subj.): ngque 
before, the view was impeded: neither 

certa subsidia pot^rant collocari, nSque 

sure reserves were able [could] (to) be placed, nor 

provideri, quid esset opus in quaque 
(to) [could it] be foreseen, what might be needful in each 

parte ; ngque omnia imperia administrari 

part ; nor all the orders to [could] be managed [given] 

53 T 

ab uno. Itaque, in tanta iniquitate 

by one. Therefore, in so great an irregularity 

rerum, varii eventus fortunae quoque sequebantur. 
of things, various events of fortune also were following. 

23. Milites nonae et decTmae legionis, 
The soldiers of the ninth and tenth legions, 

ut constitgrant in sinistra parte acie, 

as they had stood in the left part of the battle line, (their) 



114 TJie Co)}inicntarits oi Ccczar. BOOK I] 

pilis eniissis, celenter compulerunt ex 

javelins having been thrown, quickly lorced from 

superiore l6co in flumen Atrebates, (nam 

tlie higher place into the river the Atrebates, (for 

^a pars obvenerat bis) exaniniatos cursu 

this part had fallen to these) exhausted Ispentl with running 

ac lassitudine, (pie confectos vulnerlbus ; 

and fatigue, and worn out with wounds; 

et insecuti f?ladiis conantes 

and having pursued (them) with swords endeavoring 

transire, interfecerunt mig-nam partem eorum 

to cross over, they killed a great part of them 

impeditam. Ipsi dubitaverunt non transire 

encumbered. They hesitated not to cross 

flumen ;' et progressi in iniquum l6cum, 

the river; and having advanced into an unfavorable place, 

conjecerunt in fiigam liostes rursus resistentes, 
cast into flight the enemy again resisting, 

proelio redintegrate. Item in alia parte, duae 
the battle having been renewed Also in another part, two 

diversae legiones, undecima et octava, Verom- 
different legions, the eleventh and eighth, the Verom- 

andiiis profligatis, cum quibus congressi-?rant, 

andui having been routed, with whom they had joined, 

proeliabantur ex superiore l6co in ripis 

were fighting from the higher place in [on] the banks 

ipsis fluminis.^^ At totis castris(pl.) 

themselves [the very banksl of the river. But the whole camp 

ftre nudatis a fronte et a sinistra 

nearly being exposed from [on] the front and from [on] the left 

parte, cum duodecima legio et septima 

part [side], when the twelfth legion and the seventh 

non magno intervallo ab ?a, constitisset 
not at a great distance from it. had taken stand 

(pi. perf. subj.) in dextro cornu, omnes Nevii 

upon the right wing, all the Nervii 

confertissimo agmtne duce Boduognato, 

in closest marching line the leader (being) Boduognatus, 



BOOK II 



On the Gallic War. 



115 



qui 
who 

ad 

to 



tenebat 

was holding 



summam 
the chief place 



imperil, 
of command. 



§um l6cum : pars quorum coepit 

this place : part of whom began 

legiones aperto latere pars 

the legions (on) the open flank, part 



ccntenderunt 
hastened 

circumvenire 
to surround 

pet6re 

to seek [attack] 



l6cum 
place [portion 

Eodem temp5re 
At the same time 



summum 
the highest 

24. 

pedTtes l6vis armaturae 
infantry 

cum his. 

with these, whom I had said 



castrorum. 

of the camp. 



nostri 
our 



equTtes 
cavalry 



que 

and 



l6vis 
of light 



armor, 
quos dix^ram 



qui 

who 



imp6tu 
attack 



hostium, 
of the enemy. 



se m 

themselves into 

adversis ac 

opposite and 



castra, 
camp, 

rursus 
again 



fu6rant una 

had been [were] together 

pulsos(-esse) primo 

to have [had] been routed in the first 

cum recipgrent (imp. subj.) 

when they were betaking 

occurrebant hostibus (dat.) 
were meeting the enemy 



petebant 

were seeking 



fugam in 

flight into 



alTam 
another 



partem. Et calones, qui conspex6rant a 

part [direction]. And the camp followers, who had beheld from 

Decumana porta, ac summo jugo collis 
the Decuman gate, and the highest ridge of the hill 

nostros victores transire flumen, egressi 

our (men) conquerors (to) cross the river, having gone out 

causa praedandi, quum respexissent (pi. perf. 

for the sake of plundering, when they had looked.back 

subj.) et vidissent (pi. perf. subj.) 

and had seen 



in 
in 



hostes 

the enemy (to be) 

castris, praecipites mandabant 
camp, headlong were consigning 

simul clamor que 

at the same time the shout and 

fremitus eorum qui veniebant 
~^ uproar of those who were coming 

alii perterriti ferebantur in alTam 
some dismayed were borne into one 



versari 

engaged 

sese 
themselves 



oriebatur, 
was arising. 



nostris 
our 

fiigae : 
to flight: 



que 
and 



cum impedimentis 

with the baggage wagons 



IIG The Conujioitarics of Ccesar. BOOK II 

partem.'" Omnibus (luTbus rebus Trevlri 

part (others into aiiotlier). Hj all wliich [these] things, the Trevirian 

equTtes permoti, virtutis quorum est 

cavalry having been alarmed, of the valor of whom there is 

sino^ularis opinio inter Gallos, qui 

a singular [very high] opinion among tlie Gauls, who 

missi causa auxilTi a civitate, 

(having been) sent for the sake of aid by the state, 

vengrant ad Caesarem, quum vidissent (pi. perf. subj.) 
had come to Ca>sar, when they had seen (that) 

nostra castra compleri multitudine hostlum, 

our camp to be [was] tilled with a multitude of the. enemy 

legiones pr§mi, et teneri 

(that) the legions to be [were] pressed. and to be [were] held 

paene circumventas, calones, equTtes, 

almost surrounded, (that) the camp followers, the cavalry, 

Numidas funditores, diversos que dissipatos 
the Numidian slingers. separated and scattered 

fufi'^re in omnes partes, nostris rebus 

to flee [were fleeing] into all parts, our affairs 

disperatis, contendcrunt domum ; renuntiaverunt 
being despaired of, hastened home ; they announced 

civitati, Romanos pulsos que 

to the state (that) the Romans (had been) routed and 

superatos, hostes potitos eorum^^ 

overcome, (that) the enemy to have [had] got possession of their 

castris que impedimentis (abl.). 
camp and baggage. 

25. Caesar profectus ab cohortatione 

Caesar having set out from the exhortation 

decTmae leffionis ad dextrum cornu, ubi vidit 
of the tenth legion to the right wing, where he saw 

stios urgeri, que sin^nis 

his (men) to be [were] pressed hard, and the standards 

collatis in unum l5cum, milTtes 

having been assembled into one place, the soldiers 

duodecimae leoionis confertos esse 

of the twelfth legion to have been [were] crowded together 



BOOK II On the Gallic War. 117 

impedimento sTbi ipsis ad pugnam, omnibus 

for [as] an impediment to themselves for the battle, all 

centurionibus quartae cohortis occisis, que 

the centurions of the fourth cohort having been killed, and 

signifgro interfecto, signo 

the standard bearer (having been) slain, the standard 

amisso, fere omnibus centurionibus 

(having been) lost, almost all the centurions 

reliquarum cohortium, aut vulneratis aut 

of the remaining cohorts, either having been wounded or 

occisis, in his primopilo PublTo Sextio 

killed, in [among] these the first centurion Publius Sextius 

Baculo, fortissimo viro, confecto multis 

Baculus, a very brave man, (having been) worn out with many 

que gravibus vulneribus, ut jam non 

and heavy [severe] wounds, (so) that now he was not 

posset (imp. subj.) sustinere se; reliquos 

able to support himself; the rest 

esse tardiores, et nonnullos desertos a 

to be [were] more slow, and some (being) deserted by 

novissTmis exced^re proelTo, ac 

the rear to depart [were withdrawing] from the battle, and 

vitare tela ; hostes ngque 

to avoid [were avoiding] the weapons; (that) the enemy neither 

intermittSre, subeuntes a fronte ex 

to intermit [ceased], advancing on the front from 

inferiore l6co, et instare ab 

the lower place [ground], and to press [pressed] on from [at] 

utroque latere, et rem esse in 

each flank, and (that) the affair to be [was] in 

angusto, ngque esse uUum subsid- 

a narrow [critical state], nor to be [was there] any reinforce- 

Tum, quod posset submitti ; scuto 

ment, which might be able [could] (to) be sent up; (with) a shield 

detracto (abl. abs.) uni milTti(dat.) 

(having been) snatched away from one soldier 

ab novissimis (quod ipse ven^rat ^5 

from [in] the latest [rear] (because (he) himself had come there 



118 The Commentaries of Ccesai-. BOOK ii 

sine scuto) processit in primam acTem ; 

without a shield) he advanced into the first battle line; 

que centurionlbus appellatis nominatim, 

and the centurions having been called by name, 

cohortatus relTquos, jussit milites inferre 
having encouraged tlie rest, he ordered the soldiers to bear on 

signa, et laxare manipiilos, quo 

the standards, and to loosen [open] the companies, in order that 

possent uti gladiis (abl.) facilius. Spe 

they might be able to use tlie swords more easily, Hope 

illata militibus ejus, adventu ac 

having been brought in to the soldiers by his, arrival and 

ammo (sing.) redintegrato, quum quisque 

(their) spirits having been renewed, since every one 

pro se cuperet (imp. subj.) navare op^ram 

for himself was desiring to ply [do well] (his) task 

in conspectu Imperatoris, etiam in suis 
in the sight of the General, even in his 

extremis rebus, impetus hostium tardatus-est 
most critical affairs, the violence of the enemy was retarded 
IV 59 

paulum. 
a little. 

26. Quum Caesar vidisset (pi. perf. subj.) septlmam 

When Caesar had seen (that) the seventh 

legionem, quae constit^rat juxta, urgeri 

legion, which had stood near, to be [was] pressed 

item ab hoste, monuit tribunos militum, 

likewise by the enemy, he advised the tribunes of the soldiers, 

ut legiones conjung&rent sese paullatim, et 
that the legions should join themselves gradually, and 

inferrent signa conversa in hostes. 

should bear on the standards turned against the enemy. 

Quo facto, quum alii ferrent (imp. subj.) 

Which having been done when some were bringing 

subsidium aliis n^que timerent (imp. 

aid to some (others to others) nor were fearing 

subj.)^^ ne aversi circumvenirentur 

lest having been turned about they might be surrounded 



BOOK 11 On the Gallic War. 119 

ab hoste, coeperunt resist^re audacms ac 
by the enemy, they began to resist more boldly and 

pugnare fortius. Interim milites duarum 

to fight more bravely. Meanwhile the soldiers of the two 

legionum, quae fu^rant in novissTmo agmlne 
legions, which had been in the rear marching line 

praesidTo impedimentis, proelio nuntiato, 

for protection to the baggage, the battle having been reported, 

cursu incitato, conspiciebantur in 

(their) course having been increased, were beheld on 

summo colle (abl.) ab liostibus : et 

the highest [the summit] (of the) hill by the enemy : and 

Titus Labienus potitus castris (abl.) hostium, 

Titus Labienus having possessed the camp of the enemy, 

et conspicatus ex superiore l5co, quae res 
and having beheld from the higher place, what things 

g^ererentur (imp. subj.) in nostris castris, misit 
were transpiring in our camp, sent 

decimam legionem subsidio nostris; qui 

the tenth legion for [as] aid to our (men) ; who 

quum cognovissent (pi. perf. subj) ex fuga 

when they had ascertained from the flight 

equTtum et calonum, in quo l5co 

of the cavalry and of the camp followers in what place [condition] 

res esset (imp. subj.), que quanto 

the affair [action] was, and in how great 

periculo et castra et legiones et 

danger both camp, and the legions and 

Imperator versaretur, fecerunt nihil 

the Commander were involved, made [left] nothing 

relTqui (gen.) sTbi ad celeritatem. 

left [wanting] to themselves for speed. 

27. Tanta commutatTo rerum facta-est 

So great a change of things [conditions] was made 

adventu horum, ut nostri etiam qui 

by the arrival of these, that our (men) even those who 

procubuissent (pi. perf. subj.) confecti vulneribus, 
had lain doAvn spent with wounds, 



120 The Commentaries of Ccesar. BOOK II 

innixi scutis (dat.)? redintegrarent (imp. subj.) 

having leaned on the shields, were renewing 

proelium. Turn calones conspicati 

the battle. Then the camp followers having beheld 

hostes perterritos, etiam inermes occurr^rent 
the enemy dismayed, even unarmed were assailing 

(imp. subj.) armatis : equites ver5, 

the armed (enemy) : the cavalry indeed, 

ut delerent turpitudmem fugae virtute, 

that they might blot out the disgrace of flight by valor, 

pugnabant in omnibus locis, qu5 prae- 

were fighting in all places, in order that they might 

ferrent se legionariis militibus 

show better themselves than [might surpass] the legionary soldiers. 

(dat.). At hostes, etiam in extrema 

But the enemy, even in the extreme [last] 

spe salutis, praestiterunt tantam virtutem, ut, 
hope of safety, displayed so great valor, that, 

quum primi eorum cecidissent proximi 
when the first of them had fallen the nearest [next] 

insist6rent jacentibus, atque pugnarent 

would stand upon (those) lying prostrate, and would fight 

ex eorum corporibus : his dejectis, 

from their bodies : these having been thrown down, 

et cadav6ribus coacervatis qui 

and the dead bodies having been heaped up (those) who 

superessent, conjicerent tela in nostros ut 
survived, would hurl weapons upon our (men) as 

ex tumulo, que remitt6rent intercepta 

from a mound, and would return the intercepted 

pila : ut deberet (imp. subj.) judicari non 

javelins : so that it ought to be judged (that) not 

nequidquam homines tantae virtutis ausos-esse 

in vain men of so great valor (to have) [bad] dared 

transire latissimum flumen, ascendfire altissimas 
to cross a very broad river, to ascend very high 

ripas, subire iniquissimum l(5cum : quae 

banks, to mount a most unfavorable place : wtiich (Uiings) 



BOOK II 



On the Gallic War. 



121 



maffnitudo 
a greatness 



anlmi 
of soul 



redegCrat 

had rendered 



facilTa 
easy 



ex 
from 



difficilimis. 
the most difficult (conditions). 

28. Hoc proello facto, 



ac 

and 



et gente 

This battle having been done [fought], and the nation 

nomine Nerviorum redacto pr^pe ad 

name oftheNervii having been reduced nearly to 



internecionem : 
extermination: 



quod 
whom 

cum 

with 



dixeramus 

we had said 



majores natu, 

(those) greater by birth [the elders], 

collectos^'^ una 

to have (had been] collected together 



pu6ris 
the boys 



que 

and 



mulierlbus 
women 



in 

into [among[ 



aestuaria 
the inlets 



ac paludes, hac 

and marshes, this 



pugna 
battle 



nuntiata, 

having been reported. 



quum 
when 



arbitrarentur (imp. subj.) 
they were considering (that) 

victorlbus, nlliil 

for the conquerors, nothing 



nihil 

nothing 

tutum 

safe 



impeditum 

was difficult 

victis ; 
for the conquered : 



consensu 
by consent 

legatos 

ambassadors 

se 
themselves 



[recounting], 

sese 
themselves 



omnium, qui super^rant, miserunt 

of all, (those) who survived, sent 



ad 

to 

?i: 

to him: 



CaesS^rem 
Caesar 



et 

and 



in 

in 



ad 

to 



tres 
three 



calamitate 
the calamity 

esse 
to be [were] 

senatores ; 
senators ; 



civitatis 
of the state 

redactos 
reduced 



que dediderunt 

and surrendered 

commemoranda, 
to be recounted 

dixerunt : 
they said (that they): 



ex 

from 



ex 

from 



sexaginta 
sixty 



homlnum, 
(of) men. 



ad 
to 



VIX 

scarcely 



quingentos, 
five-hundred. 



qui 
who 



ferre 
to bear 

isslme, 
fully, 



arma ; 
arms; 

que 
and 



quos 
whom 



Caesar 
Casar 



conservavit 
preserved 



jussit utl 

commanded (them) to use 



sexcentis 

six-hundred 

millla 
thousand 

possent 
were able 

diligent- 
most care- 

siiis 
their own 



122 



The Commentaries of Ccssar. 



BOOK II 



finlbus atque oppTdis, 
territories and towns, 

misericordia (abl.) in 
compassion toward 



ut 

that 



videretur 
he might seem 



et 
and 



imperavit 
ordered 



misgros ac 
the wretched and 

finitimis (dat.) ut 
the neighbors that 



to have used 

suppl!ces ; 
suppliant; 



prohiberent 

they should check 



se 

themselves 



que 

and 



stios ab injuria et 

their own (people) from injury and 



scripsimus 
we have w^ritten 



supra, 
above, 



maleficlo. 
trouble (to them). 

29. Aduatuci, de quibus 
The Aduatuci, of w^hom 

venirent (imp. subj.) omnibus copTis 

they came with all (their) forces 

auxilio Nerviis, hac 

for aid to the Nervii, this 

reverterunt d6mum ex itinSre ; cunctis 

returned home from the march ; all 



quum 
when 



pugna 
battle 



nuntiata, 
having been reported, 



oppidis que castellis desertis, contulerunt 

the towns and fortresses having been deserted, they brought together 



omnia 

all 



sua 
their (effects) 



in 

into 



munitum natura : 

fortified by nature : 

(imp. subj.) altissimas 

very high 



unum 
one 

quum 

since 

rupes 

rocks 



oppidum 
town 

quod 

which [this] 

que 
and 



egregie 

excellently 

habere 

had 

despectus 
outlooks 



ex omnibus 

from [on] all 



partibus 
parts [sides] 



in 

in 



67 



circuitu, 
compass [round about], 



adltus 
an approach 



una 

one 

in 
in 



parte, 

side. 



leniter 
gently 

non 

not 



acclivis 

sloping 



relinquebatur, 
was left, 



ex 

from [on] 



latitudinem : 
breadth : 



quem 
which 



altsstmo 
with a very high 



saxa 
stones 



magni 
of great 



amplius ducentis p§dum 

more (than) two hundred (of) feet 

l6cum munigrant 

place they had fortified 

muro : tum collocarant 
wall : besides they had placed 

et praeacutas tribes 
and sharpened beams 



duplTci 
double 

pond6ris 
weight, 



BOOK II On the Gallic War, 123 

in muro. Ipsi grant prognati ex Cimbris 
on the wall. They were descended from the Cimbri 

que Teut5nis : qui, quum fac6rent (imp. subj.) 
and Teutones: who, when they were making 

Iter in nostram ProvincTam atque Itallam, 
(their) march into our Province and Italy, 

his impedimentis (pl.)> quae pot^rant non 

this baggage, which they were able not 

aggre ac portare secum, deposltis 

to bring and to carry with them, having t)een deposited 

citra flumen Rhenum, reliquerunt una 

on this side the river Rhine, they left together 

sex millla homlnum ex siiis custodTam 

six thousand (of) men from [of] their own as a guard 

ac praesidlum. Hi, post obltum 

and protection. These [the latter], after the destruction 

eorum, exagitati multos annos a 

of those, having been harassed many years by 

finitlmis, quum alias inferrent (imp. subj.) 

(their) neighbors, when sometimes they were waging 

bellum, alias defend^rent (imp. subj.) illatum, 

war, at other times were repelling (it) (when) waged, 

pace facta consensu omnium, delegerunt 

a peace having been made by consent of all, chose 

hunc l6cum domicilio. 
this place for an abode. 

30. Ac primo adventu nostri exercltus. 

And at the first approach of our army, 

faciebant crebras excursiones ex oppldo, 

they were making frequent sallies from the town, 

que contendebant parvfilis proeliis cum 

and were contending in trifling battles with 

nostris. Post6a circummuniti vallo 

our (men). Afterwards having been fortified around with a rampart 

duodgcim p6dum, quind^cim millium in 

of twelve feet, fifteen thousand (feet) in 

circuitu, que crebris castellis, continebant 

compass, and with frequent fortresses, they were holdiny 



124 The Commentaj'ics of Ccesar. BOOK ii 

sese oppTdo. L hi, viiu'i.s actis, 

themselves in the town. When, the sheds liaving been driven on, 

agg^re exstructo, viderunt turrim constitiii 

a mound Imvinj? Ix'en constructed, thoy saw a tower (to be) erected 

pr5cul, primum irridere ex 

at a distance, (they began) first to mock from 

muro atque increpitare vocibus : quo 

the wall and to call out with voices [cries] : wherefore 

tanta machinatio institueretur ab tanto 

so great a machine was constructed from [at] so great 

spatio ! quibusnam manibus, aut quibus 

a space [distance] ! with what hands, or with what 

viribus, confid^rent sese collocare 

forces, did they trust (that they) themselves to [would] place 

turrim tanti on^ris in muros, praesertim 
a tower of so great burden against the walls, especially 

homines tantiilae staturae, (nom nostra brevTtas 
men of so little statue, (for our shortness 

est contemptui plerisque Gallis hominibus, 

is (for) a contempt to most Gallic men, 

prae map^nitudiue suorum 

before [in comparison with] the hugeness of their own 

corporum). 

bodies). 

31. Vero ubi viderunt moveri, et 

But when they saw (it) (to be) moved, and 

appropinquare moen!bus, commoti n5va 

(to) approach (to) the walls, being alarmed by the new 

et inusitata specie, miserunt legatos ad 

and unusual sight, they sent ambassadors to 

CaesSrem de pace : qui locuti (-sunt) ad hunc 
Caesar about peace : who spoke to [after] this 

mddum : Se existimare Romanos 

manner : (They) themselves (to) think the Romans 

gerere bellum non sine 5pe deorum. 

(to) carry on war not without the assistance of the gods, 

qui possent promovere machinationes tantae 
who are able to move forward machines of so great 



BOOK II 



O71 the Gallic War. 



125 



altitudinis tanta celeritate, 
height with so great speed, 



propinquitate : 

n&arness [close quarters] : 



se 

themselves 

potestati 

power 



que 
and 



dixerunt 
they said 

omnia 
all 



et pugnare ex 
and to fight from [at] 

permitt6re 

(they) (to) give up 

sua eorum 

their (eflfects) to their 
70 



petgre ac deprecari unum," si 

to (they) seek and (to) beg one (thing), if 

pro sua dementia ac mansuetudine, quam 

for [according to] his clemency and mildness, which 

ipsi audissent (pi. perf. subj.) ab aliis, statuisset 



they had heard 

forte 
perchance 



Aduatucos 

the Aduatuci 



ne despoliaret se 

that he would not deprive themselves 



from others, he should decree that 

conservandos-esse, 
should be preserved, 

armis(abl.): omnes 

of arms: all 



finitimos f6re 

the neighbors nearly 

invidere suae virtuti (dat.), 



esse 

to be [are] 



inimicos sibi, ac 

hostile to themselves, and 



(to) envy 

non defendgre 
not (to) defend 

praestare 
to be [it is] better 

fortunam a 
fortune from 



their valor. 



a quibus 
from whom 



possent 
they could 



se, armis traditis ; 

themselves, (their) arms having been surrendered ; 



sibi 
for themselves 



p^ti 
to endure 



quamvis 
any 



Romano populo, 
the Roman people, 



in 

into 



6um 

this 



casum, 

calamity. 



quam 

than 



ab his inter 
by those among 

dominari. 

to rule. 

32. Caesar 
Caesar 



quos 
whom 



respondit 
answered 



si deducerentur 
if they should be led 

interfici 
to be slain 

consuessent (pi. perf. subj.) 

they had been accustomed 



per 

with 



cruciatum 
tor'^ure 



ad 

to 



haec : 

these (words) : 



Se 

He himself 



conservaturum 
about to [would] preserve 

consuetudine 
custom 



quam 
than 



civiratem 

the state 

eorum 
by their 



m^gis 
rather 



sua 
by his 



merito, 

merit [deserts]. 



Sl 
if 



126 The Commentaries of Ccesar. BOOK li 

dedidissent se, prius-quam arTes 

they should surrender themselves, before (that) the battering ram 

attigisset murum : sed esse nullam 

should toueh the wall: but to be (there was] no 

conditionem deditionis, nisi armis tradl- 

condition of surrender, unless the arms having been 

tis: se facturum'^ id, quod 

[were] delivered up: (he) himself about to [would] do that, which 

fecisset (pi. perf. subj.) in Nervios ; que 

he had done to theNervii; and 

imperaturum finitimis (dat.)> ne-inferrent 

about to [would] order the neighbors, that they should not inflict 

quam injuriam dedititiis (dat.) Romani 

any injury upon the surrendered (subjects) of the Roman 

popiili. Re nuntiata ad sGos, illi 

people. The matter having been reported to their own (people), they 

dixerunt se fac&re, quae imperarentur. 

said (that they) themselves to [would] do, what was ordered. 

Magna multitudine armorum jacta de 

A great multitude of arms having been thrown from 

muro in fossam, quae ?rat ante oppldum, 

the wall into the ditch, which was before the town, 

sic ut acervi armorum adaequarent (imp. subj.) 
so that the heaps of arms were equalling 

prope summam altitudinem muri que 

nearly the highest [greatest] height of the wall and 

agg^ris : et tamen circTter tertia parte 

of the mound: and yet about a third part 

celata, (ut perspectum-est post6a,) 

having been concealed, (as was ascertained afterwards,) 

atque retenta in oppido, portis 

and having been retained in the town, the gates 

patefactis, usi-sunt pace (abl.) 

having been thrown open, they used [obtained] peace 

^o die. 

on that day. 

33. Sub vesp6rum Caesar jussit portas 

Towards evening Caesar ordered the gates 



BOOK II 



On the Gallic War. 



127 



claudi, 
to be shut, 



que 

and 



ne 

lest 



oppidani 
the townsmen 



milites 

the soldiers 

accipgrent 

might receive 



exire 

to go out 

quam 
any 



ex 

from 



oppldo, 
the town. 



injunam 
injury 



a 

from 



militibus noctu. Illi, consilio 

the soldiers by night. They, a plan 

intellectum-est, quod, 
it was understood, because, 

credidfirant nostros 

they had believed our (men) 



Ut 
as 



ante, 
before, 

facta, 
having been made, 

inducturos 
about to [would not] introduce 



inito 
having been formed 

deditione 
the surrender 



non 

not 



praesidia, 
garrisons, 



aut 
or. 



servaturos indiligenttus : partim 
[would] watch somewhat carelessly : partly 



cum 
with 



denique 
finally, 

his 
these 



armis, quae retinu6rant 

arms, which they had retained 

partim scutis factis ex 

partly with shields made from 



et 

and 

cortTce, 

barks. 



celavgrant, 
had concealed, 



aut 
or 



intextis 

woven 



viminibus, 

twigs, 

(ut 

(as 



quae 
which 



exiguitas 

the briefness 



induxgrant 
they had overlaid 

postulabat), 

was demanding). 



temp6ris 

of the time 



eruptionem 
a sally 

copiis, 
the forces. 



repente 
unexpectedly 



ex 
from 



pellibus sublto 
with hides suddenly 

fecerunt 
(they) made 

oppTdo omnibus 
the town with all 



tertia 
in the third 



vigilia, 
watch, 



qua 

where 



ascensus 
the ascent 



nostros 
our 



munitiones 
fortifications 



videbatur 

was seeming 



minime 

least 



ad 

to 

ardtius. 
difficult. 



Significatione facta celeriter ignibus, ut Caesar 

A signal having been made quickly by fires, as Caesar 



imperavgrat 
had ordered 

proximis 
the nearest 

hostibus^^ 
the enemy 

a fortibus 



ante, 
before, 

castellis ; 
fortresses ; 

!ta 
so 



concursum-est go ex 

it was [they] run together there from 

pugnatum (-est) ab 

it was fought by 

acriter, ut debuit 
vigorously, as it ought 



que 

and 



pugnan 

to be fought 



by 



brave 



viris 
men 



in 
in 



extrema 
the last 



spe 
hope 



salutis, 
of safety, 



128 The Conimentarics of Cccsar. BOOK II 

iniquo loco, contra ?os, qui jac^rent 

in an unfavorable place, ajrainst those, who were casting 

(imp. SLibj.) tela ex vallo que turnbus, quum 
weapons from a rampart and towers, when 

omnis spes salutis consist(!^ret (imp. subj.) in 
all hope of safety was resting in 

virtute una. Ad quartuor mill!bus homlnum 
valor alone. About four thousand (of) men 

occisis, relTqui rejecti-sunt in oppTdum. 

having been killed the rest were thrown back into the town. 

PostridTe ejus diei(gen.), portis refractis, 

The day after this day, the gates having been broken down, 

quum nemo jam defend^ret (imp. subj.), atque 
when no one now was defending, and 

nostris militibus intromissis, Caesar vendidit 

our soldiers having been sent within, Caesar sold 

universam sectionem ejus oppTdi. Numfrus 

the entire section [booty] of this town. The number 

quinquaginta trium millium capitum relatus-est 

of fifty three thousand (of) heads [souls] was reported 

ad eum ab his qui em^rant. 
to h m by those who had bought (them). 

34. Eodem tempore factus-est certTor 

At the same time he was made more sure [was 

a Publio Crasso, quem mis&rat cum 
informed] by Publius Crassus, whom he had sent with 

una legione ad Ven?tos, Unellos, Osismios, 
one legion to the Veneti, Unelli, Osismii, 

Curiosolitas, EsuvTos, Aulercos, Redones, quae 
Curiosolitae, Esuvii, Aulerci, Redones, which 

sunt maritimae civitates, que attingunt Oceilnum, 
are maritime states, and touch on the ocean, 

omnes ?as civitates redactas-esse in 

(that) all those states to have [had] been reduced into 

ditionem que potestatem Romani popiili. 
the authority and power of tlie Roman people. 

35. His rebus gestis, omni Gallia 
These things having been accomplished, all Gaul 



BOOK II 



On the Gallic War. 



129 



pacata tanta opinio hujus belli 

having been subdued, so great an opinion of this war 

perlata-est ad barbaros, ut legati 

was carried to the barbarians, that ambassadors 

mitterentur (imp. subj.) ad Caesarem ab nationibus, 
were sent to Caesar by the nations, 



quae 
who 



daturas 
about to [would] give 



quae incolgrent (imp. subj.) trans Rhenum, 
which were dwelling across the Rhine, 

pollicerentur (imp. subj.) se 

were promising (that they) themselves 

obsTdes, facturas imperata : 

hostages, about to [and would] do (the things) commanded : 

legationes Caesar jussit reverti ad 

embassies Caesar commanded to return to 



proxxma 
(when) the next 

properabat 

he was hastening 



aestate inita, 

summer having begun [began], 

in Italiam, que Illyricum. 
into Italy, and Illyricum. 



quas 

which 

se, 

himself, 

quod 
because 

Ipse 

He himself 



profectus-est in Italiam, legionibus deductis 

set out into Italy, the legions having been conducted 



in 

into 



hiberna 

winter quarters 



m 

into [among] 



Carnutes, 
the Carnutes, 



TurSnes, 
Turones, 



quae 

which 



civitates 

states 



grant 
were 



l6cis, tibi gess^rat 
places, where he had carried on 



bellum. 



propinquae 

neighboring 

Ex 

From 



CaesS^ris, 
of Caesar, 

decreta-est 

was decreed 

accidgrat 
had happened 



supplicatTo 
a general thanksgiving 

ob 

on account of 



quindgcim 

(for) fifteen 



nuUi 
to no one 



ante 
before 



6a s 
these 

id 

this 



res : 

things : 

tempus. 
time. 



Andes, 

Andes, 

his 
to these 

litgris 
the letters 

dies 

days 

quod 
which 



130 The Commentaries of Ccssar. BOOK III 



THIRD BOOK 

This book describes tlie principal events of five wars which were 
carried on against the various nations of Gaul in the six hundred 
and ninety-eighth year after the founding of Rome, B. C. 56: the first, 
against the Nantuates, the Veragri and the Seduni, is successfully 
conducted by the lieutenant, Galba; the second, against the Veneti, 
though fought at a disadvantage by the Roman forces because of the 
position of the Venetic towns, finally ends through the strategy of 
Caesar, himself, in a naval engagement ; the third results in a victory 
by Titurius Sabinus, a lieutenant, over the Venelli, the Auberci, the 
Eburovices, and the Lexovii ; the fourth is conducted by Crassus 
against the Sotiates and other Aquitanian tribes, the greatest part 
of Aquitania being subdued ; and the fifth, Caesar's campaign against 
the Morini and the Menapii closes with the army entering into winter 
quarters after brilliantly repelling the offensive attack of the enemy. 

1. Quum Caesar proficisceretur (imp. subj.) in 

When Caesar was setting out into 

ItalTam, misit Sergium Galbam cum duodecTma 
Italy, he sent Sergius Galba with the twelfth 

legione et parte equitatus in Nantuates, 
legion, and part of the cavalry into the Nantuates, 

Veragros, que Sedunos ; qui pertinent a 
Veragri, and Seduni ; who reach [extend] from 

finibus Allobrogum, et lacu Lemanno 

the borders of the Allobroges, and the lake Lemannus 

et flumine Rhodano, ad summas 
and the river Rhone, to the highest [summit of the] 

Alpes. Causa mittendi ftiit, quod 

Alps. The cause of sending (him) was, because 

volebat iter patefi^ri per Alpes, 

he was desiring (that) the passage (to) be opened through the Alps, 

quo mercatores consuev6rant ire cum 

by which merchants had been accustomed to go with 



BOOK III 



On the Gallic War 



181 



magno periculo que 
great danger, and 

huic (dat.)> si 
him if 



magnis 
great 



arbitraretur 
he should think (it) 

titi collocaret legionem 
that he might place a legion 

causa hlemandi. Galba, 

for the sake of wintering. Galba, 



portoriis. 

tolls. 

esse 

to be [was] 



Permisit 
He permitted 

opus, 
necessary, 



in 

in 



lis 
these 

aliquot 

some 



l6eis, 
places, 

secundis 

successful 



proelTis factis, que complunbus eorum 

battles having been made [completed], and several of their 



missis 
having been sent 



castellis expugnatis, legatis 

strongholds having been stormed, ambassadors 

undique ad 6um, 
from every side to him, 

et pace facta, constituit collocare 

and peace having been made, resolved to place 

cohortes in NantuatTbus ; ipse liiemare 

cohorts in [among] the Nantuates; himself to winter 

rellquis cohortibus ejus legion is, in 
the remaining cohorts of this legion, in a village 

appellatur Octodurus: qui 
is called Octodurus: which 



que obsidlbus diltis, 

and hostages having been given, 

diias 

two 

cum 
with 

vico 



Veragrorum, 

of the Veragri, 



qui 

which 



vicus posTtus in valle, planitie non magna 

village being placed [situated] in a valley, a plain not large 



adjecta, 
being adjacent, 

/nontibus. 

' nountains. 



continetur 

is bounded 



undique 
on every side 



altissTmis 
by very high 



Quum hie divideretur (imp. subj.) in 

Since this was divided into 



liias 
two 

ejus 
of this 



partes 
parts 



flumine, 

by the river. 



felictam 
left 



vici 

village 

vaciiam 

vacant 



Gallis ; 

to the Gauls ; 



ab 

by 



hiemandum : munivit 

tering [to winter] : he fortified 

■jue fossa, 

md (with) a trench. 



concessit 

he granted the one 

attribiiit 

he assigned 

illis cohortibus 

them to the cohorts 

^um locum 
this place 



alteram partem 
part 

alteram 



the other 

ad 
for win- 



vallo 
with a rampart 



182 The Commentaries of Ccssar. BOOK III 

2. Quum complures dies hibernorum 

When several days of the winter quarters 

transissent (pi. perf. subj.) que jussisset (pi. perf. 

Uad passed and he had ordered 

subj.) frumentum comportari ?6, factus-est 

corn to be brought there, he was made 

certTor subito per exploratores, 

more sure [was informed] suddenly by scouts, (that) 

omnes discessisse noctu ex 6a 

all to have [had] departed by night from this 

parte vici, quam concessfrat Gallis ; que 

part of the village, which lie had granted to the Gauls ; and 

montes, qui impenderent (imp. subj.), 

(that) the mountains, which were overhanging 

teneri a maxima multitudine Sedunorum 

to be [were] held by a very great multitude oftheSeduni 

et Veragrorum. Id accid^rat de aliquot 

and of (the) Veragri. This had happened from several 

causis, ut Galli cap^rat (imp. subj.) subito 

causes, that the Gauls were taking suddenly 

consilium renovandi belli que opprimendae 
the purpose of renewing the war and of overwhelming 

legionis. Primum, quod despiciebant legionem, 
the legion. First, because they were despising the legion, 

propter paucitatem, n^que 6am 

on account of the fewness (of soldiers), nor (was) this 

plenissimam, duabus cohortibus detractis 

very full, two cohorts having been drawn out (of it) 

et compluribus singillatim absentibus, qui 

and very many individually (being) absent, who 

missi-6rant causa petendi commeatus ; tum 

had been sent for the purpose of seeking provisions; then 

etiam, qu6d propter iniquitatem loci 

also, because, on account of the unfavorableness of the place, 

existimabant ne quidem primum imp6tum 

they were thinking (that) not even the first attack [shock] 

posse sustineri, quum 

to be able [could] (to) be withstood (by the Romans), when 



BOOK III 



On the Gallic lVa?\ 



133 



ipsi 

(they) themselves 



decurrgrent ex 

should run down from 



montibus 
the mountains 



in 

into 



vallem, 
ihe valley, 

quod 
because [that] 



et 

and 



conjic^rent tela. Accedebat, 

should hurl (their) weapons. It was added, 



dolebant siios 

they were mourning for their 



lib^ros 
children 



abs- 

(having 



tractos 

been) taken 



ab 

from 

ha be bant 
they were having (it) 



se 

themselves 



nomine 
in the name 



obsTdum ; 
of hostages ; 



et 

and 



persuasum sibi 

persuaded to themselves [were persuaded] 

Romanos conari occupare culmina 

(that) the Romans to endeavor [endeavored] to occupy the tops 



Alpium 

of the Alps 



non 

not 



solum 
only 



causa 
for the sake 



itin^rum, 
of the passes, 



sed 

but 



etiam 
also 



perpetuae 

of perpetual 



possessioniSj 
possession, 



et 
and 



adjung^re 6a 
to unite these 



provinciae. 
province. 



loca finitimae 

places to the neighboring 

3. His nuntiis acceptis, 

These messages having been received, 



quum 
since 



nSque 
neither 



opus 

the work 



hibernorum, 
of the winter quarters, 

essent (imp. subj.) plene 

were fully 

esset (imp. subj.) 

(there) 



que 

and 



munitiones 
the fortifications 



perfectae, 
finished, 



n6que 



was 



provisum 
provided 



satis de 
enough from [of] 



que 
and 



reliquo 

the other 



qu6d, 
because. 



frumento, 
corn, 

deditione 

a surrender 



facta, 
having been made, 

existimavgrat 
had thought 



que 

and 



commeatu, 

provisions, 

obsidibus acceptis, Galba 

hostages having been received, Galba 

nihil timendum de bello : 

nothing to [must] be feared about war : 

concilio convocato celeriter, coepit exquirgre 

a council having been called together quickly, he began to seek 

sententias. In quo concilio, quum 

the opinions. In which council, since 

tantum repentini perictili accidisset (pi. perf. 
so much (of) sudden danger had happened 



134 The Co77imentaries of Ccssar, BOOK in 

subj.) practer opinioiiem, ac jam ftre omnia 

contrary to opinion [expectation], and now nearly all 

superiora l6ca conspicerentur (imp. subj.) completa 
the higher places were seen (to be) filled 

multitudtne armatorum, ngque 

with a multitude of armed (men), neither (could it) (any one] 

veniri, subsidio n^(|ue com meatus posset 

(to be) come, to (their) aid nor were provisions able 

supportari, itineribus interclusis : jam 

to be brought up, the ways having been shut up [closed] : now 

salute pr6pe desperata, nonnullae sententTae 

safety nearly having been despaired of some opinions 

hujusmddi dicebantur; ut, impedimentis (pi.) 

of this kind were said [delivered]; that, the baggage 

relictis, eruptione facta, contendfrent 

having been left a sally having been made, they should hasten 

ad salutem, iisdem itineribus, quTbus 

to safety, by the same wajs, by which 

pervenissent (pi. perf. subj.) 60. Tamen placiiit 

they had arrived there. However it pleased 

majori parti (dat.), hoc consilTo reservato 

(to) the greater part, this counsel having been reserved 

ad extremum, experiri eventum re! 

to the last, to try the issue of the thing [matter] 

interim, et defend^re castra. 

meanwhile, and to defend the camp. 

4. Br$vi spatio interjecto, vix ut 

A short space [period] having nitervened, scarcely that 

tempus daretur collocandis atque administrandis 
time might be given for arranging and for managing 

his rebus, quas constituissent (pi. perf. 

these things, which they had resolved, 

subj.), hostes decurr^re ex omnibus 

the enemy (to) run down from all 

partibus, signo ditto, conjic^re 

sides, a signal having been given. (and) (to) hurl 

lapTdes que gaesa in vallum. Nostri 

stones and heavy darts upon the rampart. Our (men) 



BOOK III 



On the Gallic War. 



135 



prim6 repuf]fnare 

at first (to) repulse (them) 



viribus 
power [strength] 

frustra ex 
in vain from 



neque 
nor 



fortiter int^gris 

bravely (when) with whole [fresh] 

mittgre ullum telum 



superiore 
the higher 



castrorum 
of the camps 

prgmi, 
to be pressed. 



(to) send [cast] any 

l5co : ut 
place : as 

nudata defensoribus 

stripped from [of] defenders 

occurrgre 66, et ferre 
to (they) run there and (to) bring 



sed superari hoc, 

but to be (they are) surpassed [overcome] 



hostes defessi 
the enemy wearied 

proelTo, alii 

from battle, 



diuturnitate 
by the length 

succedebant 
others were succeeding 

nihil 
nothing 



quarum 

of which [these] 



weapon 

quaeque pars 
each part 

videbatur 
was seeming 

auxilium : 
aid: 

qu6d 

in this (manner), because 

pugnae excedebant 
of the fight were retiring 

int^gris viribus : 

with whole [fresh] powers 

rerum pot6rat 
things was able [could] 



[strength] : 

figri a nostris propter- paucitatem ; ac 

(to) be done by our (men) on account of (their) fewness ; and 

non modo facultas dabatur defesso 

not only (no) opportunity was given to a wearied (man) 

excedendi ex pugna, sed ne saucio quTdem 
of retiring from the fight, but not to a wounded even 



relinquendi ejus loci (gen.), iibi 



of leaving his place, 

recipiendi siii (gen.). 

of recovering himself. 

5. Quum 

When 



where 



constitgrat, 
he had stood. 



ac 

and 



pugnaretur 

it was fought 



jam continenter amplTus 

now unceasingly more (than) 

horis, ac non soliim vires (pi.) sed etiam 
hours, and not only strength but also 

deficSrent (imp. subj.) nostris (dat.), atque 
were failing our (men), and 

instarent (imp. subj.) acriiis, que 

were pressing on more vigorously, and 

nostris" languidioribus, coepissent (pi. perf, subj.) 

our (men) having become more faint, they began 



sex 

six 

tela 
the weapons 

hostes 

the enemy 



136 



The Commentaries of CcEsar 



BOOK III 



vallum et com])lere fossas, 
the rampart and to fill up the ditches, 

res esset (imp. subj.) jam deducta ad 

the affair [action] was now led [brought] to 

casum ; PublTus Sextius 
chance; Publius Sextius 

10 



scinddre 
to tear down 



extremum 

the last 



que 

and 



Beculus, 

Baculus, 



centurTo 
a centurion 



primipili 

of the first rank 



confectum (-esse) 
to have [had] been overcome 



quem 
whom [who] 

compluribus 
with many 



NervTco 

in the Nervian 



proelio, 
battle, 



et 

and 



item 

also 



CaTus 
Caius 



diximus 
we have said 

vulnerlbus 

wounds 

Volusenus, 
Volusenus, 



tribunus milTtum, vir et magni 
a tribune of the soldiers, a man both of great 

et virtutis, accurrunt ad Galbam, 
and valor, run up to Galba, 

11 



consilii 

counsel [prudence] 

atque docent 
and show 



esse " unam 

(that) to be [there is] one 



spem salutis, si eruptione 

hope of safety, if a sally 



facta, 
having been made. 



experirentur 
they should try 



extremum auxilium. 
the last aid [resort]. 

convocatis, fScit 

having been called together, he makes 

milites certiores interraitt^rent 

the soldiers more sure [informs them] (that) they should intermit [moder- 



ItS,que centurionibus 
Therefore the centurions 



proelium paullisper, ac exciperent tantummodo 
ate] the battle a little while, and should deliver only 

tela missa, que reficgrunt se ex 

the weapons sent [thrown], and should refresh themselves from 



labore ; 

labor ; 

pgrent 

burst forth 



post, signo dato, 

afterwards, the signal having been given. 



e 

from 



castris, 
the camp. 



atque 

and 



pon^rent 
should put 



erum- 
thej' should 

omnem 
all 



spem 

hope 



salutis 
of safety 

6. FacTunt, 
They do, 

facta 



in 

in 

quod 
what 



virtute. 

(their) valor. 



jussi-sunt; ac 

they were ordered ; and 



subit6 omnibus portis, 
having been made suddenly from all the gates, 



eruptione 

a sally 

relinquunt 
they leave 



BOOK III 



On the Gallic War. 



137 



facultatem 
opportunity 

figret, 
should be done, 

for tuna 
fortune 

circumvetos 

surrounded 

potiundorum 
of possessing 



hostibus 
to tlie enemy 

ngque 
nor 



ngque 
neither 



colligendi 
of collecting 



12 



cognoscendi 
of knowing 

sui. 
themselves. 



commutata, 

having been changed, 



interficiunt 

they slay 



undique, 
on every side. 



qui 

who 



ven^rant 
had come 



in 

into 



quid 
what 

Ita, 

Thus, 

these 

spem 
the hope 



castrorum ; 
the camps ; 



et 

and 



ex 

from 



amplTus 
more (than) 



triginta millibus hominum, (quern numgrum 
thirty thousand (of) men, (which number 

barbarorum constabat venisse ad castra) 

of the barbarians it was manifest to have [had] come to the camp) 

plus tertia parte interfecta, conjicTunt 

more (than) the third part having been killed, they throw 



in fugam relTquos perterritos ; 
into flight the rest affrighted ; 

ne quTdem in superioribus 
not even in the higher 



ac patiuntur 
and suffer (them) 



consistgre 
to take stand 

Sic omnibus 
Thus all 



l6cis. 
places. 



copiis 
the forces 



hostium 
of the enemy 



fusis, 
having been routed, 



que armis exutis, recipTunt se 

and (their) arms having been stripped off, they betake themselves 



in castra (pi.) que siias munitiones. 
into the camp and their fortifications. 

facto, quod Galba 

having been done [completed], because Galba 



tentare 
to try 

(that) 

consillo 
design 



fortunam 
fortune 



saepius, 
too often. 



atque 
and 



Quo proelTo 
Which battle 

nolebat 

was unwilling 

memingrat 
(he had) remembered 

alio 
with another [a different] 

hiberna, videbat 

winter quarters, he was seeing (that he) 

occurrisse alTis rebus (dat.); permotus maxime 

to have [had] met with other things ; being moved principally 

inopTa frumenti que commeatus : post^ro 
by the want of corn and of provisions: on the following [next] 



sese 

he himself 

in 
into 



venisse 
to have [had] come 



138 



The Commentaries of Ccesaj- 



BOOK III 



die, 

day, 



incensis, 
having been burned, 



ac 

and 



omnibus aedificlis 

all the buildings 

contendit reverti 
he hastened to return 

hoste prohibente, 

preventing, 



ejus 
of this 



vici 

village 



nullo 
no 



Iter, 
the march, 

Nantuates, 
the Nantuates, 



enemy 

perduxit 
he conducted 

inde 
thence 



leo'ionem 
the legion 



in pro V in clam: 
into the province; 

aut demorante 
or delaying 

in colli mem 



safe 



in 

into 



Allobr6ges, 
the Allobroges, 



in 
into 

que 

and 



hlemavit 
wintered 



Tbi. 
there. 



gestis, 
having been performed. 



quum 
when 

pacatam 
subdued 



Caesar 
Caesar 

de 

from 



7. His rebus 

These things 

existimaret (imp subj.) Galliam 
was thinking that Gaul (was) 

omnibus causis ; Belgis 

all (these) reasons; the Belgae 

Germanis expulsis, Sedunis 

the Germans having been expelled, the Seduni having been conquered 

in Alpibus, atque ita hi&me^^ 

in the Alps, and so the winter 

inita profectus-esset (pi. perf. subj.) 

having begun he had set out 



superatis, 
having been overcome, 

victis 



in 

into 



IllyrTcum, quod volebat 

lUyricum, because he was wishing 



adire 

to visit 



^as 

these 



qu5que 
also 



et cognoscgre 

and to know [investigate] 

bellum coortum-est in Gallia. 



regiones ; 

the countries; 



nationes 

nations 

subitum 
a sudden 



war 

ejus 
of this 

cum 

with 



arose in 

belli. Publius 
war. Publius 



Gaul. 

Crassus 
Crassus 



causa 
the cause 



septima 
the seventh 



legione 

legion 



Haec fiiit 
This was 

adolescens hiemabat 
a young man was wintering 

in Andibus proxTmus 
among the Andes nearest 



OceSnum 
the Ocean 



mare. 

(sea). 



17 



que 
and 



tribunos 
tribunes 



Is dimisit complures praefectos 
Me dispatched very many prefects 

milTtum in finitlmas civtates, 

of soldiers into the neighboring states. 



BOOK III 



On the Gallic War. 



139 



causa frumenti, 

for the sake of corn, 



qu6d 

because 



inopia 
a want 



in 

in 



his 

these 



locis : 
places: 



in 

in 



quo 

which 



frumenti 
of corn 

numgro 
number 



Terrasidius 
Terrasidius 

TrebTus 

Trabius 



missus 6rat 

had been [was] sent 

Gallus in 

Gallus into 



VelanTus 
Velanius 



cum 

with 



Tito 

Titus 



SillO 
Silius 



in Eusubios ; 
into the Eusubii ; 

Curiosolitas ; 
the Curiosolitae; 

in Ven6tos. 
into the Veneti. 



6rat 

was 

Titus 

Titus 

Marcus 
Marcus 

Quintus 

Quintus 



8. 



Auctoritas 
The authority 



hujus 

of this 



civitatis 

state 



amplissima 

the most extensive 



omnis 
of all 



maritimae 

the maritime 



regionum ; 
countries ; 



quod 
because 



Veneti 

the Veneti 



habent 
have 



est 

is 

orae 
coast 

et 

both 



longe 
by far 

earum 
of these 

plurimas 
very many 



naves, quTbus consueverunt 

ships, with which they have been accustomed 

Britanmam ; et antecedunt 
Britain ; and they excel 

atque usu nauticarum 

and use [practice] of naval 



navigare 
to sail 



in 

into 



iinpetu 
violence 

portiibus 
harbors 

habent 
they have 

verunt 
accustomed 

fit 
was made 



vasti 

of the vast 

inter jectis, 
intervening, 



atque 
and 



ca?t§ros 
the rest 

rerum ; 
matters; 

operti 
open 



scientia 
in the knowledge 

et in magno 
and in the great 



mS,ris. 

sea. 



quos 
which (they) 



ipsi 

themselves 



f6re omnes vectigales, qui 

nearly all (those) tributary, who 

uti eodem mari (abl.)- 



to use the same 



sea. 



ab 

by 



lis, 
these. 



retinendi 

of retaining 



Silii atque 
Silius and 



paucis 

few 

t6nent, 
hold, 

consue- 

have been 

Initium 
A beginning 

Velanii, 
of Velanius, 

se 



qu6d per 60s existimabant 

because through them they were thinking (that they) themselves 

recuperaturos siios obsTdes, quos dedissent 

about to [would] recover their hostages, whom they had given 

(pi. perf. subj.) Crasso. Finitimi adducti 

to Crassus. (Their) neighbors induced 



140 



The Commaitarics of Ccrsar 



BOOK III 



auctoritate 

by tlio autliority 



subTta 

sudden 



et 

and 



horum (ut consilla 

of these (:is the councils 

repentina) retlnent 

immediate) detain 



Gallorum 

of the (Jauls 

TrebTum 
Trebius 



sunt 
are 

que 

and 



TerrasidTum 
Terrasidius 

missis 
having been sent 

per suos 
through their 



de 

on 

celer!tei 

quickly, 



eadem 

the same 



causa : 

cause : 

18 



conjurant 

they conspire 



et 
and 

inter 
among 



lejratis 
ambassadors 

se 

themselves 



princTpes ; esse acturos 

chiefs; (that they) to be about to [would] act 

nihil nisi communi consilTo, que laturos 

in nothing unless by common counsel, and about to [would] bear 

eundem exTtum omnis fortunae; que sollicTtant 
the same issue of every fortune; and they solicit 

niallent 
they should prefer 



rellquas civitates, ut 
the remaining states, that 



permanere 
to remain 



in ?a libertate, quam acceperant a 

in this liberty, which they have received from 

majoribus, quam perferre servitutem Romanorum. 
(their) ancestors, than to endure the slavery of the Romans. 



Omni maritima ora 
All the maritime coast 



perducta celeriter 

having been brought over quickly 



ad 

to 



suam 
their 



sententiam, 

opinion. 



mittunt 

they send 



communem 

a common 



le^ationem ad PublTum Crassum, 
embassy to Publius Crassus, 



'Si 
"If 



v^lit 

he wishes 



remittat 
let him send back 



recip?re suos, 

to receive his (ambassadors), 

Slbi." 
to themselves." 

9. De quibus rebus Caesar 

Concerning which things Caesar 



obsides 
(the) hostages 



fact us 
having been made 



certTor a Crasso, j Tibet 

more certain [having been informed] by Crassus, he orders 

long^as naves aedificari interim in 

long ships [war ships] to be built meanwhile on 

flumlne Lio?ri, quod infliiit OceAnum, 

the river Liger [Loire], which flows into the Ocean, 



BOOK III 



On the Gallic War. 



141 



remiges 
rowers 



institui 
to be provided 



ex 

from 



que gubernatores comparari, 
and pilots to be procured. 



ProvincTa, 
the Province, 

quod 

because 



nautas 
sailors 

ipse 

he himself 



abgrat longTus. 
was distant farther [too far] 



ipse 
he himself 

primum 

as 

Vengti 
The Veneti 

Caesaris 
of Caesar 



His rebus administratis 

These things having been managed, 

contendit celeriter ad exercitum, 

hastened quickly to the army, 



quam- 
as soon 



potuit 

he was able 



per 

through [for] 



que item reliquae 
and also the other 



tempus 
the time 

civitates, 
states, 



cognito, 
having been known. 



sTmul 
at the same time 



anm. 
of the year. 

adventu 
the arrival 

qu6d 
because 



nomen 
a name 



intelligebant quantum facTnus admisissenc 

they were understanding how great a crime they had committed 

(pl.perf.subj.) in se, legates/^ 

against themselves, the ambassador 

quod semper fuisset(pl. perf. subj.) sanctum que 
which always had been holy and 

inviolatum S^pud 
inviolate at [among] 



omnes nationes, retentos 

all nations, to have [had] been 



detained 



ab 

by 



institiiunt 
resolve 

magnitudme 
the greatness 

6a 
these (things) 



se et 

themselves and 

pa rare 
to prepare 

periculi, 
of the danger, 

quae 
which 



conjectos 

cast 



in vinciila ; 

into chains; 



bellum pro 
a war for [in proportion to] 



et 

and 



maxime 

especially 



pertinerent 
were pertaining 



providere 

to provide 

(imp. subj.) 



ad 

to 

spe, 
hope, 



usum 
the use 



navium ; hoc, majore 

of ships ; from this [on this account], with greater 



qu6d confidebant multum natura 

because they were relying much in [on] the nature 

l5ci. Sciebant pedestria itinera 

of the place. They were knowing (that) the foot ways 



concisa-esse 
to have [had] been cut up 



aestuariis ; 
by aestuaries ; 



navigationem 
navigation 



142 The Commentaries of Ccesar. BOOK III 

impeditam'^ propter inscientlam locorum 

prevented onaccoutof (our) i{?norance of the places 

que paucitatem portiiuni : confidebant nostros 

and the fewness of the harbors: tliey were trusting (that) our 

exercltus n6que posse morari diutlus 

armies neither to [would] be able to delay longer 

Spud se, propter inopTam frumenti. 

at [among] themselves, on account of the want of corn. 

Ac jam, ut omnia accid^rent contra 

And now, though all (things) might happen against [contrary to] 

opinionem, tclmen se posse 

(their) opinion, yet (they) themselves to [would] be able (to do) 

plurimum navibus : Romanos habere n6que ullam 

very much by ships: the Romans to have [had] neither any 

facultatem navium, neque novisse vS.da, 

power [supply] of ships, nor to have known [knew] the shallovs, 

portus, insulas eorum locorum, libi essent(imp. 
harbors, islands of these places, where they were 

subj.) gesturi bellum: ac perspiciebant 

about to carry on war : and they w ere perceiving 

navigationem in concluso mS.ri, atque in 

(that) navigation in an inclosed sea, and in 

vastissimo atque apertissTmo Oceano, esse longe 
a very immense and very open Ocean, to be [is] far 

aliam. His consiliis inltis, 

other [diflercnt]. These counsels having been entered into, 

muniunt oppTda, comportant frumenta (pi.) 

they fortify the towns, they bring together corn 

ex agris in oppTda ; cogunt naves 

from the liclds into the towns; they collect (their) ships 

quam-plurlmas possunt, in Venetlam, tibi 

as many as they can, into Venetia, where 

constabat Casftrem primum gesturum 

it was evident C'sesar first to be about to [would] carry on 

bellum. Adsciscunt socios sibi ad id 

the war. They unite (as) allies to themselves for this 

bellum OsismTos, LexovTos, Nannetes, Ambialites, 
war the Osismii. Lexovii, Nannetes, Ambialites, 



BOOK III 



On the Gallic War. 



143 



MorTnos, Diablintes, MenapTos ; 
Morini, Diablintes, Menapii; 

ex Britannia, 
from Britain, 



quae 
which 



est 
is 



accersunt 
they send tor 

posita 
located 



auxilla 

auxiliaries 

contra 
over against 



eas 

these 



regiones. 
countries. 



10. Hse 

These 



grant 

were 



difficultates 
the difficulties 



quas 
which 



ostendimus 
we have shown 



supra; 
above : 



incitabant 

were urging 

retentorum 

of detaining 

facta 
having been made after 



CaesS,rem ad id 
Caesar to this 

Romanorum 
Roman 



gerendi,^^ belli 

of carrying on, a war 

sed tftmen niulta 

but yet many (things) 

bellum : injurlae (pi.) 
war: the injuries [wrong] 



equitum ; 

knights ; 



post 



deditionem 
a surrender: 



defectio, 
the revolt, 



rebelllo 

an uprising 

obsidibus 
hostages 



datis : 
having been given 



ne, 
lest. 



studere 

to be [are] eager 

conditionem 
the condition 

conspirarent, 
ishould conspire, 



conjuratTo tot civitatum: 

the conspiracy of so many states: 

hac parte neglecta, 

this part [region] having been neglected 

nationes arbitrarentur idem 
nations might think the same (thing) 

sibi. Itaque quum 

to themselves. Therefore since 

fgre omnes Gallos 

(that) nearly all the Gauls 

rebus, et 

things [revolution], and 

mobiliter que celeriter ad 

readily and quickly to 

autem omnes homines natura 

moreover (that) all men by nature 

libertati, et odisse 

for liberty. and (to) have hated 

servitutis ; pritis-quam plures civitates 
of slavery ; before (that) more states 



in-primis, 
in particular, 

reliquae 
the remaining 

licere 
to [would] be allowed 

intelliggret (imp. subj.) 
he understood 

studere 
to be [were] eager 

excitari 
to be [were] aroused 

bellum ; 
war; 



novis 

for new 



putavit 
he thought 



exercitum 
the army 



parti end um, 
to [must] be divided. 



144 



The Commentaries of Ccssar. BOOK III 



ac distribuendum latius 

and to [must] be distributed more widely 

11. It&que mittit Titum Labienum 
Therefore he sent Titus Labienus 



sibi(dat.). 
by himself. 

legatum 

(his) lieutenant 



cum 
with 



equitatu 
the cavalry 



flununi 
to the river 



in 

among 

Rheno. 

Rhine. 



Treviros, 

the Treviri, 

Mandat 
He charges 



qui 

who 



sunt 
are 



proximi 
nearest 



huic (dat.), ad6at 
him, (that) he go to 



Remos 
the Remi 



que 

and 



reliquos Belgas, atque contingat 
the remaining Belgae, and keep (them) 



in 
in 



officio ; 
duty ; 



que 
and 



dicebantur 



arcessiti 



prohib^at 
prevent 
24 



Germanos, 
the Germans, 



were said (to have) been summoned 



auxilio 
for aid 



a 

by 



Belgis, 

the Belgae, 



qui 
who 

si 
if 



conentur 
they may attempt 

navibus. 
with ships. 



per 

by 

Jiibet 
He orders 



Vim 

force 



transire 
to cross 



Publium 
Publius 



Crassum 
Crassus 



duod^cim legionariis cohortibus, et magno 
twelve legionary cohorts, and a great 



equitatus 
of cavalry 

mittantur 
may be sent 



proficisci in Aquitaniam, ne 
to set out into Aquitania, lest 



flumen 
the river 

cum 

with 

num6ro 

number 

auxilia 
auxiliaries 



ex 

from 



his 

these 



nationibus 
nations 



in Galliam, ac 
into Gaul, and 



tantae nation es 
so great nations 

TiturTum Sabinum 
Titurius Sabinus 



conjungantur. 
may be united. 



Mittit 

He sends 



Quintum 

Quintus 



legatum cum tribus legionibus 

(his) lieutenant with three legions 



111 
among 



Unellos, 
the Unelli. 



qui 
who 



curet 
may take care 

Praefecit 
He appointed 

Gallicis 
to the Gallic 



Curiolitas, que Lexovios ; 
the Curiosolitae, and the Lexovii ; 

distinendam. 
(to) be kept apart. 

Decium Brutum adolescentem classi, 

a young man to the fleet. 



6am 
(that) this 



manum 

band (of people) 



Dec i us 



que 

and 



convenire 
to assemble 



ex 

from 



Brutus 

navibus, 

ships, 

Pictonibus 
the Pictones 



quas jussgrat 

which he had ordered 

que Santonis, et 

and Santoni, and 



BOOK III 



On the Gallic War. 



145 



n'll(|ui.s pacatis ifi^ioiiTbus ; et jlibet 

tht- n-in.'iiiiiiix .sulxlucd cuuntries; and he orders 

proficisci (|uain-priinuin posset, in 

(him) to set out as soon as lie may Jk' able, among 

VenCtos. Ipse toiitciulit ('o i)edestrlbus 

the Veneti. He himself liasttiis thither with the foot 



copTis. 

forces. 

12. 



Situs 

The situations 



oppidorum 

of (their) towns 
posTta 



fTant 

were 



f('re 

nearly 



in extremis 



ejusniodi, ut 

of this sort, that having; ht-eii placed [located] <tn extreme 

lin<rrilis (jiie proinoiitorlis, hahcrcnt (imp. 

lilf Ic toiiKues ((»f laii(l) and prornoiitone-^, they were havinj; 

subj.) iiT'ciuc adltiiin pt-dlbiis, (|umn a'stus 

nt'illier access by feet (f<K)tl, when the tide 

incitax issct sc ex alto, (jiiod accldit 

may have aroused ifsi-lf from the tU-ep, ulmli <H<urs 

semper bis spatio duodf'eim horarinn : 

always twice in the space [peri<Kl] of twelve hours: 



n{^(iue navTbus, 
nor by ships. 



[ebbinfr] 



naves 

the siiips 



(jiiod aestii rursus minuente 

Ix'cause the tide aj^'ain diminishing 

afHic'tarentur in vAdis. Ita 

may be dashed on the shoals. Thus 



utraque re 

by each thinjr [condition] 



iitipediebatur 

was hampered. 

erati 

been overcome 
extriiso 



Ac, 

And. 



<)ppii;^ni;itl() 
a siej:e 

si (|iiand() 

if at an.\ time 



()j)pid()rimi 

nf the towns 



forte 
by ihance 



majjnitiulTne 

by the ^Mcatness 



having been shut out l)y a mound 

his adaHjuatis 

these having been made equal 

copperant desperare 

they had bcfrun to despair of 



opens, 
of a work. 

ac mollbus, 

and l)> moles, 



sup- 
having 

mftri 

the sea 

atcjue 

and 



moenlbus 
to the walls 



oppTdi, 
of the town, 



sflis fortunis; majrno 
their fortunes; a great 



num^ro navium appulso, eujus r?i 

number of ships having been landed, of which thing [means] 



146 The Commentaries of Ccssar. BOOK III 

habebant sumniam facultatem, deport- 

they were having the liighest [greatest] power [supply], they were 

abant omnia sua que recipiebant se 

removing all their (effects) and were betaking themselves 

in proxTma oppTda : Tbi defendebant se 

into the nearest towns : there they were defending themselves 

rursus iisdem opportunitatibus loci. Facie- 

again by the same favorableness of place. They were 

bant haec 66 facilms niagnam partem 

doing these (things) for this reason more easily a great part 

aestatis, quod nostrae naves detinebantur 

of the summer, because our ships were detained 

tempestatibus ; que 6rat summa difficultas 

by storms ; and (there) was the highest [greatest] dfifficulty 

navigandi vasto atque aperto mSri, magnis 

of sailing in an immense and open sea, with great 

aestibus, raris ac pr6pe nullis portubus. 
tides, with few and nearly no harbors, 

13. Namque ipsorum naves factae-?rant que 
For indeed their ships had been made and 

armatae ad hunc m5dum : carinae 

armed [equipped] according to this manner: the keels (were) 

aliquanto planiores quam nostrarum navium ; 

considerably more flat than (those) of our ships; 

quo" possent excip&re 

in order that they might be able [could] (to) receive [endure) 

v&da ac decessum aestus faciliiis : 

the shoals and ' the departure [ebb] of the tide more easily: 

prorae admodum erectae, atque item puppes, 

the prows (were) very upright, and also the sterns 

accommodatae ad magnitudinem fluctiium que 
suited to the greatness of the waves and 

tempestatum. Totae naves factae ex 

storms. The whole ships (were) made from 

robdre, ad perferendam ' quamvis vim et 
oak, for bearing [enduring] any force and 

contumeliam ; transtra ex trabibus 

violence; the benches (were made) from [of] beams 



BOOK III On the Gallic War, 147 

pedalTl)us in latitudTiicni (ace), confixa ferr^is 

afoot in width, fixed [fastened] together with iron 

clavis, crassitudlne pollTcis diglti: 

nails, with [of] the thiekness of the thumb (finger): 

anc'h(5rae revinctae fc^rr^is catenis, pro 

the anchors (were) fastened with iron chains, instead of 

funlbus. Pelles que aluta* (pi.) tenuTter 

ropes. Hides and fine leathers (were) tliinly 

confectae pro velis; sive propter inopTam 

dressed for sails; whether on account of the want 

lini, atcjue inscientlam usus ejus; sive, 

of flax, and ignorance of the use of it; or, 

quod est niAffis verisiuiTlc, cpiod arhitral)antur 

what is more likely, because they were thinking 

28 

tantas tempestates oceilni que tantos 
(that) so great storms of the ocean and so great 

impetus ventorum posse non sustineri, 

violence of winds to be able [could] not (to) be supported, 

ac tanta on^ra navTum rejji velis 

and so great burdens of ships (to) be governed by sails 

s^tis commode. Congrressus iiostrae classi 

sufficiently conveniently. The encounter to [of] our fleet 

cum his navTbus ^rat ejusmodi ut praestaret 
with these ships was of this kind that it was excelling 

(imp. subj.) celeritate uiiTi, et pulsu remorum ; 

in speed alone, and the beat [stroke] of oars; 

reli(iua essent (imp. subj.) aptiora et 

the remaining (conditions) were more suitible and 



accommodatiora 


illis 


pro 


natura 


more accommodated 


to them 


for [in view of] 


the nature 



loci, pro vi tempestatum: ^nim 

of the place (and), (for) the violence of the storms : for 

nostrae n^que pot^rant nocere his (dat.) 

our (ships) neither were able to injure them 

rostro, (tanta ?rat firmitudo in his) 

with the beak [prow], (so great was the strength in them) 

n^que telum adjiciebatur facile propter 

nor a weapon was hurled easily on account of 



148 



The Commentaries of Ccesar. BOOK ill 



altitudlnem ; et 
(their) height ; and 

scopulis 
by grappling hooks 



de eadem causa continebantur 
from the same cause they were held fast 

minus commode. Accedebat 

less conveniently. It was added, 

ventus coepisset (pi. perf. subj.) 

the wind had begun 

dedidissent (pi. perf. subj.) se 

they had given [committed] themselves 

vento, et ferrent tempestatem facilius, 

to the wind, both they would bear a storm more easily, 

tutius in vadis, et 

more safely in the shoals, and 

aestu, timerent nihil 

the tide, they would fear 



Ut 
that 

saevire 
to rage 



quum 
when 

et 

and 



et 

and 



consist&rent 
would stop 

derelictae 
having been left 



ab 

by 



in no wise 



saxa 
the rocks 



et 

and 



cautes : 

reefs : 



casus 
accidents 



nothing 

omnium 
of all 



grant extimescendi 
were to be dreaded 



nostris 
by our 



quarum rerum 

which [these] things [kinds] 

navibus (dat.). 
ships, 

14. Compluribus oppidis expugnatis, tibi 

Several towns having been stormed, when 



Caesar 
Caesar 

frustra, 
in vain, 

oppidis 
the towns 



intellexit tantum laborem sumi 

understood so great labor to be [was] taken 



n§que fiigam 
neither the flight 



hostium 
of the enemy 

n^que 



noceri 
to be injured [injure] 

exspectandam, 
to [must] be awaited. 



captis, 

having been taken, nor 

his (dat.), statiiit 
them , he resolved 



reprimi, 

to be [was] checked, 
30 

posse 

to be able [could he] 



Ubi 

When 



quae 

which [this] 



primum 
first 

viginti 
twenty 



visa-est 
was seen 



ab 

by 



hostibus, 
the enemy, 



circTter 
about 



classem 
(that) the fleet 

convenit ac 

assembled and 
3i 



ducentse 
two hundred 



paratissTmae 

most prepared [equipped] 



ornatissTmae 
most furnished 



omni 
with all [every] 



eorum, 
of their, 

genere 

kind 



naves 

ships 



atque 

and 



armorum, 
of arms, 



BOOK III 



On the Gallic War. 



149 



profectae 
having set out 

nostris. 

(to) our (ships). 



e 

from 



portu, 

port, 



constiterunt 

stood 



N6que 
Neither 



qui 

who 



prae^rat 
commanded 



satis constabat 
was it sufficiently clear 

classi (dat.), ngque 



adversae 
opposite 

Bruto, 
to Brutus, 

tribunis 
to the tribunes 



milTtum 
of the soldiers 



que 
and 



[particular] 



naves 
ships 



the fleet, nor 

centurionibus, qulbus singfiilae 
to the centurions, to whom single 

attributae-^rant, quid afferent, 

had been assigned, what they should do. 



aut 
or 



quam 

what 



ratlonem 

plan 



pugnae 
of battle 



ins'st^rent: 6nim 
they should adopt: for 



32 



cognov^rant 
they had known 

rostro : 
by the beak [prow] : 



posse 
to be able [they could] 



autem 

but 



turribus 
towers 



non noceri 

not (to) be injured 

excitatis, 
having been raised. 



tS^men altitude 

yet the height 

navlbus superabat 

ships was overtopping 



puppTum 

of the sterns 



ex 

from [of] 



barbSris 
the barbarian 



possent 
might be able [could] 



inferiore 
the lower 

accidCrent 
would fall 

nostris 
our (men) 

insertae 
inserted in 



loco, 
place, 



has ; ut n&que tela 

these ; (so) that neither weapons 

adjTci comm5de sAtis ex 

(to) be thrown conveniently enough from 

et missa a Gallis 

and (those) sent by the Gauls 



gravTus. Una res praeparata a 

more heavily. One thing prepared by 



?rat 

was 



magno usui ; 

for [of] great use; 



que 
and 



absimlli 
unlike (that) of wall 



praeacutae falces, 
sharp-pointed scythes, 

longurlis, forma non 

to long poles, with a shape not 

muralium falcTum : quum funes, qui 
scythes: when the ropes, which 



affixae 
fastened 



destinabant antennas ad malos, comprehensi-6rant 

were bracing the yards to the masts, had been seized 



que 
and 



adducti his, 
drawn taut by these. 



remis, 
with the oars, 



navigio incitato 

the vessel having been urged forward 

qu!bus 
which 



praerumpebantur : 
they were broken apart; 



150 The Commentaries of Ccssar. BOOK in 

abscissis, antennae necessario concidebant; 

having been cut away, the yards necessarily were falling; 

ut quum omnis spes consist&ret (imp. subj.) 
(so) that since all hope was resting 

GallTcis navibus in velis que armamentis, 

for the Gallic ships in (their) sails and riggings, 

his ereptis, omnis usus^ navium 

these having been torn away, all use of (their) ships 

eriperetur (imp. subj.) uno tempore. Reliquum 
was wrested away at one time. The remaining 

certamen 6rat positum in virtute ; qua 

contest was placed in valor; in which 

nostri milites facile superabant ; atque mS.gis 
our soldiers easily were excelling ; and the more 

So, quod res gerebatur in 

for this reason, because the action was carried on in 

conspecto Caesaris atque omnis exercitus, ut 

sight of Caesar and of all the army, that 

nullum factum paulo fortius posset latere ; 

no deed a little more brave was able to be hid; 

6nim omnes coles ac superiora l6ca, unde 
for all the hills and higher places, whence 

Srat propinquus despectus in mSre, tenebantur 
w^as a near view upon the sea, were held 

ab exercitu. 

by the army. 

15. Antennis disjectis, ut dixTmus, 

The yards having been thrown down, as we have said, 

quum binae aut ternae naves circumsisterent (imp. 
when two or three ships were surrounding 

subj.) singiilas naves, milites contendebant 

(our) individual ships, the soldiers were striving 

summa vi transcendSre in naves 

with highest [utmost] force [exertion] to climb over into the ships 

hostium. Quod '^ postquam barbftri 

of the enemy. Which after (that) » the barbarians 

animadverterunt fi6ri, compluribus navibus 

perceived to be [was] done, several ships 



BOOK III On the Gallic War. 151 

expuffnatis, quum nullum auxilTum 

havinf? been stormed [boardedl, since no aid 

reperiretur 6i x^\, contenderunt petere 

was found fortius thing [crisis], they hastened to seek 

salutem fuffa: ac jam navlbus conversis in 

safety byfli{?ht: and now thesliips having been turned to 

6am partem, qu(> ventus ferebat, tanta 

that part [direction], where the wind was bearing, so great 

malacTa ac tranquillTtas subTt(> exstltit, ut 

a calm and stillness suddenly occurred, that 

possent (imp. subj.) non movere se ex 

they were able not to move themselves from 

l6co: quae res'^^ quTdem ffiit maxTme opportuna 
the place: which thing indeed was most seasonable 

ad conficiendum ne^otinm, nam nostri 

for completing the business [engagement], for our (men) 

consectati singulas expugnaverunt, ut 

having pursued individual(ships) stormed [boarded] (them), so that 

perpaucae ex omni nuniTTo j)erven?rint ad 

very few from [of] all the numi)or arrived to 

terram, interventu noctis, quum pug- 

land, by the interposition of night, since it was 

naretur^^ (imp. subj.) ab quarta hora usque 
[they] fought from the fourth hour until 

ad occasum solis. 

(to) the setting of the sun. 

16. Quo proelTo bellum Venetorum que 

By which battle the war of the Veneti and 

totius maritimae orae confectum-est. Nam 

of the whole maritime coast was finished. For 

quum omnis juventus, etiam omnes gravioris 
not only all (their) youth, also all of more mature 

aetatis, in quibus fuit, alupiid consilTi aut 

age, in whom (there) was, something [some] (of) counsel or 

dignitatis conven^rant t^o; turn co?g?rant 

(of) dignity had assembled there; but also they had collected 

in unum locum, quod navium fu?rat 

into one place, what [whatever] (of) ships had been 



152 



The Commeiitaries of Ccesar. BOOK ill 



ubique: 
everywhere: 

n^que 
neither 



quibus 

which 



amissis, 
having been lost, 



relTqui 
the rest 



quo 

where 



quemadmSdum 
how 

dediderunt 
they surrendered 

CaesSri : in 

to Caesar: against 



recip&rent 
they might betake 

defend^rent 
they might defend 



se, 
themselves, 

oppTda. 

(their) towns. 



se 

themselves 

quos 
whom 



que 
and 

Caesar 
Caesar 



omnia 
all 

statiiit 
resolved 



habebant 
were having 

n6que 

nor 

Itaque 
Therefore 

sua 

their (effects) 



vindicandum 
to be avenged 



gravius 
more severely 



66 
for this reason 



orum conservaretur 
sadors might be observed 

in reliquum 

for the remaming [future] 



quo 
in order that 

diligentius 
more carefully 

tempus. 
time. 



jus 
the right 



legat- 

of ambas- 



a 

by 



barbaris 
the barbarian: 



Itaque, 
Therefore, 



senatu necato, 

the senate having been put to death, 
39 

corona. 

the crown [at auction]. 

17. Dum 

While 



vendidit relTquos 
he sold the rest 



omni 
all 

sub 
under 



Ven^tis, 
the Veneti, 

fines 
the borders 



Quintus 

Quintus 



h£ec 

these (things) 

Titurius 

Titurius 



geruntur 
are carried on 

Sabinus 

Sabinus 



m 

in [among] 



pervenit 

passed 



Venellorum, 
of the Venelli, 



cum 

with 



his 
these 



COpilSj 

forces, 



in 

into 

quas 
which 



accepSrat 
he had received 

his (dat.), ac 



a 

from 



Caesare. 

Caesar. 



Viridovix 
Viridovix 



praegrat 

commanded 



these, 

omnium 
of all 

quibus 
which 

copias. 

resources. 



and 



tenebat summam imperii 

was holding the height (of) [the chief] power 



earum civitatum, quae defec^rant ; ex 
of these states, which had revolted ; from 



coSgSrat 
he had collected 



exercTtum 

an army 



que 
and 



Atque 

And 



his 
in these 



paucis 

few 



diebus, 

days. 



magnas 

great 

Aulerci, 

the Aulerci, 



Eburovices, que Lexovii, suo senatu 
Eburovices, and Lexovii, their senate 



inter- 
having been put 



BOOK III 



On the Gallic War. 



153 



fecto, 
to death, 

clauserunt 

shut 



quod nolebant 

because they were unwilling 



esse auctores 
to be advisers 



belli, 

of war, 



portas, 
(their) gates, 



que 
and 



conjunxerunt 



se 



cum 

with 



Viridovice : 

Viridovix", 



que 

and 



praeter6a 

besides 



joined 

magna 
a great 



perditorum 
of abandoned 

undlque 

from every side 

praedandi 
of plundering 



hominum 
men 



que 
and 



latronum 
robbers 



que 
and 



ex Gallia, 

from Gaul, 

studTum 
an inclination 



quos 
whom 

bellandi 
of warring 



themselves 

multitudo 
multitude 

conven6rat 
had assembled 

spes 
the hope 

revoc- 

were calling 



quotidiano labore. 

daily labor. 

castris (pi.) l6co 

in camp • in a place 



abat ab agri cultura et 

away from agriculture and 

Sabinus tenebat sese 

Sabinus was holding himself 

idongo omnibus rebus : 

suitable for all things; 

considisset (pi. perf. subj.) contra 6um 
had pitched camp opposite him 

duiim millTum, que 

fdistance] of two miles, and 

facSret (imp. subj.) 
he was making 

potestatem pugnandi ; ut Sabinus 

power [an opportunity] of fighting; so that Sabinus 

veniret (imp. subj.) in contemptionem non 
was coming into contempt not 

hostlbus, sed etiam carperetur (imp. subj.) 

to [as regards] the enemy, but also was censured 



quum 
when 



productis 

having been led forth 



quotidie 
daily 



Virid5vix 
Viridovix 

s patio 

(to) a space 

copTis 

(his) forces 



jam 

already 

solum 
only 



nonnihil 

somewhat 

praebiiit 
he exhibited 



vocTbus 
by the expressions 



nostrorum 
of our 



milTtum : 

soldiers; 



tantam opinionem 

so great an opinion [a sentiment] 



timoris, 

of fear. 



que 

and 

ut 
that 



jam 

at length 



liostes auderent 
the enemy would dare 

castrorum (pi.). Faciebat 
of the camp. He was doing 



acced6re 
to approach 

id 6a 



ad 
to 



vallum 
the rampart 



causa, 



this from ttL'* cause [reason], 



154 



The Commentaries of Ccesar. book m 



quod 
because 



existimabat 



41 



he was thinking (it) 
legato (dat.) cum tanta 



non 

not 



by a heutenant 

praesertim 
especially 



with so great 

§o absente, qui 

he (being) absent, who 



dimicandum 
to [must not) be contended 

multitudine hostium, 
a multitude of the enemy, 

teneret (imp. subj.) 

was holding 



summam imperii, nisi aequo loco, 

the height [chief] (of) command, unless on equal place [ground], 

aut allqua opportunitate data. 

or some opportunity having [had] been given. 



18. Hac 

This 

delegit 
he selected 

hominem, 

man, 

causa 

for the sake 

magnis 
by great 



opinione 
opinion 

quandam 
a certain 



ex 

from 



lis, 
those, 



trans6at 
he go over 

v6lit 
he wishes 

pro 

for [as] 



42 



ad 
to 



timoris confirmata, 

of fear having been strengthened, 

Galium idongum et callidum 
Gaul a suitable and shrewd 

quos habebat secum 

whom he was having with him 

auxilii (sing.). Persuadet huic (dat.) 
He persuades him 

pollicitationibus, 

promises, 

edScet 

he shows (him) 



of reinforcements. 



praemiis 

rewards 



que 
and 



fieri. 

to be done. 

perftiga, 
a deserter. 



hostes : 
the enemy; 

Qui, 

Who, 



titi 

that 

quod 

what 



ubi 

when 



venit 
he came 



ad 
to 



60s 

them 



proponit 
exposed 



timorem 
the fear 



Romanorum : 
of the Romans : 



Caesar 

Caesar 
.43 



ipse 

himself 

longius 
farther 



docet quibus angustiis 

he shows (them) with what straits [difficulties 

prematur (pres. subj.) a Vengtis : ngque 
is pressed by the Veneti : nor 

abesse, quin Sabinus educat 

to be [was it] distant (from fact), but that Sabinus may lead out 

exercitum clam ex castris (pL) proxima 
(his) army secretly from the camp on the next 

nocte, et proficiscatur ad Caesftrem, causa 

night, and (may) set out to Caesar, for the sake 

ferendi auxilii. Ubi quod auditum-est, 

of bearing aid, When which (this report) was heard, 



BOOK III 



On the Gallic War, 



155 



omnes 
all 



conclamant, 

cry out (that), 



occasionem 
an opportunity 



gerendi 
of performing 



ne- 

the 



gotTi b6ne non amittendam-esse : oportere 

business [task] well not to [must notj be lost: to be fitting 

ad castra (pi.)* 

to the camp. 



in 

to be gone [to go] 



(they ought] 

res hortabantur Gallos ad hoc 

things were encouraging the Gauls to this 



Multae 
Many 

consilium : 
plan: 



cunctatTo 
the hesitation 

confirmatio 
the assurance 

cui 
for which 

diligenter; 
carefully; 



Sabini 
of Sabinus 

perfuffae ; 
of the deserter ; 



superiorum dierum; 

of (on] the former days; 

inopia cibariorum (pl.)> 
the want of food, 



provisum-^rat 
it had been provided 



spes 
the hopes 



homines 
men 



v5lunt. 
they desire. 

Viridovicem 

Viridovix 



f^re 

generally 

Adducti*-^ 

Induced 



ab his 

by them 

VenetTci belli ; 
of the Venetian war 

credunt libenter 

believe willingly 



et 

and 

id 

that 



parum 
not very 

quod 
because 

quod 

which 



concillo 
the council 



non 
not 



que 

and 

prIliS 
sooner 



liti 

that 



his, 

them, 

castra (pi.)- 
the camp. 



ca plant 
they may take 



lis 
by these 

relTquos 
the rest of 

quam 

than 

arm a 

arms 



rebus, 
things, 



dimittunt 
they dismiss 



duces ex 

the generals from 

concessum-sit ab 

it has been (was] granted by 

et contendant ad 
and may hasten to 



Qua re concessa, laeti. 

Which thing having been granted, (they) joyful. 



v6lut victoria explorata, sarmentis que 

as if the victory having been [were] assured, fagots and 



quTbus 
With which 



virgultis collectis, 

bushes having been collected, 

fossas Romanorum, pergunt ad 
the ditches of the Romans, they press on to 

19. L6cus castrorum (pi.) 6rat 

The situation of the camp 

paullatim acclivis ab 
gradually sloping from 



was 



compleant 

they may fill up 

castra (pi.), 
the camp. 

editus, et 

elevated, and 



imo, circiter 

the lowest [from below], about 



156 The Comnieyitaries of CcBsa7\ BOOK ui 

mille passus : hue contenderunt magno 

a thousand paces. hither they hastened with great 

cursu, ^ ut quam minimum spatii 

running, that as least [little as possible] (of) space [time] 

datur Romanis ad colligendos, 

might be given to the Romans for collecting, 

que armandos, se que exanimati 

and arming themselves and breathless 

pervenerunt. Sabinus, hortatus suos, 

they arrived (there). Sabinus, having encouraged his (men), 

dat signum cupientibus : hostibus 

gives the signal to (them) being eager for (it) : the enemy 

impeditis propter 6a ongra, quae 

having been encumbered on account of these burdens, which 

ferebant, jubet eruptionem fieri subito 

they were bearing, he orders a sally to be made suddenly 

duabus portis. Factum-est opportunitate 

from the two gates. It was done by the convenience 

l6ci, inscientia ac defatigatione hostium, 

of the place, by the ignorance and exhaustion of the enemy. 

virtute militum ac exercitatione superiorum 

by the valor of the soldiers and the practice of former 

pugnarum, ut ferrent (imp. subj.) ne quidem 

battles, that they were bearing not even 

primum impetum ^ nostrorum ; ac statim 

the first charge ' of our (men); and immediately 

vertgrent (imp. subj.) terga: quos'^*' impeditos 

they were turning (their) backs : whom encumbered 

nostri milites consecuti int^gris viribus (pi.), 

our soldiers having pursued with fresh strength, 

occiderunt magnum numgrum eorum : equites 

slew a great number of them ; the cavalry 

consectati relTquos reliquerunt paucos, qui 

having pursued the rest left few, who 

evasgrant ex fiiga. Sic Caesar factus-est 

had escaped from flight. Thus Caesar was made 

certTor uno tempore et de 

more sure [was informed] in [at] one time both of 



BOOK III 



On the Gallic War. 



157 



navali 
the naval 



pugnii, 
battle, 



et 

and 



de 

of 



victoria 
the victory 



Sabini : 
of Sabinus: 



que omnes civitates dediderunt se 

and all the states surrendered themselves 



Titurio. 

to Titurius. 

alilcer 

alert 



Nam 
For 



ut 

as 



animus 
the spirit 



ac 

and 



promptus 
ready 



ad 
for 



suscipienda 

undertaking 



sttltim 
immediately 

Gallorum est 
of the Gauls is 

49 



SIC 

so 



eorum 

their 



mens 
mind 



est 

is 



mollis 
soft [weak] 



ac 

and 



bella, 
wars, 

minlme 
by no means 



resistens ad perferendas calamitates. 

resistant for bearing misfortunes. 



quum 
when 



PublTus 
Publius 



20. F6re eodem tempore, 

Nearly at the same time, 

Crassus pervenisset (pi. perf. subj.) in Aquitanlam, 

into [at] Aquitania, 



Crassus had arrived 



quae 
which 



pars, 
part. 



sestimanda 

to [must] be regarded 

latitudine 
by the breadth [extent] 

homtnum ; quum 
of men; when 



ut 

as 

ex 



dictum-est 

has been said 



ante, 
before, 



est 

is 



parte 
part 



Galllae, 
of Gaul, 



et 

both 



gerendum 
to [must] be carried on 



tertia 
from [as] the third 

regionum et multitudlne 

of countries and by the multitude 

intellig^ret (imp. subj.) bellum 
he was understanding (that) 

sibi (dat.) in 



by himself 



eis 

these 



tibi 
where 

Valerius 

Valerius 



paucis (abl.) 
a few 

Praeconinus 
Praeconinus 



annis 
years 

legatus 
the lieutenant 



ante 
before 



war 

l5cis, 
places, 

Lucius 

Lucius 



interfectus-esset 

had been killed. 



(pi. perf. subj.), 



pulso; 
having been routed ; 



atque 
and 



unde 
whence 

mentis 
baggage 



Lucius 

Lucius 



amissis, 
having been lost, 



exercitu 

(his) army 

Manilius Proconsul, impedi- 

Manilius the Proconsul, (his) 

profugisset (pi. perf. subj.), 

had escaped. 



intelligebat non mediocrem diligentiam 

he was understanding (that) not [no] moderate diligence 



158 



The Commentaries of C<zsar. BOOK ill 



adliibendam sibi (dat.). ItS^que, fru men tana 

to [must] be employed by himself. Therefore, corn 

re provisa, auxiliis que 

affair [grain] having been provided, auxiliaries and 



equitatu 
cavalry 



comparato, 
having been prepared, 



Tolosa 
from Tolosa 



et 

and 



provinciae Galliae, 
of the province of Gaul, 



evocatis 
having been called out 



praeter^a multis fortibus 
moreover many brave 

Narbone (quae sunt 
Narbo (which are 

finitimae his 

neighboring to these 

nominatim, introduxit 
by name, he led forth 



viris 
men 

civitates 
cities 

regionlbus) 
countries) 



in 

into 



fines 

the territories 



Sotiatium. 
of the Sotiates. 



Cujus 

Whose 



exercTtum 

(his) army 

adventu 
arrival 



cognito, 
having been known, 



Sotiates, 
the Sotiates, 



tis, 
collected. 



que 
and 



equitatu, 
cavalry, 



magnis 
great 

quo 

in which 



copiis coac- 

forces having been 

valebant 

they were availing 



plurimum, adorti 

most, having attacked 



nostrum agmen in 
our army on 



primum commiserunt equestre prcelium ; 
first engaged (in) a cavalry fight; 

siio equitatu pulso, atque 

their cavalry having been routed, and 



itinSre, 
the march. 

deinde 

afterwards 

nostris 
our (men) 



insequentibus, 
pursuing, 



copias, 
forces, 

insidiis. 

ambuscades. 

renovarunt 

renewed 



quas 
which 



subit6 
suddenly 

convalle 
a valley basin 



pedestres 

the foot 



in 

in 



ostenderunt 

they showed [revealed] 

collocavSrant in 
they had placed in 

Hi adorti nostros disjectos, 

These having attacked our (men) scattered, 

proelium. 

the battle. 

21. Pugnatum-est'^^ 
It was fought 

Sotiates, freti superioribus 

the Sotiates, having relied on former 

putarent (imp. subj.) salutem'' 
were thinking (that) the safety 



diu 

long 



atque 

and 



acriter, 

sharply, 



quum 

since 

victorlis, 
victories. 



totius Aquitan!ae 

of the whole ofAquitania 



BOOK III On the Gallic War. 159 

posTtam in sua virtute ; autem nostri 

was placed in their own valor; but our (men) 

cupgrent (imp. subj.) perspTci,^^ quid pos- 

were desiring (that it) to [should] be seen, what they might be 

sent effic6re sine imperatore, 

able [could] (to) accomplish without the commander in chief, 

et sine reliquis legionibus, adolescenttilo 

and without the remaining legions, a very young man 

duce. TS^men hostes tandem confecti 

(being) general. However the enemy at length having been spent 

vulnerlbus verterunt terga : magno numSro 

with wounds turned (their) backs: a great number 

quorum interfecto, Crassus coepit oppugnare 
of whom having been slain, Crassus began to storm 

oppldum Sotiatlum ex itin^re ; quibus 

the town of the Sotiates from [on] (his) march; who [they] 

resistentlbus^^ fortlter, egit vin^as que 

opposing bravely, he pushed the sheds and 

turres. Illi, alias eruptione tentata, 

towers. They at one time a sally having been tried, 

alias cuniculis actis ad agg^rem 

at another time mines having been pushed to the rampart 

que vingas ; cujus r6i Aquitani sunt longe 

and sheds; of which thing the Aquitani are by far 

peritisslmi, propterga-quod aerarlae que secturae 

most skillful, because (that) copper mines and quarries 

sunt Spud §os multis l6cis ; tibi intellexerunt 
are among them in many places ; when they understood 

nihil posse profici his rebus, 

nothing to be able [could] (to) be accomplished by these things 

diligentla nostrorum, mittunt legatos 
[tactics], from the activity of our (men), they send ambassadors 

ad Crassum que petunt, ut reciplat se 

to Crassus and request, that he may receive themselves 

in deditionem. Qua re impetrata, 

into a surrender. Which thing having been obtained, 

jussi trad^re arma, faclunt. 

h;iviD,ff been ordered to deliver (their) arms, they do (it). 



160 



The Comnientaries of Ccesar. BOOK III 



22. Attjue anlmis omnium nostrorum intentis 
And the minds of all our (men) beingengaged 



in 


?ri 


re, 


A(liat(5mus 


qui 


tenebat 


summam 


on 


this 


thing. 


Adiatomas 


who 


was holding 


the height 



imperii, ex al!a 

(of) [the chief] command, from another 



parte oppTdi, cum 
part of the town, with 



sexcentis 

six liundred 

Soldurlos : 

Soldurii: 



devotis, 
devoted (men), 

quorum 
of wliom 



quos 

whom 



haec 

this 



est 

is 



illi 
they 

conditio 
the estate 



appellant 
call 

ut 
that 



fruantur (pres. subj.) omnibus comm5dis (abl.) in 



all 



advantages 



in 



vita 
life 



una 

together 



cum 

with 



amicitTae 
to the friendship 



SI 

if 



they enjoy 

his, 
those, 

dedid^rint 
they may have given up [devoted] 

accTdat lis per 

may happen to these through 

f6rant eundem ^asum una, aut consciscant 

they may bear the same calamity together, or inflict 

mortem sTbi (dat.) n?que quisquam repertus-est 

upon themselves nor has any one 

hominum 
of men, 



se: 
themselves : 

vim, 
violence, 



death 



quorum 
of whom 

quid 

any (thing) 

aut 
(that) either 
64 



been found 



adhuc 
as yet 



memoria 
in the memory 



qui 
who 



recusaret 
would refuse 



mori, ?o interfecto, 

to die, he having been killed. 



CUJUS 
of whom 



devovisset 
he might have devoted 

conatus 
having endeavored 

sublato 
having been raised 

quum milTtes 
when the soldiers 



se. 

himself. 

fac^re 
to make 



amicitTae 
to the friendship 

Cum his Adiat5mus 
With these Adiatomus 



eruptionem, 

a sally, 



clamore 
a shout 



que 

and 



arma. 

arms, 

vehementer, 
violently, 



ab ^a parte munitionis, 

from that part of the fortification, 

concurrissent (pi. perf. subj.) ad 

had run together to 

puffnatum-esset'^'^ (pi. perf. subj.) ibi 
it had been [they had] fought there 



repulsus-est 
he was forced back 



in oppTdum ; tilmen 
into the town ; however 



BOOK III 



On the Gallic War. 



161 



impetravit 
he obtained 



eadem 

the same 



a Crasso, uti 

from Crassus, that 

conditione (abl.) deditionis. 

condition [terms] 



uteretur^^ 
he might use 



of surrender. 



23. 



Armis 
The arms 



que 
and 

in 

ii'to 



obsidibus acceptis, Crassus 

hostages having been received Crassus 



profectus-est 

set out 

Tarusatium. 

of the Tarusates. 

commoti, quod 
alarmed, because 



fines 
the territories 

Turn vero 

Then indeed 



VocatTum 
of the Vocates 



et 
and 



cognovgrant 

they had learned (that) 



barbari 
the barbarians (were) 

oppTdum munitum 
a town fortified 



et 

both 



natura 

by the nature 

57 



loci et manu 

of the place and by hand [by art] 



expugnatum 
having been stormed 



paucis diebus, quTbus 
in the few days, in which 



turn fu6rat 65; coeperunt dimitt6re 

[they had] come there ; they began to send 



ven- 
it had been 

legates 
ambassadors 



quoqueversus, 
in every direction, 



•onjurare, 
to lake oaths, 



dare 

to give 



obsTdes 
hostages 



se, 
themselves. 



pa rare 
to prepare 



etiam 
also 



ad 

to 



gas 
these 



copias. 
forces. 

civitatej, 

states. 



Legati 

Ambassadors 



quae 
which 



sunt 
are 



Hispamae (gen.) 
Spain 



AquitanTae : 
to Aquitania : 



auxilTa 
auxiliaries 

quorum 

of whom 



que 
and 



conantur 

they endeavor 



finitimae 

neighboring 

duces arcossuntur; 
generals are summoned ; 

bellum 

war 



inter 
between 

mittuntur 

are sent 

citerioris 
in nearer 

inde 

thence 

adventu 
on the arrival 



gergre 

to wage 



cum 

with 



magna 
great 



auctoritate et 
authority and 

Ver6 

Moreover 



cum magna 
with a great 

li deliguntur 
these are chosen (as) 



multitudine hominum. 
multitude of men. 

fugrant 
had been 



duces. 



generals. 



qui 
who 



una 
together 



cum 

with 



existimabantur 
were thought 



Quinto 

Quintus 

habere 
to have 



SertorTo 
Sertorius 

summam 
the highest 



omnes 
all 



annos, 

the years. 



que 

and 



scientiam 
knowledge 



militaris 
of military 



162 



The Commejitaries of Ccesar. BOOK ill 



r6i Hi consuetudine Romani 

affair [tactics] These by the custom of the Roman 

institiiunt cap^re loca, 

resolve to take [choose] places [ground], 

castra (pl.)> intercludere nostros 

the camp, to shut off our (men) 

Quod iibi Crassus animadvertit, 

Which when Crassus 



populi 

people 

munire 
to fortify 

commeatibus. 
from provisions. 



suas 
(and that) his own 



copias 
forces 



non 
not 



propter 
on account of 



perceived, 

diduci 
to be [were] divided 

exiguitatem, et hostem vagari 

(their) scantiness [fewness], and (that) the enemy (to) wander about 

et obsidere vias, et relinqu^re s&tis 

and (to) block up the ways, and (to) leave enough 

praeidii castris (pi.) 5 <^b 

of protection to (their) camp ; on account of 



facile 

easily 



earn 

this 



causam 
cause (that) 



frumentum 
corn 



que 
and 



supportari 
to be [were] brought up 



commeatum 
provision 

sibi minus commode, nuntgrum hostium 

to himself less conveniently, (that) the number of the enemy 

cunctan- 

he considered (it) not to [he must not] be 

decertaret pugna. Hac re 
he should contend in battle. This thing 

intellexit 
he understood (that) 



augeri in dies ; existimavit non 
(to be) increased daily ; 

dum, 
delayed [delaj^ 



quin 

but that 



delata ad 

having been referred to 



omnes 
all 



59 



sentire 



(to) think 
diem 

day 

24. Omnibus copiis 

All (his) forces 



concilium, iibi 
a council, when 

idem, 
the same, 



constitiiit 
he appointed 



post^rum 
the following 



pugnae. 
for the battle. 



luce, 

light [early dawn]. 



duplTci 
a double 



productis prima 

having been drawn out at the first 

acie institute, que 

line having been formed, and 



auxilTis conjectis in mediam aciem, 

the auxiliaries having been thrown into the middle line. 

exspectabat quid consilii (gen.) hostes cap?rent. 

he was awaiting what plan the enemy might take. 



BOOK III 



On the Gallic War. 



163 



Illi, etsi 

They, althou{?h 

vet6rem gloriam 
ancient f?Iory 

existimabant 



propter multitudtnem, et 

on account of (their) multitude, and 



tamen 
however 

victoria 
a victory 



esse tutius 

to be [was] safer 



belli que paucitatem nostrorum 
of war and the fewness of our (men) 

se dimicaturos tut6 ; 

were considering (that) themselves about to [would] contend safely; 

arbitrabantur 
they were judging (it) 

sine vulngre, vlis 

without a wound, the ways [roads] 

obsessis, commeatu intercluso: 

been blocked up, provisions having been intercepted 

propter inopiam rei frumentariae Romani 
on account of the want of provisions the Romans 

ccEpissent (pi. perf. subj.) 
should begin 



potiri 
to possess 



having 
et si 

and if 



recip^re sese, 

to take awav themselves [to re- 



cogitabant adoriri imped itos 

treat], they were thinking to [they would] attack (them) encumbered 

agmlne et sub sarcTnis (pl.)> inferiores animo. 

on the march and under baggage, (and) weaker in spirit. 



Hoc 

This 



consi 
plan 



iTo^^ probato ab duclbus, 

having been approved by (their) generals, 

Romanorum productis, tenebant 

of the Romans having been drawn out, they were keep- 

sese castris (pi.)- Hac re perspecta 

ing themselves in camp. This thing being clearly seen 

quum hostes efFecissent (pi. perf. subj.) 
since the enemy had rendered 



coplis 
the forces 



Crassus, 
Crassus, 



sua 

by their 

nostros 

our 



cunctatione 

delay 
milites 

soldiers 



atque 
and 



opinione 

the belief 



timoris, 

of fear. 



atque 
and 



voces 
the expressions 
61 



alacriores 
more eager 

omnium audirentur (imp. subj.), 



ad pugnandum, 
to fight [for fighting]. 



of all 



were heard. 



(that it) 



oportere 
to be [was] fittin 

iretur 



non 
not 



exspectari diutius, quin 

to be waited [to wait] longer, but that 

ad castra(pl.); cohortatus 



it should be gone [they should go] to the camp; having exorted 



164 The Com77ieniaries of Ccssar. BOOK m 

siios, omnibus cupientibus, contendit ad 

his (men), all desiring, he hastens to 

castra (pi.) hostium. 

the camp of the enemy. 

25. Ibi quum alTi complerent (imp. subj.) fossas 
There when some were filling the ditches 

alii depell6rent (imp. subj.) defensores vallo 

others were dislodging the defenders from the rampart 

que munitionibus, multis telis conjectis, que 

and fortifications, many weapons having been thrown, and 

auxiliares, quibus (dat.) Crassus confidebat non 

the auxiliaries, [in] whom Crassus was confiding not 

multum ab puo:nam, praeberent (imp. subj.) 

much for the battle, were exhibiting 

speciem atque opinionem pugnantTum 

the appearance and impression of fighting (men) 

subministrandis lapidibus que telis, et comportandis 
by supplying stones and weapons, and by collecting 

cespitibus ad agggrem; quum item pugnaretur 
turfs for a mound; since likewise it was fought 

(imp. subj.) constanter ac non timide ab hostibus, 
steadily and not timidly by the enemy, 

que tela missa ex superiore l6eo, 

and the weapons sent [thrown] from the higher place, 

accid&rent (imp. subj.) non frustra; equites, castris 
were falling not in vain ; horsemen, the camp 

(pi.) hostium circumitis, renuntiaverunt Crasso 

of the enemy having encircled, announced to Crassus 

castra (pi.) non esse munita eadem 

(that) the camp not to be [was not] fortified with the same 

diligentia ab Decumana porta, que habere 

diligence from fat] the Decuman gate, and to have 

facilem aditum. 
[had] an easy access. 

26. Crassus cohortatus praefectos equitum 

Crassus having encouraged the perfects of the horsemen 

ut excitarent siios magnis praemiis 

that they should stimulate their (men) by great rewards 



BOOK III 



On the Gallic War. 



165 



que pollicitationibus, ostendit 



and 

fi6ri. 
to be done. 

cohortibus 
cohorts 

praesidio 
for a guard 

labore : 
labor : 



shows (them) 



ut 

as 



promises, 

Illi, 

They, 

devectis, 
having been brought forth, 

castris (pl.)> 6rant 
to the camp, were 

et circumductis 

and having been led round 



quid 

what 



imperatum 6rat, 
it had been commanded. 



v6lit 
he wishes 

eis 

these 



quae 

which 



relictae 
having been left 

intritae ab 

unworn [fresh] from 

lonffiore itinera, 
by a longer route. 



ne possent 

lest they might be able [should] 



hostium ; 
of the enemy ; 

intentis 

being engaged 

ad 6as 

to, [at] these 

his 

these 

(pi.) 



que 
and 



conspici ex castris 
(Lo) be seen from the camp 

omnium 

of all 

celerlter 
quickly 

munitiones, quas diximus ; atque 

fortifications, \\ h.ch we have mentioned ; and 



OClllis 

the eyes 

ad pugnam, 

to [on] the fight, 



merit lb us 
minds 

pervenerunt 
they arrived 

quas diximus; 



prius 
before 



quam 

that 



prorutis, 
having been demolished, 

hostium 
of the enemy 

videri 

(to) be seen 

(of) thing 

audito ab $a parte, 

having been heard from this part, 



constiterunt 
they stood 



in 

in 



castris 
the camp 



posset 

it might be able [could] 



plane 

plainly 



ab 

by 



his 

these 



gereretur. 
was transpiring. 



aut 
or 

Tum 
Then 



cognosci, 
(to) l)e known. 



quid 
what 



vero clamore 

indeed a shout 

nostri, virlbus (j)l.) 
our (men), their strength 



redintegratis, quod plerumque consuevit 

having been renewed, which generally has been accustomed 



accidSre in spe victorlae, cceperunt 
to occur in the hope of victory, began 



acrius. 
more vigorously. 



Hostes 
The enemy 



circumventi 
surrounded 



impugnare 
to assault 

undlque, 
on every side, 



omnibus 
all 

dejicgre 
to hurl 



rebus 

things 

se 
themselves 



desperatis, 

having been despaired of. 



contenderunt 

hastened 



per munitones, et 

through the fortifications, and 



166 



The Commeyitaries of CcEsar. BOOK III 



pet^re 

to seek 

consectatus 
having pursued 



salutem 

safety 



fiiffa. 
by flight. 



in 

into 



se 
itself 

vix 

scarcely 

numgro 
the number 

constabat 

it was evident 



apertissimis 
in the most open 

castra (pi.) multa 
camp in much 



Quos 
Wliom 

cam pis, 

plains, 



equitatus 
tlie cavalry 

recepit 
betook 



62 



nocte, 

night [late at night], 



quarta 
a fourth 



parte 
part 



quinquaginta 
of fifty 



venisse 
to have [had] come 



relicta ex 

having been left from 

millium, quae 

thousand, which 

ex Aquitania 

from Aquitania 



que 
and 



Cantabris. 
the Cantabri. 



27. Hac 

This 

Aquitaniae 
of Aquitania 

obsides 

hostages 

Tarbelli, 

the Tarbelli, 

Elusates, 

Elusates, 

Cocosates. 
Cocosates. 

temp6re 

on the time 

neglexerunt 

neglected 

28. Fere 
Nearly 

6rat jam 
was already 

Gallia 



pugna 
battle 



audita, 
having been heard of. 



maxima 

the greatest 



dedidit sese Crasso, que 

surrendered itself to Crassus, and 

ultro: in quo num^ro 

voluntarily: in which number 



pars 

part 

misit 
sent 

fuerunt 
were 



Bigerriones, 
Bigerriones, 



Ptianii, 
Ptianii, 



Vocates, 
Vocates, 



Tarusates, 
Tarusates, 



Gates, Ausci, Garumni, Sibusates, que 
Gates, Ausci, Garumni, Sibusates, and 



Paucae 
A few 

anni, 
of the year, 

facgre 
to do 

eodem 
at the same 



ultimae 

remotest 



quod 

because 



nationes, 
nations, 

hiems 
winter 



confisae 
having relied 

sub&rat, 
was near, 



id. 

this. 



tempdre, 

time, 



etsi 

although 



aestas 

the summer 



prope 

almost 

pacata, 



exacta, 

finished, 



tamen 

still 



quod, 
because. 



omni 
all 



Gaul 



having been subdued. 



Morini 
the Morini 



que 

and 



super&rant, 
were remaining. 



qui 
who 



essent (imp. subj.) in 



in 



Menapli 
Menapii 

arm is 
arms 



BOOK III 



On the Gallic War, 



167 



nSque unquam misissent^^ (pi. perf. subj.) ad 6um 
nor had ever sent to him 



legates 
ambassadors 

id bellum 
this war 

exercitum 
the army 



de 

about 



pace, 
peace, 



posse 



Caesar arbitratus 

Caesar having thought (that) 

confTci celeriter, duxit 

led 

bellum 

the war 



to be able [could] (to) be finished quickly, 

65 : qui coep^runt aggre 
thither : who began to conduct 



Galli : 

Gauls: 



ratione longe alia ac relTqui 

in a manner far otherwise than the remaining 

quod intelligebant maxTmas 

because they were understanding (that) the greatest 

nationes, quae contendissent (pi. perf. subj.) proelTo 
nations, which had contended in battle 

superatas, que habebant 
overcome, and they were having 

continentes silvas ac paludes, contulerunt 65 
extended woods and marshes, they bore away thither 



nam, 

for. 



pulsas-esse que 
to have [hadl been routed and 



se 

themselves 

quarum^* 
of which 



que 

and 



omnia 
all 



silvarum, 

woods, 



stia. Ad initiun 

their (effects). At the beginning 

Caesar pervenisset (pi. 

Caesar had arrived, 



quum 
when 



perf. subj.), que instituisset (pi. perf. subj.) munire 

and had resolved to fortify 

castra (pl.)> nSque intSrim hostis visus esset 
the camp, nor meanwhile the enemy had been seen; 

(pi. perf. subj.); nostris dispersis 

having been scattered 

ex omnibus partibus 



op6re, 
the work, 

silvae, 
of the wood, 

Nostri 
Our (men) 

repulerunt 

forced 



our (men) 
evolaverunt subito 



in 

in 



they flew out suddenly from 



et fecerunt 
and made 

celeriter 
quickly 



60s 
them 



m 

into 



imp6tum 
an attack 

ceperunt 

took 

silvas ; 
the woods ; 



all 

in 

upon 



parts 

nostros. 
oKxx (men). 



arma, 

arms, 

et 
and 



Ibus interfectis, 

many having been killed, 



secuti 
having followed (them) 



que 

and 

complur- 

very 

longTus 
rather far 



168 



The Commentaries of Ccesar. BOOK III 



impeditioribus locis, 

in more entangled places, 



deperdiderunt 
they lost 



paucos 
a few 



ex 

from [of] 



SUlS. 
their own (men). 



29. Csesar 
Caisar 

reliquis 
on the remaining 



instituit 
resolved 

diebus; 

days ; 



caed^re silvas 
to cut the woods 



et 

and 



ne 

lest 



quis 
any 



posset figri ab latere 

might be able [couid] (to) be made from the flank 

(dat.) inermibus que imprudentibus, 



omnem 
all 



unarmed 

Sam 

this 



and 



unaware, 



materiam, quae 

raateral [timber], which 



deinceps 
in succession 

impetus 
attack 

militlbus 
on the soldiers 

collocabat 
he was placing 

caesa ?rat, 
had been cut, 



conversam 
turned 



ad 
to 



hostem, 
the enemy, 



que 

and 



pro 
for 



ad 

to [on] 



utrumque 
each 



exstruebat 

was building (it) 

lS.tus. Magno spatTo 

flank, A great space 

paucis diebus incredibili 
in a few days with incredible 



p6cus 
the cattle 



vallo 
a rampart 

confecto 
having been finished [cleared] 

celeritate 
speed, 

imenta(pl.) tenerentur (imp. subj.) jam ab nostris, 
gage was possessed now by our (men), 

ipsi peterent (imp. subj.) densiores silvas; 

(they) themselves were seeking the thicker woods ; 

tempestates ejusmodi consecutae sunt, uti 6pus 
storms of such kind followed, that the work 

intermitteretur (imp. subj.) necessario; et contin- 
was interrupted necessarily ; and by the 

uatione imbrium, milites possent (imp. subj.) 

continuance of the rains, the soldiers were able 



atque extrema imped- 

and the farthest bag- 



non contineri 

not to be kept 

omnibus eorum 
all their 



que 



aedifi 



ens 



diutTiis 
longer 

agris 
lands 

incensis, 



sub pellibus. 
under hides [tents]. 

vastatis,"'^ 
having been ravaged. 



Itaque, 
Therefore, 

vie is 

the villages 



Caesar reduxit exercitum 



and buildings having been burned, Caesar led back the army 



BOOK III On the Gallic War. 169 

et collocavit in hibernis in Aulereis 

and placed (it) in winter quarters among the Aulerci 

que Lexoviis, item relTquis civitatibus, quae 

and the Lexovii, also the remaining states, which 

facerant bellum proxTme. 

had made war last. 



170 The Commentaries of Ccssar. BOOK iv 



FOURTH BOOK 

The fourth book contains the description of Caesar's campaign against 
the Germans and of his first invasion of Britain, B. C. 55. The Ger- 
man tribes, the Usipetes Germani and the Tcnctcri, pressed by the Suevi, 
had crossed the Rhine near its mouth and conquered the Menapii. 
Caesar, fearing complications and a possible alliance of the Gauls and 
Germans, orders the Germans to withdraw from Gaul. He then ad- 
vances with the army and a protracted parley takes place between him 
and the Germans. After a treacherous attack by the German cavalry 
Caesar assaults the camp of the Germans and puts them to flight. The 
Rhine is bridged by Caesar, who invades Germany and after a stay 
of 18 days returns. He sends a reconnoitering fleet to Britain, and 
after assembling a large fleet, himself, sails and lands on the British 
coast. A storm disables the fleet, whereupon the Britons attack him 
and are defeated. Caesar returns to Gaul, The Morini rebel and are 
subdued. For that winter the legions are quartered among the Belgae 
and the Senate appoints a thanksgiving of 20 days. 

1. Ea hi6me quae secuta est, qui fuit annus, 
In this winter which followed, which was the year, 

Cneto Pompelo, Marco Crasso consulTbus, 
(when) Cneius Pompey, Marcus Crassus (were) counsuls, 

German! Usipetes, et Item Tenct^ri transierunt 
the German Usipetes, and also the Tencteri crossed 

flumen Rhenum cum magna multitudine liomTnum, 
the river Rhine with a great multitude of men, 

non longe a mclri, quo Rlienus infliiit. 
not far from the sea, where the Rhine flows in. 

Causa transeundi fuit, quod exaj^itati ab 

The cause of crossing was, because having been harassed by 

Suevis complures annos, premebantur bello, 

the Suevi many years, they were crushed by war, 

et prohibebantur agri cultura. Gens 

and were prevented from agriculture. The nation 



BOOK IV 



On the Gallic War. 



171 



Suevorum 
of the Suevi 

omnium 
of all 

centum 
a hundred 

quotannis 
yearly 



est 

is 



longe 
by far 



maxima 
the greatest 



et bellicosissTma 
and most warlike 



Germanorum. 
the Germans. 



pagos ; 
cantons ; 



ex 

from 



Hi dicuntur 

These are said 

quibus 
which 



habere 

to have 



educunt 
they lead forth 



singula (pi.) 

single 



millia 
thousands 



armatorum 
of armed (men) 



ex siiis finibus, causa bellandi : reliqui 

from their borders, for the sake of warring : the rest 

qui mansSrunt domi yg^n?), alunt se atque 

who remained at home, support themselves and 



illos. Hi rursus sunt in 

those. These again are in 

anno post ; illi remanent 

in the year after; they [those] remain 

Sic ngque agri cultura, n^que 
Thus neither agriculture, nor 

usus belli intermittitur. Sed 

practice of war is interrupted. But 



invicem 
in turn 



armis 
arms 

domi (gen.), 
at home. 



ratio 
the theory 

est 

(there) is 



atque 
and 

nThil 
nothing 



[not any] 



privati 

(of) private 



ac 

and 



$os : ngque 
them : neither 



licet 

is it lawful 



separati 
separate 

remanere 
to remain 



agri Spud 

land at [among] 

longTus anno 

longer (than) a year 



in uno loco, causS. colendi. 

in one place, for the sake of tilling [farming] 

multum frumento, sed 
much by [on] corn, but 



vivunt 
do they live 

partem 
part 

multum 
much 

aiit 

nourishes 



Ngque 
Neither 

maximam 

the greatest 



lacte atque 

by [on] milk and 

in venationibus (pi.); 

in huntings [in the chase] ; 



pec ore ; 

cattle; 



que 
and 



sunt 
they are 



quae 
which 



immani 

with [of] huge 



Vires 

the forces [strength] 
magnitudine 



et 

and 

corporum 
of bodies 



efFicit 

produces 



iTbi, et quotidiana exercitatione, 
of food, and daily exercise. 



et 

and 

et 

and 



res et 

thing both 

homines 
men 

gen^re 

by the kind 

libertate 
freedom 



172 



The Commentaries of dzsar. 



BOOK IV 



vitae, 
of lifo, 



because 



assuefacti nullo 

ha V ill!? been accustomed to no 



disciplina a 
discipline from 



pu^ris, 
boys [boyhood], 



officio aut 
duty or 

facTant (pres. subj.) 



omnino 
at all 



nihil 
nothing 

adduxerunt 
they have brought 



contra 

against 



they do 

voluntatem. 
(their) will. 



Atque 
And 



se 

themselves 



into 



this 



Ut 
that 



hab^ant (pres. subj.) n^que 



they have 
vestitus frifridissTmis 



(of) clothing 

propter 

on account of 

corp6ris 
of the body 



in the coldest 

exiffuitatem 
the scantiness 



in ?am consuetudTnem, 

habit, 

quidquam 

any (thing) 



pelles ; 

skins; 



neither 



l(5cis, 
places. 



praeter 
except 



est 

is 



aperta ; 
uncovered ; 



quarum, magna pars 
of which, a great part 

et laventur (pres. subj.) 

and they are washed [bathe) 



in fluminibus. 
in the rivers. 

2. Aditus est 

Access is 

by this [on this account], 



mercatoribus ad $os, 
for merchants to them. 



vendant, 
they may sell. 



quae 

what 



cep^rint 
they may have taken 



qu6 
that 

ad 
to 



desidgrent 
they may desire 



se. Quinetiam 

themselves. Moreover 



ut hab^ant 

that they may have (those) 

bello, 

in war, 

ullam rem 
any thing 

Germani utuntur 
the CJernians use 



mSgis 
more 

quibus 
to whom 

quam 
than 



importari 
to be imported 



non 

not 



importatis jumentis, 
imported beasts of burden. 



quTbus 
with which 



Galli maxTme 
the Gauls especially 



delectantur 
are delighted 



que 
and 



quae 

which 



pjlrant impenso 

they procure at expensive [a high] 



pretTo ; 
price ; 



sed 

but 



prava atque 
mis-shapen and 



efficTunt 
they render 

deform la 
deformed 



ha^c, 
these. 



quir 
which 



sunt 
are 



nata 
born 



clpud COS, quotidiana 
among them, by daily 



exercitatione ut sint summi 

exercise that they may be (capable) of the highest [greatest! 



BOOK IV 



On the Gallic War. 



173 



laboris. 
labor. 



Equestribus 
In cavalry 



proeliis 

fights 



desilTunt 

they leap down 



saepe 
often 



ex 6quis, ac proeliantur pedibus ; que 

from the horses, and fight on feet [on foot] ; and 



assuefacTunt 6quos remanere eodem vestigio, 
they accustom the horses to remain in the same footstep [spot], 

ad 

to 



quos 
which 



recipTunt se celeriter, quum 

they betake themselves quickly, when 



USUS 
need 



pose it : 
requires : 



n^que 
nor 



aut 

or 



inertius 
more lazy 



quidquam 

is any thing 

eorum 

by their 



habetur 
held 



turpius 
more shameful 



ephippiis (abl.). It^que,' 



saddles, 

adire 

to approach 



Therefore, 



ad 

to 



quemvis 
any 



moribus 

customs 

quamvis 
however 

numgrum 
number 



quam 
than 

pauci 
few, 



uti 

to use 

audent 
they dare 



sTnunt 
permit 



se, 

themselves. 



quod 
because 



equitum. Non 

horsemen. They do not 

omnino ad 
at all to 

homines remollesc6re 

men (to) become enfeebled 

laborem atque efFoeminari. 

labor and to be [are] effeminated 

3. PublTce 

Publicly [as a nation] 



vinum 

wine 
5 



ephippiatorum 

of saddled 

importari 
to be imported 

arbitrantur 
they think (that) 



6a re ad 

by this thing for 



putant 

they think (it) 



laudem, 
praise (that). 



agros 
the lands 



vacare 
to be [are] vacant 



esse 

to be [is] 

quam 

as 



ferendum, 
bearing, 



maximam 
the greatest 

latis- 
most exten- 



sime 

sively [as extensively as possible] 

Significari hac 

to be [it is] indicated by this 



a siiis finibus. 
from their borders. 



(That) 



re, magnum 

thing (that), a great 



numgrum 
number 



civitatum non potuisse 

of states not (to) have been able 



sustinere 
to [could not] withstand 



stiam vim. Itaque circiter sexcenta millia 

their force [power]. Therefore about six hundred thousands 

6 



passuum 

(of) paces 



agri 
of land [country] 



dicuntur 
are said 



vacare 
to be vacant 



a 
from 



174 The Com?7tentaries of CcEsar. BOOK IV 

Suevis ex una parte. Ubii succedunt 

the Suevi from [on] one part [side]. The Ubii come next 

ad alteram partem, quorum civTtas fuit 

at the other part [side], whose state has been 

ampla attjue florens, ut captus Germanorum 
extensive and flourishing, as the nature of the Germans 

est; ei sunt paulo humaniores caetfiris, 

is; they are a little more civilized than the rest, 

quamquam sunt ejusdem genfiris : propter6a 

although (they) are of the same race; because 

qu5d attiii«>unt Rhenum, que mercatores ventTtant 
(that) they touch on the Rhine, and merchants travel 

multum ad 60s, et ipsi sunt assuefacti 
much to them, and they are accustomed 

Gallicis moribus propter propinquitatem. Quum 
to Gallic manners on account of (their) nearness. When 

Suevi, expert! hos (ace.) saepe multis 

the Suevi, having made trial of these often in many 

bellis, potuissent (pi. perf. subj.) non expell6re 
wars, had been able [could] not (to) expel (them) 

fimbus, propter amplitudinem que 

from (their) borders, on account of the extent and 

gravitatem civitatis, tftmen fecerunt 

weight [influence] of the state, at length they made 

vectigales sibi, ac redegerunt multo 

<them) tributary to themselves, and rendered (them) much 

humiliores que infirmiores. 

lower [poorer] and weaker. 

4. Usip^tes et TenctSri, quos dixlmus 

The Usipetes and Tencteri, whom we have said 

supra, fuerunt in eadem causa: qui 

above, were in the same cause [condition] : who 

sustinuerunt vim Suevorum complures annos : 

withs'iood the violence of the Suevi many years: 

t3.men ad extremum expulsi 

however at last having been driven out from (their) 

agris, et vagati multis l5cis Germanlae 

lands, and having wandered in many places of Germany 



BOOK IV 



On the Gallic War. 



175 



(during) 

quas 
which 



triennlum, 
three years time, 



pervenerunt ad Rhenum: 
they arrived at the Rhine: 



regiones 
countries 



habebant 
were holding 

utramque 
each 

adventu 
by the arrival 



agros, 

lands, 

ripam 
bank 



Menapii 

the Menapii 

a'dificTa, qua 
buildings. and 

fluminis : 
of the river: 



incolebant, 
were inhabiting. 



VICOS 

villages 

sed 

but 



Hi 

These 

ad 

at [along] 



perterrltis 
alarmed 



tantae 

of so great 



multitudinis, 
a multitude. 



demigraverunt 
they emigrated 



ex his aedificiis, quae habuerant trans flumen 
from these buildings, which they had had beyond the river 



et 
and 



praesidiis 

garrisons 



prohibebant 
they were checking 



experti 

having tried 



Illi 

They, 

subj.) ngque 
neither 



dispositis 
having been posted 

Germanos 
the Germans 

omnia, 
all (things) 

contendere 
to contend 



CIS 

on this side 



Rhenum, 
the Rhine, 



transire. 
to cross [from crossing] over. 

possent (imp. 
they were able 



quum 
when 



VI, 

by force, 



propter 
on account of 



inopiam 
the want 

propter 

on account of 



(that they) 

[settlements] 

Idistance] 



navmm, 
of ships, 

custodias 
the guards 

se 

themselves 



n^que transire clam, 

nor to cross over secretly, 

Menapiorum, simulaverunt^ 
of the Menapii, pretended 

reverti in suas sedes 

(to) return into their 



que 

and 



regiones ; 

countries ; 



et progressi 

and having advanced 



omni 
all 



hoc 

this 



tridiii, 
of three days, 

itin^re 
march 



reverterunt 
they return 

confecto 

having been finished 



equitatu, 
by cavalry, 



oppresserunt 

they overwhelmed 
• 10 



Menapios 
the Menapii 



rursus ; 
again 

una 

in one 

inscTos 
ignorant 



seats 

vTam 
a way 

atque 
and 

nocte 

night 

que 
and 



inopinantes ; qui^" facti certiores 

unaware ; who having been made more sure [having been 

de discessu Germanorum * per 

informed] of the departure of the Germans by 



176 The Cotnmentaries of Casar. BOOK IV 

exploratores, reniifrrav^rant sTne ni^tu in 

spies, had moved back without fear into 

suos vicos trans Rhenum. His interfectis 

their villages beyond the Rhine. These baving been slain 

que eorum navibus occupatis, prius-(iiiain 

and their ships having been seized, before (that) 

Sa pars Menapiorum, quae &rat citra 

this part of the Menapii, which was on this side 

Rhenum, fi^ret (imp. subj.) certTor, 

the Rhine, was made more sure [was informed], 

transierunt flumen; atque omnibus eorum 
they crossed the river; and all their 

aedificTis occupatis, aluerunt se 

buildings having been seized, they supported themselves 

eorum copiis reliquam partem hi6mis. 

with their supplies [stores] the remaining part of the winter. 

5. Caear factus certTor de 

Caesar being made more sure [having been informed] of 

his rebus, et veritus infirmitatem Gallorum, 
these things, both having feared the weakness of the Gauls, 

quod sunt mobiles in capiendis consilTis, et 
because they are changeable in taking councils, and 

plerumque student novis rebus, 

generally are zealous for new things [a revolution], 

existimavit nihil committendum his. Autem 

thought nothing to [should] be entrusted to these. But 

hoc est GallTcae consuetudinis; ut et 

this is (of)" the Gallic custom; that both 

cogant (pres. subj.) viatores, ettam invitos, 

they compel travellers, even unwilling, 

consist^re; et quaerant (pres. subj.) quod quisque 
to stop : and they inquire what each 

eorum audi^rit aut cof^nov^rit de 

of them may have heard or may have learned about 

quaque re: et vulffus circumsistat 

each thing: and the common people stand al)out 

(pres. subj.) mercatores in oppidisr cojyant 

the merchants in the towns: they compel 



BOOK IV On the Gallic War. Yll 

(pres. subj.) pronuntiare ex quTbus regionibus 
(lliem) to declare from what countries 

veniant, que quas res cognov^rint ibi. 

they come, and what tilings they have learned there. 

Permoti his rumoribus atque auditionibus, 

Aroused by these reports and hearsays, 

in6unt consilTa saepe de summis 

they enter upon plans often concerning the most important 

rebus : quorum est necesse 60s poenitere 

things: of which it is necessary (for) them to repent 

in vestigTo, quum serviant (pres. subj.) 

on the track [spot], since they are slaves 

incertis rumoribus, et plerique respond6ant 
to uncertain leports, and very many answer 

(pers. subj.) ficta ad eorum voluntatem. 

feigned (things) to their wish. 

6. Qua consuetudine cognita, Caesar 

Which custom having been known, Caesar 

proficiscitur ad exercitum maturius quam 

sets out to the army sooner than 

13 

consuev6rat, ne occurrgret graviori 

he had been accustomed, lest he might meet a heavier [more serious] 

bello (dat.). Quum venisset (pi. perf. subj.) 66 
war. When he had come there 

cognovit^^ 6a facta, quae 

he learned (that) these (things) (had been) done, which 

suspicatus-6rat fore : legationes mis- 

he had suspected to be about to [would] be : embassies to have 

sas a nonnullis civitatibus ad Germanos, 

[had] been sent by some states to the Germans, 

que 60s invitatos uti disced6rent 

and these to have [had] been invited that they should depart 

ab Rheno : que omnia quae 

from the Rhine : and all (things) which 

postulassent fore parata ab 

they had demanded to be about to [would] be prepared by 

se. Qua spe Germani adducti, 

themselves. By which hope the Germans being induced [moved], 



178 The Commentaries of Ccesar. BOOK IV 

vafjabantur jam latTus, et perven^rant 

were w aiideriiifr now more widely, and had arrived 

in fines Rburonum et Condrusorum, 

into [at] the borders of the Kburones and of the Condrusi, 

qui sunt clientes Trevirorinn. Principlbus 

who are dependents of the Treviri. The chiefs 

Galliae evocatis, Caesar existimavit 

of Gaul having been summoned, Caesar thouf?ht (that) 

?a, quae coo^nov^rat, dissimulanda 

these (things), which he had learned, to (must] be concealed 

sTbi (dat.); que eorum animis permulsis 

by himself; and their minds having been soothed 

et confirmatis, que equitatu imperato, 

and strengthened, and cavalry having been demanded, 

constitiiit ger^re bellum cum Germanis. 
he resolved to carry on war with the Germans. 

7. Frumentaria re comparata, que 

The grain supply having been prepared, and 

equitibus delectis, coepit fac(?re Iter 

the cavalry having been chosen, he began to make (his) march 

in 6a l6ca, in quibus l5cis audiebat 

into these places, in which places he was hearing 

Germanos esse. A quibus ^ quum 

the Germans to be [were]. From whom [them] when 

abesset (imp. subj.) iter paucorum dierum, 

he was distant a journey of a few days, 

legati venerunt ab lis, quorum^' haec 
ambassadors came from them, of whom this 

fuit oratio : Germanos n?que inferre bellum 

was the speech : "The Germans neither (to) wage war 

Romano popitlo priores, n^que tc\men 

to [on] the Roman people the first, nor however 

recusare, quin contendant armis, si 

to refuse, but that they may contend in arms, if 

lacessantur: quod ha'c consuetudo Germanorum 

they shoul be attacked : because this custom of the Germans 

tradita-sit (perf. subj.) a majorlbus, resist^re, 

has l)een delivered by (their) ancestors, to oppose, 



BOOK IV 



On the Gallic War, 



179 



infgrant 

may bring on 

dic6re hoc : venisse 

to [they] say this: to (that they) have come 

domo : si Romani v6lint 



ngque deprecari, quicumque 

nor to beg off [ask quarter of], whosoever 

bellum : tamen 

war : however 



invitos, ejectos 
unwilling, having been driven from home: if the Romans wish 



stiam gratiam, posse esse 

their favor, to be [they are] able to be 



utiles 

useful 



amicos 
friends 



6is : 
to them : 



vel 

either 



attribuant 
let them assign 



agros 
lands 



sibi, 
to themselves, 



vel 



patiantur tenere 60s, 

let them permit (them) to hold these. 



quos possed6rint 
which they have possessed 



armis : 
by arms : 

unis; 

one [alone] 

possint 
are able 

quidem 
indeed 



(that they) 

qulbus 
to whom 



sese 
themselves 



conced^re 

(to) yield 



Suevis 

to the Suevi 



ne quTdem immortales 
not even the immortal 



esse 
to be 



pares : 
equal: 



(that) 



neminem 
no one 



dii 
gods 

reliquum 
remaining [else] 



esse 
to be [is] 



in 
in 



terris, quern 

the lands [on earth], whom 



non-possint 
they are not able 



superare. 
to overcome." 



8. Caesar respondit ad 
Caesar answered to 



visum-est ; sed 

seemed (best) ; but 



exitus 
the conclusion 



haec 

these (words), 

orationis 
of (his) speech 



quae 

what (things) 

ftiit: 

was : 



Nullam 
"No 



amicitiam 
friendship 



posse 

to be able [can] 



cum 

with 



his, 
them, 



si remanerent in 

if they should remain in 



esse 

(to) be 

Gallia 
Gaul : 



sibi 
for himself 



esse 

to be [is it] 



verum 

true [just] 



occupare alienos, 

to seize others' (lands). 



potu6rint non 

may have been able not 



n6que 
nor (are) 

possint 
may be able 



agros 
lands 



ullos 
any 

dari 
to be given 



tueri 

to defend 

vacare 

(to be) vacant 



SUOS 
their own 



in 
in 



Gallia, 
Gaul, 



ngque 

neither 

qui 
who 

fines : 

borders : 

qui 

which 



Sine 

without 



injuria, 

injury. 



praesertim 

especially 



a 


se : 




from 


himself: 


(he) 


ab 


Ublis.'' 




from 


the Ubii." 




se 


rela- 


themselves about to 


SllOS, 




et 


their own (people), 


and 



180 The Commentaries of Ccesar. BOOK IV 

tantae multitiulTiii: sed licere, si 

to so great a multitude: but (that) to be [it is] permitted, if 

v?lint, considere in finlbus Ubiorum ; 

they wish, to settle in the territories of the Ubii; 

legati quorum sint (pres. subj.) Spud se, 

ambassadors of whom are at [with] himself, 

et querantur (pres. subj.) de injurlis Suevorum, 
and complain of the injuries of the Suevi, 

et p^tant (pres. subj.) auxilTum 
and ask aid 

se impetraturum hoc 

himself about to [would] obtain this 

9. Leo^ati dixerunt 

The ambassadors said (that they) 

turos haec ad 

[would] carry back these (words) to 

re deliberate, reversuros 

the thing having been considered, (to be) about to [would] return 

ad CaesHrem post terttum diem : interna 
to Caesar after the third day : meantime 

petierunt ne moveret castra(pl.) proplus 

they requested (that) he would not move (his) camp nearer 

se. Caesar dixit ne id quidem posse 

themselves. Caesar said not this even to be able 

impetrari ab se. Enim cognov&rat 

[could] (to) be obtained from himself. For he had known 

magnam partem equitatus missam ab 

a great part of (their) cavalry having [had] been sent by 

lis ad Ambivaritos trans Mdsam, aliquot 
them to the Ambivariti across the Meuse, some 

diebus ante, causa praedandi que frumentandi : 
days before, for the sake of plundering and of providing corn : 

arbitrabatur hos equTtes expectari, 

he was thinking (that) these horsemen to be [were] awaited, 

atque m^ram interponi causa 

and the delay to be [was] interposed for the sake 

ejus r^i. 
of this thing. 



BOOK IV 



On the Gallic War. 



181 



10. M6sa profluit ex monte Vog^so, 

The Mosa [Meuse] flows from mount Vogesus 



[Vosgres], 



qui 

which 



est 

is 



et quadam parte 
and a certain part 



in 

in 

ex 

from 



finibus Lingonum ; 

the territories of the Lingones; 

Rheni recepta, 

[of] the Rhine having been received, 

quae appellatur Vahalis, efficit insiilam 

which (part) is called Vahalis [Waal], it forms the island 

Batavorum : n6que longius ab 60 

of the Batavi : and not farther from this (than) 



octoginta millTbus 
eighty thousand 



passuum influit in Oceanum. 
(of) paces it empties into the Ocean. 



Autem 

But 



Rhenus 
the Rhine 



oritur 

rises 



ex 

from 



Lepontiis, 

the Lepontii, 



inc5lunt Alpes, 
inhabit the Alps, 



et 
and 



fertur 
is borne 



citatus 
rapid 



longo 
in a long 



qui 
who 

spatio 
distance 



per 

through 



fines 

the territories 



NantuatTum, 
of the Nantuates, 



Helvetiorum, 
of the Helvetii, 



Sequanorum, 
of the Sequani, 

Treverorum ; 

of the Treveri ; 

diffiuit 
it flows apart 



Mediomatricorum , 
of the Mediomatrici, 



Tribocorum, 
of the Triboci, 



que 

and 



et iibi appropinquat 
and when it approaches 



in plures partes ; 

into more [several] parts [estuaries] ; 



Oce&no, 

(to) the Ocean, 

multis 
many 



que 
and 

pars 
part 



ingentibus 

great 



insiilis 
islands 



efFectis ; 
having been formed; 



quarum 

of which 



nationibus ; 
nations; 

existimantur 
are thought 

avium) ; 
of birds) ; 



incolTtur 
is inhabited 

(ex 
(from [of] 



a 

by 



fSris 

wild 



que 
and 



quibus sunt 

which (there) are 



que 

and 



capitibus. 
heads [outlets]. 

11. Quum 
When 



vivSre 

to live 

influit 
it empties 



Caesar 
Caesar 



piscibus 

(on) fishes 



atque 
and 



in 

into 



Oce&num 
the Ocean 



magna 
a large 

barbaris 

barbarous 

qui 

(some) who 

ovis 
the eggs 

multis 
by many 



abesset (imp. subj.) ab 
was distant from 



182 



The Commentaries of CcBsar. BOOK iv 



hoste 

the enemy 

passuum, 
(of) paces, 



non 

not 



amplTus 
more 



legati 
the ambassadors 



duod^cTm 
(than) twelve 

revertuntur 
returned 



ad 
to 



millTbus 
thousand 

6um, 
him, 



ut coiistitutum-^rat : 
as it had been appointed: 



qui congressi in 

who having met (him) on 



itin£re, orabant 
the march, were praying 



longlus. 
farther. 



Quum 

When 



magnopgre, ne pro|rrederetur 
very much, that he would not advance 

non impetrassent (pi. perf. 

they had not obtained 

petebant, iiti praemitt^ret 

they were asking, "that he would send before 



subj.) id, 
this, 

ad 60s equites, qui antecessissent (pi. perf. subj.) 



to these horsemen, who 



had preceded 



agmen, que 

the marching line, and 



prohiberet 60s pugna: que 

would prohibit them from battle: and 



uti faceret potestatem sibi mittendi 

that he would make an opportunity to themselves of sending 

legatos in UbTos : si quorum princTpes que 

ambassadors unto Ubii: if their chiefs and 

senatus fecissent fid em sTbi 

senate would make faith [give pledge] to themselves 

jurejurando, ostendebant se 

by oath, they were showing (that they) themselves 

usuros 6a conditione, quae ferretur 

about to use [would accept] this condition, which was offered 

a Caesftre ; dftret sibi spatTum tridfii 

by Caesar; let him give to themselves the period ofthreedays 



Caesar arbitrabatur 
Caesar was thinking (that) 



ec>dem-illc>, 
to this same (point), 



ad conficiendas has res." 
for accomplishing these things." 

omnia haec pertinere 

all these (things) (to) tend 

m6ra tridui interposita, 

the delay of three days having been interposed, 

abessent (imp. subj.) reverterentur : 
were absent might return : 



ut, 
that, 

eorum 
their 



equites 

horsemen 



qui 

who 



tSmen dixit sese processurum non 

however he said (that he) himself about to [would] advan';e not 



BOOK IV 



On the Gallic War. 



183 



longius quatiior millibus passiium 

farther (than) four thousand (of) paces 



60 

on this 



causa aquationis : 
for the sake of watering : 



convenirent 
let them assemble 



21 



hue 
hither 



frequentissimi 

most numerous [as many as possible] 



postgro 
on the following 



die 

day 

quam 

as 

die, 

day, 



ut cognosc^ret de 

that he might learn concerning 

Interim mittit ad 

Meanwhile he sends (persons) to 



eorum 

their 



postulatis. 
requests. 



antecessgrant cum 

had advanced with 

nuntiarent, 
should announce [instruct]. 



omni 

all 



praefectos, 
the commander, 

equitatu, 
the cavalry, 



qui 
who 

qui 
who 



ne lacesserent hostes 

that they should not provoke the enemy 



prcelio; et, si ipsi 

to battle; and, if (they) themselves 



lacesserentur, 
should be provoked, [attacked]. 



sustinerent quoad 

they should hold out until 



ipse 

(he) himself 



propius 
nearer 

12. At 

But 



cum 

with 



exercitu. 
the army. 
22 



hostes, ubi primum 

the enemy, when first [as soon as] 



accessisset 
should approach 



conspexerunt 

they beheld 



nostros equites, 
our cavalry. 



millium, 
thousand, 



quum 



numgrus 
the number 

ipsi 



quorum 
of whom 



grat 
was 



quinque 

(of) five 



haberent (imp. subj.) 



non 

not 



amplius 

more (than) 



octongentos 
eight hundred 



equTtes, 
cavalry. 



!i, qui igrant trans 

those, who had gone beyond 

frumentandi, nondum 

of foraging, had not yet 

timentibus nihil, quod 

fearing nothing, because 

discessgrant paulo ante 
a little before 



had departed 

dies 
day 



a 

from 



M6sam 

the Me use 

redi^rant ; 
returned ; 

eorum 
their 

Caes^re, 

Caesar, 



quod 

because 

causa 
for the sake 

nostris 
our (men) 

legati 
ambassadors 



atque 
and 



is 
this 



petitus-6rat ab 

had been sought by 



lis 
them 



indutiis (pl.),^^ 
for a truce, 



184 The Commentaries of Ccesar. BOOK iv 

imp6tu facto, perturbaverunt celeriter 

an attack having been made, confused quickly 

nostros. Nostris rursus resistentibus, desilierunt 

our (men). Our (men) again resisting, they leaped dowu 

ad p^des, sfia consuetudine, que §quis 

to feet, [on foot] by their custom, and the horses 

suffossis, que compluribus nostris 

having been stabbed, and very many (of) our (men) 

dejectis, conjecerunt relTquos in fugam ; 

having been cast down, they hurled the rest into flight ; 

atque egerunt ita perterritos, ut desistSrent 

and drove (them) so panicstricken, that they were ceasing 

(imp. subj.) non fuga prius quam venissent 

not from flight before that they had come 

(pi. perf. subj.) in conspectum nostri agminis. 
into sight of our marching line. 

Quatiior et septuaginta ex nostris equitibus 

Four and seventy out of our cavalry 

interficiuntur in ^o proelio; in his Piso, 

are killed in this battle; among these (was) Piso, 

fortissimus vir, Aquitanus, natus amplisstmo 

a most brave man, an Aquitanian, born from [of a] most distin- 

gen^re, cujus avus obtinuSrat regnum 
guished family, whose grandfather had obtained the sovereignty 

in sua civitate, appellatus amicus a nostro 

in his own state, having been called a friend by our 

senatu. Quum hie ferret (imp. subj.) auxilium 
senate. When he was bearing aid 

fratri intercluso ab hostibus, eripuit 

to (his) brother cut off by the enemy, he rescued 

ilium ex periculo ; ipse, Squo vulnerato, 

him from danger; (he) liimself, (his) horse having been 

dejectus restitit fortissTme qu6ad 

wounded, thrown down, resisted most bravely as long as 

potuit. Quum circumventus cecidisset 

he was able. When having been surrounded he had fallen; 

(pi. perf. subj.); multis vulneribus acceptis, 

many wounds having been received, 



BOOK IV On the Gallic War. 185 

atque frater, qui jam excess^rat proelio 

and (his) brother, who already had departed from the battle 

animadvertisset (pl.perf. subj.) id procul, 6quo 

(had) perceived this afar off, (his) horse 

incitato obtulit sese hostibus, 

having been urged on he threw himself to [upon] the enemy, 

atque interfectus-est. 

and was slain. 

13. Hoc proelTo facto, Caesar jam 

This battle having been done [fought], Ceesar now 

arbitrabatur n^que legates audiendos 

. was thinking (that) neither ambassadors (ought) to be heard 

sibi (dat.)j neque conditioiies accipiendas 

by himself, nor conditions (ought) to be received 

ab lis, qui, pace petita, intulissent 

from these, who, peace having been sought, had brought on 

(pi. perf. subj.) bellum ultro, per dolum 

war voluntarily, through deceit 

atque insidias (pi.). Vero judicabat esse 

and treachery. But he was judging (that) to be 

summae dementTae expectare, dum 

[it was] (of) the highest madness to wait, until 

copTae hostlum augerentur que 

the forces of the enemy should be increased and (their) 

equitatus reverteretur et infirmitate Gallorum 
cavalry should return and the weakness of the Gauls 

cognita, sentiebat quantum auctoritatis 

having been known, he was perceiving how much (of) prestige 

hostes consecuti-essent (pi. perf. subj.) S^pud ^os 

the enemy had obtained among them 

uno proelio; quTbus existimabat niliil^ 

by one battle; to whom he was judging nothing [not any] 

spatii dandum ad capienda consilia. 

of space [time] to [must] be given for taking counsels. 

His rebus constitutis, et consilio 

These things having been determined, and (his) plan 

communicato cum legatis et 

having been communicated with [to] the lieutenants and 



186 The Commentaries of CcBsar. BOOK iv 

quaestore, opportunissTma res accTdit, 

the quaestor, a most advantajjeous thing [incident] occurred, 

ne praetermitt^ret quern diem pugnae, quod 

that he might not omit any day of [for] a battle, because 

mane postridle ejus diei, German! 

in the morning the day after (of) this day, the Germans, 

frequentes, usi et eadem perfidTa et 

in numbers, having used both the same treachery and 

simulatione, omnibus principibus que 

pretence, all (their) chiefs and (those) 

majorlbus-natu adhibitis, venerunt ad 

greater by birth [the elders] having been brought, came to 

6um in castra (pi.); slmul,^^ ut dicebatur, 

him into the camp; as well, as it was said, 

causa purgandi sui, quod commisissent 

for the sake of clearing themselves, because they had joined 

(pi. perf. subj.) proellum pridie, (contra^ atque 

battle the day before, (contrary as 

dictum-esset (pi. perf. subj.), et ipsi 

(it) had been said, and (they) themselves 

petissent (pi. perf. subj.) ): simul ut impetrarent 
had requested) : as that they might obtain 

quid, si possent (imp. subj.), fallendo 

some (thing), if they could, by deceiving 

de indutiis (pi.). Quos oblatos 

concerning the truce. (When) whom [they] (were) presented 

sibi Caesar gavisus, jussit illos 

to himself Caesar, having rejoiced, commanded them 

retineri : ipse eduxit omnes copTas 

to be detained : he himself led out all (his) forces 

castris (pi.) ; jussit equitatum subs^qui 

from the camp ; he ordered the cavalry to follow near 

agmen, quod existimabat perterritum- 

the marching line, because he was thinking (it) to have [had] 

esse recenti proelTo. 

been alarmed by the late battle. 

14. Tripltci acTe institute, et itinCre 

A tripple battle line having been arranged, and a marcli 



BOOK IV 



On the Gallic War. 



187 



octo niillTum confecto celeriter, pervenit 

of eight miles having been completed quickly, he arrived 

ad castra (pi.) hostium, prTus quam German! 
at the camp of the enemy, before (that) the Germans 

;28 



possent 
were able 



sentire 

to perceive 



quid 
what 



ageretur : qui" 

was transpiring : who 



omnibus 
by all 



-29 



territi subito 

been panicstricken suddenly 

celeritate nostri adventus, 

by the quickness of our arrival, 

suorum, n6que 

of their own (people), neither 

habendi, consilii 

of having [forming]. a plan 

perturbantur, ne 

are confused (as to) whether 



rebus, 

the things. 



per- 

having 

et 

both 



et 

and 



spatTo 
space [time] 



discessu 
by the departure 

dato 
having been given 



ngque 
nor 



capiendi 
of taking 



praestaret 
it would be better 



copias 
(their) troops 

castra, 
the camp, 

quorum 
their 



adversus 
against 



hostem, 
the enemy. 



an 

or 



arma, 
arms, 

educgre 

to lead out 

defend^re 

to defend 



an 

or 



et 
and 



pristini 

of the former 



concursu, 

running, 

diei 
day. 



pet^ret salutem fiiga. Quum 

to seek safety by flight. When 

timor significaretur (imp. subj.) fremltu 

fear was signified by the noise 

nostri milTtes incitati perfidia 

our soldiers impelled by the treachery 

irruperunt in castra (pi) : in 

broke in upon the camp 



quo 

which 



loco, 
place. 



celeriter, 
quickly, 

atque 
and 

carros 
the wagons 

multitude 

multitude 



qui 

(those) who 

restiterunt 
resisted 



potuerunt 
were able 



cap^re 
to take 



in 

arma 
arms 



nostris (dat.) paulisper, 
our (men) a little while, 



commiserunt 
joined 



proelium 
battle 



que impedimenta, 
and baggage. 



puerorum 

of boys 



que 
and 



inter 
between [among] 

At relTqua 

But the remaining 

(nam 

(for 



muligrum 
(of) women 



excess^rant 
they had departed 



d6mo 
from home 



cum 
with 



omnibus 
all 



suis 
their 



188 Tlic Commentaries of Cccsar. BOOK iv 

que transi^rant Rlienum,) coepit fiifrgre 

(people) and had crossod the Rliine,) bejjan to flee 

passim, ad consectandos quos Caesar misit 

eveiyw liore, for pursuing wliom Caesar sent 

eqiiitatum. 
the cavahy. 

15. Germani, clamore audito post 

The Germans, a shout having been heard behind [in] 

tei'o^um, quum viderent (imp. subj.) suos 

the back [the roar], when tliey were beholding their 

interfici, armis abjectis 

(people) (to be) slaughtered, (their) arms having been cast away 

que militanbus signis relictis, ejecerunt 

and the military standards having been left, hurled 

se ex castris (pi.); et quum perven- 

themselves from the camp ; and when they had 

issent (pi. perf. subj.) ad confluentem M5sae 

arrived at the junction oftheMeuse 

et Rheni, relTqua fYij^a des- 

and (of) the Rhine, remaining [further] flight having 

perata, maj^no num$ro interfecto, 

been despaired of, a great number having been killed, 

relujui ])raecipitaverunt se in 

the rest dashed themselves headlong into 

flumen, atque oppressi Tbi timore 

the river, and having been overpowered there by fear 

lassitudine et vi flumTnis, 

by weariness and by the force of the river, 

perierunt. Omnes nostri incolumes ad 

they perished. All our (men) safe to 

unum, perpaucis vulneratis, receperunt 

one [to a man], very few having been wounded, betook 

se in castris (pi.) ex timore 

themselves into camp (freed) from the fear 

tanti belli, quum numerus hostium fuisset 
of so great a war, since the number of the enemy was 

quadrinf^entorum triffinta millTum capTtum. 
(of) four hundred thirty thousand of heads [souls]. 



BOOK IV 



On the Gallic War. 



189 



Caesar 
Caesar 

quos 
whom 

Tti 

feared 

quorum 
whose 



fecit potestem 
made 



discedendi lis, 



retinu6rat 
he had detained 

supplicTa 
the punishments 

agros 
lands 



power (an opportunity] of departing to those, 
in castris (pi.)* Uli ver- 



que 

and 



the camp. 

cruciatus 
tortures 



They having 

Gallorum, 

of the Gauls, 



vexav6rant, 
they had harassed. 



se 

themselves 

concessit 

granted 



remanere 
to remain 



S,pud 

at [with] 

his. 

to them. 



dixerunt 

said (that they) 

6um. Caesar 
him. Caesar 



velle 

(to) wish 

libertatem 

the liberty [privilege] 

16. GermanTco bello confecto, 

The German war having been finished, 

multis causis statuit Rhenum transeundum-esse 

many causes resolved (that) the Rhine to [must] be crossed 

quarum ilia fuit justissima ;'^ 

of which that [this] was the most just 



Caesar de 

Cuisar from 



sTbi (dat.); 
by himself 



quod, quum videret (imp. subj.) Germanos 



[strongest] because, when he was seeing (that) 

impelli tam facile, ut 

to be [were] incited [impelled] so easily, that 

in Galliam, volfiit 60s timere 

into Gaul, he wished them to fear 



the Germans 

venirent 
they should come 

suis 
for their own 



rebus qu6que, 

things [possessions] also, 

exercitum Romani popiili 

the army of the Roman people 

et audere transire 

and to dare [dared] to cross 

etiam, quod ilia 
also, that that 



quum intellig^rent 

when tliey should understand (that) 



pars 

part 



et 

both 

Rhenum. 
the Rhine. 

equitatus 
of the cavalry 



posse 

to be [was] able 

Accessit 

It was added 

Usip6tum 

of the Usi petes 



et Tencterorum, quam 

and of the Tencteri, which 



commemoravi supra 

I have mentioned above 



transisse 
(to have) crossed 



Mosam causa praedandi que 

the Meuse for the sake of plundering and 



frumentandi, ngque interfuisse proelio, 

of providing corn, nor (to have) [had] been present to [at] the bat- 



190 The Commentaries of Ccssar. BOOK iv 

recep6rat se trans Rhenum, post 

tie, had betaken itself across the Rhine, after 

fuffam suorum in fines Sugambrorum, 

the fliglit of their own (people) into the borders of the Sugambri, 

que conjunx^rat se cum lis. Ad quos^^ 

and had united itself with them. To whom 

quum Caesar misisset (pi. perf. subj.) nuncios, qui 
when Caesar had sent messengers, who 

postularent, titi ded6rent sTbi 60s, 

should demand, that they should surrender to himself those, 

qui intulissent (pi. perf. subj.) bellum sibi 

who had borne war to [on] himself 

que GallTae, responderunt : Rhenum finire 

and to [on] Gaul, they answered : "the Rhine to end [terminates] 

imperium Romani popiili : si existimaret^ 

the empire of the Roman people; if he should judge (it) 

non aequum Germanos transire in GallTam, 

not just (that) the Germans to [should] cross over into Gaul, 

se invito, cur postularet 

he himself (being) unwilling, why should he require (that) 

quidquam siii imperii aut potestatis esse 

any of his empire or power to [should] be 

trans Rhenum? Autem Ubii, qui uni ex 

across the Rhine? But the Ubii, who one [alone] from [of] 

Transrhenanis misSrant legatos ad Caesarem, 

the Over-Rhine (nations) had sent ambassadors to Caesar, 

fec^rant axnicitiam, dedgrant obsTdes, orbant 

had made friendship, had given hostages, were praying 

magnopgre, ut ferret auxilTum s!bi, 

very greatly, that he would bear aid to themselves, 

quc)d premerentur (imp. subj.) gravlter ab Suevis : 
because they were oppressed grievously by theSuevi: 

vel, si prohiberetur fac6re id occupationlbus 

or. if he sliould behindered to [from] doing this by the engagements 

rei publTcae, m(5d5 transportaret Rhenum 

of tlie state, only (that) he would carry over the Rhine 

exercltum : id futurum sUtis sIbi 

(his) army: that about to [would] be enough to themselves 



BOOK IV 



On the Gallic War. 



191 



ad 

for 



auxilTum 
aid 



que 

and 



spem reliqui temp6ris : 

hope of [forHhe remaining time: 



tantum 
so great 

Romani 
of a Roman 



esse 

to be [is] 



et 

and 

etiam 
even 



hoc 

this 



ad 
to 



exercitus, 

army. 

novissTmo 
newest [last] 

ultimas 
the remotest 



nomen atque opinionem 

the name and opinion [repute] 

1 35 
pulso, 

having been routed, 

prcelTo facto, 

battle having been done [fought], 



Ariovisto 

Ariovistus 



nationes Germanorum, titi 
nations of the Germans, that 



possint esse 

they may be able to be 



amicitia 
friendship 

magnam 

a great 

exercitum. 
the army,. 

17. Caesar 
Caesar 

decrevgrat 
had resolved 



Romani 
of the Roman 



copiam 

supply 



tuti opinione et 

safe by the opinion [repute] and 

populi." Pollicebantur 

people." They were promising 

navTum ad transportandum 
of ships for transporting 



de his causis, quas commemoravi, 

from these causes. which I have mentioned, 

transire Rhenum : sed arbitrabatur 

to cross the Rhine : but he was judging (that) 



ngque esse sS.tis tutum transire 

neither (it) to be [was] sufficiently safe to cross 

n6que statuebat esse 

nor was he considering (that) to be [it was] (worthy) 



dignitatis, n6que Romani populi: 

dignity, nor (that) of the Roman people: 

etsi summa difficultas fociundi 

although the highest [greatest] difficulty of making 

proponebatur, propter latitudinem, rapiditatem, 

was confronting (him), on account of the breadth, swiftness, 



navTbus, 
with ships, 

siiae 
of his own 

itS^que, 
therefore, 

pontis 
a bridge 



altitudinem fluminis ; tSmen 
depth of the river. yet 

contendendum sibi, 

to [must] be attempted by himself, 

exercitum non transducendum. 

the army not to [must not] be led over 



que 
and 

id 
this 



existimabat 
he was thinking 

aut aliter 

or otherwise 

Igttur 
Therefore 



102 Tlie CoiuDioitarics of Ccrsar. BOOK IV 

instituit banc rationtMii pontis. Jungebat 

lie fornu'd this plan of the bridge He was joining: 

bina sescjuipedalTa ti^na, pauluni praeacuta 

double [two] foot and half thick beams, a lillle sliarp pointed 

ab iiiio, dimensa ad 

from [at] the lowest (part). measured to [according to] 

altitudlnem fluminis, iiitervallo duoriim p?dum 
the depth of the river, with a distance of two feet 

inter se : cum defix?rat baec 

between themselves [them] ; when he liad fastened these 

demissa in flumen machinationibus que adeg^rat 

letdown into the river by machines and had driven 

fistucis, non directa ad perpendiciilum 

(them) with pile drivers, not straight to a perpendicular 

m6do sublTcae, sed prone ac fastigate, 

in the manner of a pile, but inclining and sloping, 

ut proc'umb^rent secundum naturam 

that they might leanTorward according to the nature [flow] 

fluminis : statuebat Item duo contrarla 

of the river: he was setting up also two (beams) opposite 

bis juncta ad eundem modum intervallo 

(to) these joined to [after] the same manner with an interval 

quadragenum p^dum ab inferiore })arte conversa 
of forty feet from the lower part turned 

contra vim atque impStum fluminis : utrilque 

against the force and pressure of the river: both 

haec distinebantur binis fibiibs utrimque 

these were separated by two clamps on either side 

ab extremTi parte, bipedalTbus trabibus 

from [at] the extreme part [the top], two foot wide beams 

immissis, quantum junctura eorum 

having been let in (to them), as much as the joint of these 

tignorum distabat : quTbus disclusis, 

beams was apart : which having been separated, 

.it(|ue revinctis in contrarTam partem 

and having been fastened on the opposite part [side] 

tanta ^rat firmitudo ojj^ris, atque ?a 

so great was the tirmness of the work. and this [such] 



BOOK IV O71 the Gallic War. 193 

natura rerum, ut quo-major vis 

the nature of tlie things [parts], that the greater the force 

aquae incitavisset se, hoc arctius 

of the water roused itself [increased], so much the more closely 

tenerentur (imp. subj.) illigata : haec directa 

they were kept fastened : these laid straight 

contexebantur materia injecta, 

were interwoven with material [timber] thrown on (them), 

ac consternebante longuriis que cratibus : 

and were strewed with long poles and hurdles: 

ac nihilo seems sublicae adigebantur oblique 

and in no wise [likewise] piles were driven obliquely 

ad inferiorem partem fluminis, quae sub- 

at the lower part of the river, which having been 

jectae pro parigte, et conjunctae cum 

put below for [as] a wall, and united with 

omni op^re, excip&rent vim fluminis: 

all the work, [would] receive the force of the river: 

et Item aliae mediocri spatTo supra 

and also other (piles) at a moderate distance above 

pontem, ut si trunci arbOrum sive naves 

the bridge, so that if trunks of trees or ships 

essent missae a barbaris, causa 

should be sent by the barbarians, for the sake 

dejiciendi, opfris vis earum rerum 

of casting down, the work the force of these things 

minueretur his defensorlbus, neu 

would be diminished by these defenses, nor 

nocerent ponti (dat). 

would they injure the bridge. 

18. Omni op?re effecto d6cem 

All the work having been completed in ten 

diebus, quTbus materia coepta-6rat comportari, 

days, in which the material had been begun to be gathered, 

exercTtus transducTtur. Caesar, firmo praesidio 
the army is led over. Caesar, a strong guard 

relicto ad utramque partem pontis, 

having been left at each part [end] of the bridge, 



194 



The Co7nme7itaries of Ccssar. BOOK IV 



contendit in 

hastoncil into 



fines Suffambrorum. 

the territories of the Suirambri. 



le<jati 
ambassadors 



a 

from 



coniplurlbus 
very many 



civitatlbus 

states 



ad 

to 



?uni, 

him, 



(luTbus petentTbus pacem 

to whom seekinif peace 



Interim 
Meantime 

venTunt 
come 

atque 
and 



amicitlam respondit bberalTter, que jiibet obsldes 
friendsliip lie answered generously, and orders hostages 



adduci 
to be brouglit 



ad 

to 



se. 

himself. 



Sugambri, 
The Siigambri, 



ex 

from 



tempore, quo pons 

time, in whicli the bridge 

fuffa comparata, 

flight having been prepared, 



cceptus-est 
was begun 



eo 

this (that] 

institui, 
to be built, 



lis hortantTbus, 

these exhorting (them), 



quos habebant ex Tenctfris atque Lsipetlbus 
whom they were having from the Tencteri and Usipetes 



Spud se, 

at [among] themselves, 

que exportav&rant 
and had carried away 



excesserant 
had departed 

omnia 
all 



suis 
from their 



finTbus, 
territories. 



abdid^rant 
had concealed 

silvas. 
woods. 

19. Caesar 

Caesar 

fin!bus 
territories 

incensis, 
having been h»rned, and 



se 
themselves 



moratus 
having delayed 

omnibus 
all 



in 
in 



sua, que 

their (effects), and 

solitudlnem ac 

the desert and 



paucos dies in eorum 

a few days in their 

vicis que aedificlis 

the villages and buildings 

succissis, 

the corn (having been) cut down. 



que frumentis (pi.) 



recepit se in fines Ubiorum ; atque 

betook himself into the territories oftheUbii; and 



pollicltus siium 

having promised his 



auxilium liis, si preme- 

aid to them, if they should 



rentur a Suevis, oofrnovit hire ab 

be oppressed by the Suevi, he learned these (things) from 

lis ; Suevos, postquam comperissent (pi. perf. 

them; (that) the Suevi, after (that) they had found 



BOOK IV 



On the Gallic War. 



195 



subj.) 
concilio 



a council 



per exploratores pontem 
by spies (that) a bridge 

habito, suo more, 

having been held, in their manner, 



se 

sent 



nuntios 
messengers 



in 

into 



onnes 
all 



partes, 
parts, 



rarent 
emigrate 

uxores, 
wives, 

atque 
and 



de 

from 

que 
and 



oppidis, 
the towns, 

omnia 
all 



omnes, 
all, 



qui 

who 



depongrent 
might deposit 

Slia 

their (effects) 

possent 

were able 



fi&ri, 
to be [was] made, 

dimisis- 
to have [had] 

demig- 

they might 

libgros, 
(their) children, 

in silvas, 

into [in] the woods, 



uti 
that 



ferre 

to bear 



arma, 
arms, 



convenirent 

should assemble 

delectum-esse 

to have [had] been chosen 



regionum, 
countries, 

exspectare 

to [they] await 



in unum Idcum : hunc 

into [in[ one place: (that) this (place) 

f6re medium earum 

nearly the middle of these 

Suevi obtinerent (imp. subj.): 
the Suevi were possessing: (that) 



quas 
which 

hic 
here 



constituisse 
to have [had] resolved 



Caesar 
Caesar 



comp6rit, 
discovered, 



confectis, 
having been completed 



adventum 
the approach 

decertare 
to flght 

omnibus 
all 

causa 
for the sake 



Romanorum, 
of the Romans, 

ibi. 



there. 

his 

these 

quarum 
of which 



Quod 

Which 



atque 
and 

tibi 
when 



rebus 

things [matters] 



rerum 

things 



con- 
he had 



stitugrat transducgre 
resolved to lead over 



exercTtum, 
(his) army. 



Ut 
that 



m6tum 
fear 

Sugambros, 
the Sugambri, 

octodgcim 
eighteen 



Germanis, 
to [in] the Germans, 



Rhenum, 
the Rhine, 

sS;tis 
enough 



ut liberaret 

that he might deliver 

diebus 
days 

arbitratus 



ut 
that 

Ubios 
the Ubii 



injicgret 
he might arouse 

ulcisceretur 

he might punish 

obsidione, 
from a blockade. 



omnino 
altogether 



consumptis 
being spent 



trans 
across 



profectum (esse) 



having thought (that) to have [he had] accomplished 

et ad laudem et ad 



both 



to [for] 



praise 



and 



to [for] 



196 



The Commentaries of Casar 



BOOK IV 



utilitatem, recepit se in 

advantagre [utility], lie betook himself into 



resold it 

cut down 



pontem. 

the bridge. 



20. Exifffia 
A small 



parte 
part 



aestatis 
of tlie summer 



Galliam que 
Gaul and 



relTqua, 
having been left, 



his 

these 

GallTa 

Gaul 



vergit 

lies 

proficisci 

to set out 



Caesar, etsi hi^mes in 

Caesar, although the winters in 

maturae, (quod omnis 

early, (because all 

Septentrionem), tclmen contendit 

the North), yet hastened 

Britanmam ; quod intelligebat 

Britain; because he was understanding 

subministrata (esse) inde nostris 

to have [hadj been supplied from there to our 

fere omnibus Gallicis bellis : et, si 
in nearly all the Gallic wars: and, if 



locis 
places 



sunt 
are 

ad 
to 

in 

into 



auxilTa 
(that) auxiliaries 

hostlbus, 
enemies, 



tempus 
the time 



anni deficSret ad gerendum bellum ; tftmen 

of the year should fail to carry on war ; yet 



arbitrabatur 
he was thinking (it) 

sTbi, 
vantage] to himself. 



fore magno ustii 

to be about to [would] be for [ofj great use [ad- 

m6d6 adisset insulam, 



si 
if 



only 



he should visit 



the island. 



perspexisset g^nus hominum, cognovisset l(5ca, 



should observe the kind of men, 

portus, aditus : quae 

harbors, approaches ; which 

incognita Gallis. 
unknown to the Gauls. 



should learn 



fgre 
nearly 



omnia 

all 



Enim neque quisquam 
Yox neither any one 



the places, 

?rant 
were 

adit 

goes 



illo temgre praeter mercatores 

thither rashly except merchants; 

quidquam notum lis 

any (thing) known to these 



n?que 
nor 



est 

is 



ipsis, 
themselves. 



maritimam 
the maritime 



Oram , 

coast, 



atque 
and 



^as 
these 



regiones, 

countries, 



praeter 
except 

quae 

which 



sunt 
are 



contra 

opposite 



GallTam. 

Gaul. 



Itilque, 

Therefore, 



mercatoribus 
the merchants 



BOOK IV 



On the Gallic War. 



197 



convocatis 
having been called together 



undique 

from every side 



ad 
to 



potgrat 
he vv^as able 

magnitudo 
the size 

nationes 

nations 

belli 

of w^arfare 



reperire 
to find 

insulae, 

of the island, 

incolSrent, 
might inhabit (it), 

haberent, 
they might have. 



nSque 
neither 



quanta 
how gieat 



n6que 
nor 



quae 
what 



ngque 



nor 



aut 
or 

quern 
what 



se, 
himself, 

esset 
might be 

quantae 
how great 

usum 
method 



aut quibus (abl.) institutis 
or what customs 



uterentur, 

they might use, 



ngque 
nor 



qui portus assent idon6i 

what harbors might be suitable 



ad multitudtnem 
for a number 



majorum 
of the larger 



navium. 

ships. 



21. Arbitratus esse 

Having thought (it) to be [was] 

fac6ret periciilum, praemittit 

the trial, he sends before (him) 



idon^um, prius quam 
proper, before (that) 



he should make 

Volusenum 
Volusenus 

cognoscenda 

ascertaining 



cum longa navi, 

with a long ship [war ship], 

haee. Mandat huic (dat.) 

these (things). He charges him 



Caluin 

Caius 

ad 

for 

ut, 

that, 



omnibus rebus exploratis, 

all things having been reconoitered. 



revertatur 

he should return 



ad se quam 

to himself as soon 

cum omnibus 
with all 



primum. Ipse proficiscltur 

as possible. He himself sets out 

copiis in Morinos, quod 

(his) forces into the Morini, because 



trajectus inde in Britanmam 6rat brevissTmus. 

the passage from there into Britain was the shortest. 



Jubet 

He orders 



naves 

ships 



finitlmis 
the neighboring 

fec^rat ad 

he had made for 



convenire 

to assemble 

regionibus, 
countries, 

Veneticum 

the Venetian 



hue undique ex 

hither from everywhere from 



et 

and 



classem, 

the fleet. 



quam 

which 



bellum 



superiore 
in the preceding 



aestate. Interim ejus consilio cognito, 

summer. Meantime his design having been known [learned], 



198 



The Commejitaries of Ccssar. book iv 



et perlato 

and having been reported 



ad 

to 



Britannos 
the Britons 



mercatores, 
the merchants, 



complurlbus 
very many 

polliceantur 
promise 



legati 
ambassadors 

civitatTbus 

states 



venTunt 
came 

ejus 

of this 



ad 
to 



6um 

him 

insiilae, 

island, 



per 

through 

a 

from 

qui 
who 



dare obsTdes, atque obtemperare 
to give hostages, and to obey 

imperTo (dat.) Romani popfili. Qutbus auditis, 

the empire of the Roman people. Whom having been heard, 



pollicltus 
having promised 



liberaliter, 
generously, 



ut permanerent in 

that they should continue in 



que 
and 

this 



hortatus 
having exhorted (them) 



sententTa 
determination 



et 

and 



quem 
whom 



60s d6mum : 

them (back) home : 

Commlum 

Commius, 

Ibi, Atrebatibus 
there, the Atrebates 

virtutem et consilTum 
valor and discretion 

arbitrabatur 
he was thinking 

habebatur 

was held [considered] 



una 

together 



cum 

with 



his 
these 



ipse 

(he) himself 



contitu^rat 
had appointed 



superatis, et 

having been overcome, and 

probabat, et 

he was approving, and 



remisit 
he sent 

mittit 
he sends 

regem 
king 

cujus 
whose 

quem 
whom 



fidelem sTbi, que cujus auctorltas 
faithful to himself, and whose authority 

in his regionlbus : 

in these countries; 



magna 
great 



impgrat huic (dat.)? adSat 



he commands him. 



possit, 
he may be able, 



que 
and 



(that) he should visit 

hortetur 
should exhort (them) 



[accept] 



fldem 

the faith 



Romani 
of the Roman 



popfili, 

people. 



quas 
what 

Ut 

that 

que 

and 



civitates 
states 

sequantur 
they follow 

nun- 
he should 



t!et 

announce (that he) 



60 celerlter. 
there quickly. 



se venturum 

himself about [was] to come 

Volusenus, regionTbus perspectis, quantum 

Volusenus, the countries having been reconnoitered, as much 



facultatis potuit dliri 6i, 

(of) opportunity (as) was able to be given to him. 



qui 
who 



BOOK IV On the Gallic War. 199 

non auderet egredi navi, ac 

might not dare to disembark from the ship, and 

committgre se barba,ris, revertltur quinto 

to entrust himself to the barbarians, returns on the fifth 

die ad Caesarem, que renuntiat quae 

day to Caesar, and announces what (things) 

perspexisset (pi. perf. subj.) !bi. 
he had discovered there. 

22. Dum Caesar commoratur in his l6cis 

While Caesar delays in these places 

causa parandarum navlum, legati venerunt 
for the sake of preparing ships, ambassadors came 

ad 6um ex magna parte Morinorum, que 
to him from a great part of the Morini, who 

1 •! 39 

excusarent se de consilio superioris 

excused themselves concerning the design of the former 

temp5ris; quod barbari homines que 

time ; because (being) barbarous men and 

imperiti nostras consuetudinis (gen.), fecis- 

unacquainted with our custom, they had 

sent (pi. perf. subj.) bellum Romano populo; 

made war [on] the Roman people ; 

que pollicerentur se facturos 

and promised (that they) themselves about to [would] do 

6a, quae imperasset. Caesar arbitratus 

these (things), which he commanded. Caesar having thought 

hoc accidisse opportune s^tis sTbi ; 

this to have [had] happened conveniently enough for himself; 

quod volebat ngque relinqu^re hostem 

because he was wishing neither to leave an enemy 

post tergum, nSque habebat facultatem 

behind (his) back, nor was he having the means 

gerendi belli propter tempus anni ; 

of carrying on war on account of the time of the year; 

nSque judicabat has occupationes tan- 

nor was he judging (that) these engagements of so 

tularum rerum anteponendas sTbi (dat.) 

trifling things [matters] to [should] be preferred by himself 



200 



The Commentaries of CcEsar. BOOK iv 



BritannTa^: inn)^rat his mafrnum num^rum 

to Britain: he dt'inantls from them a {;freat number 

40 



obsTdum. QuTbus adductis, 

of hostages. Whom liaving been brouglit, 

in fidem. CircTter octof^inta 
into allegiance. About eighty 

navibus coactis que 

ships having been collected and 



recepit 
he received 



60s 
them 



onerarTis 

burden [transport] 

contractis, 
brought together, 



quot 
as many as 



existiniabat 
he was thinking 



esse 

to be [was] 



Scltis 
sufficient 



ad 
for 



quaes- 
to the 



transportandas diias legiones, distribtiit 
transporting two legions, he distributed 

tori, leoatis que praefectis quod 

quaestor, to the lieutenants and perfects what(ever) 

lonfyaruni navTum praeterea habebat : hue 

(of) long ships [war ships] besides he was having: hither 

accedebant octodecim oneranae naves, 

were added eighteen burden [transport] ships, 

tenebantur vento octo millibus 

were detained by the wind eight thousand 

?o loco, 
this place, 

pervenire in eundeni portuni : distribuit 

to arrive into [at] the same harlx)r: he distributed 

has equitibus ; d^dit reliquum exercitum 

these to the horsemen ; he gave the rest of the army 

Quinto Titui'To Sabino, et LucTo Aurunculelo 

to Quintus Titurius Sabinus, and to Lucius Aurunculeius 



[to these] 

quas 
which 

passiium 
(of) paces 



ex 

from 



quo 
that 



minus possent 

they were the less [not] able 



Cottae, 


legatis. 


deducen 


dum in 


Menaplos 


Cotta, 


(his) lieutenants, 


to be led down into 


the Menapii 


atque 


in 60s 


pagos 


Morinorum, ab 


and 


into these 


cantons 


of the Morini, from 


quTbus 


legati 


non 


V entrant 


ad 6um • 


which 


ambassadors 


had not 


come 


to him : 


jussit 


PublTum \ 


Sulpicium 


llufum 


le«]Catum 


he ordered 


Tublius 


Sulpicius 


Rufus 


his) lieutenant 


tenere 


portum 


cum 


eo 


praesidio, 


to hold 


the harbor 


v/jth 


this 


guard. 



BOOK IV 



On the Gallic War. 



201 



esse 

to be [was] 



quod arbitrabatur 

which he was thinking 

23. His re})us constitutis, nactus 

These tilings having been arranged, having got 



tempestatem 
weather 



navigandum, 
for sailing. 



solvit 
he cast loose 



satis, 
sufficient. 

idongam 
suitable 

f6re 

nearly 



tertia vif^ilia, que jussit equTtes progr6di 

at the third watch, and commanded the cavalry to proceed 

in ulteriorem portum, et conscend6re naves, 
to the farther harbor, and to board the ships, 

.41 



ac 

and 



s6qui 
to follow 



se : 
himself: 



ab 

by 



quTbus 
whom 



cum 

when 



tratum-esset (pi. perf. subj) 
performed 



paulo 
a little 



adniinis- 
it had been 

tardius, 
more slowly, 



ipse 

(he) himself 



attigit 
touched [reached] 



navTbus 

ships 

ibi 

there 



circiter 
about 



conspexit 
he beheld 



quarta 

the fourth 

copias 
the forces 



Britanniam cum 
Britain with 

hora (abl.) diei : 
hour of the day 

hostium armatas, 

of the enemy armed. 



primis 
the first 

atque 
and 



exposTtas in 
drawn up on 



hsec 

this 



Srat 

was 



montibus 
by heights 



ita 

so 



omnibus 
all 

natura : 
the nature; 

anguste, 

closely. 



collibus. 
the hills. 



Cujus 

Of which 



I6ci 

place 



Ut 

that 



mare 

the sea 

telum 
a weapon 



continebatur 

was bounded 

posset 

might be able 



[could] 

littus. 
the shore. 

idongum 
suitable 



adjTci 

(to) be cast 



ex 

from 



superioribus 
the higher 



l(5cis 
places 



in 

upon 



Arbitratus 
Having thought 



hunc 

this 



lr)cum 

place 



nequaquam 
by no means 



ad egrediendum expectavit in anch5ri 

for disembarking he waited in [at] anchor 



(pi.) 



naves 

ships 

que 
and 



ad nonam 
to the ninth 

convenirent 
should assemble 



horam, 
hour, 

6o. 
there. 



dum 
until 

Interim 

Meantime 



relTquae 
the remaining 

legatis 

the lieutenants 



tribunis 
tribunes 



militum 
of soldiers 



convocatis, 
having been called together, 



202 



The Commentaries of CcEsar. BOOK IV 



ostendit 
he showed (them) 



et quae cognovisset (pi. perf. 

both what (things) he had learned 



jubj.) 



ex 

from 



Voluseno, 
Volusenus, 



et 

and 



quae 
what 



figri : 

to be done : 



que 
and 



monuit 
he warned (that) 



omnes 
all 



vellet 
he wished 

res 

things 



administrarentur 
should be managed 



ab 

by 



tempus 

time 



Ut 

as 



lis 
them 
42 



ad 

at 



nutum 
the nod 



ratio 

the method 



militaris 
of military 



ad 

to [on] 

r6i (sing), 



et 

and 



affairs. 



maxime 

(and) especially 

(imp. subj.), (ut 

(as 



atque 
and 



cel6rem 
a quick 

dimissis, 
having been dismissed, 



ut maritimae res postularent 

as maritime affairs were demanding, 

quae haberent (imp. subj.) 

which [they] were having 

instabllem motum.) His 

unsteady movement.) These 



ventum 
wind 



et 

and 



et 

and 

aestum 

tide 



dato, 

having been given, 



et 

and 



[weighed], 

passuum 
(of) paces 



progressus 
having advanced 



nactus 
having got 

uno 

at one 

anchoris 
the anchors 

circiter 
about 



et 

both 



secundum 
a favorable 



temp5re, 

time, 



signo 
a signal 



sublatis, 
having been taken up 



octo 
eight 



millia 
thousand 



ab 

from 



60 

this 



aperto 
against an open 

24. At 

But 



ac 

and 



loco, 

place, 

piano 

level 



constitiiit naves 

he stood [stationed] the ships 

litt5re. 
shore. 



barbSri, 
the barbarians. 



consilio 
the design 



Romanorum 

of the Romans 



cognito, 
having been known. 



equitatu 
the cavalry 



praemisso, et 

having been sent before, and 



essedariis ; 
the charioteers; 

plerumque 
generally 

relTquis 
with the rest of 



quo 

which 

uti 
to use 



gen^re (abl.) consueverunt 

kind [means] they have been accustomed 

proeliis, subsecuti 

battles, having followed near 



in 

in 



COpilSj 
(their) forces, 



prohibebant 
they were hindering 



nostros 
our (men) 



BOOK IV 



On the Gallic War. 



203 



egr6di 
to come out [from disembarking] 



navibus. Erat 

from the ships. (There) was 

summa difficultas ob has causas, quod 

the highest (greatest] difficulty for these reasons, because 



naves, 
the ships, 



propter 
on account of 



magnitudinem non pot6rant 

(their) size were not able 



constituti n!si in 

to be stationed unless in 

desiliendum 
to [it must] be leaped down 

et consistendum 

and to [must] be stood 

cum hostibus 
with the enemy 



alto: 
the deep : 

sTmul 
at the same time 



autem 
moreover 



et 
both 



6rat 
it was 



de 

from 



navibus, 
the ships. 



fluctibus, 
in the waves, 

militlbus, 
by the soldiers, 



et 

and 



pugnandum 

to [must] be fought 



ignotis 
in unknown 



impeditis 
with encumered 



manibus, 
hands. 



pressis 

oppressed 



inagno 
with a great 



l6cis, 
places, 

et 
and 



grS,vi on§re armorum; quum illi conjic^rent (imp. 
heavy load of arms: while they were hurling 



SU 



bj.) 



tela 
weapons 



progressi 
having advanced 



omnibus 
in all 



audacter 
boldly 

paulum 
a little 

membris, 

limbs. 



aut 

either 



in 
into 



ex 

from 

ftquam, 
the water. 



arido aut 

dry (ground) or 

expediti 
unencumbered 



(their) 
incitarent (imp. subj.) 



notissTmis 
in very well known 



were urging on 



?quos 
the horses 



l6cis, et 
places, and 

insuefactos. 
accustomed to (it). 



QuTbus 
By which 

imperiti 
unskilled 

nitebantur 
were striving 

(abl.), 



rebus 
things 

omnino 
altogether 

non 

not 



nostri 

our (men) 

hujus 
of [in] this 



perterriti, 
being dismayed, 



generis 
kind 



pugnae, 
of battle. 



eadem 
with the same 



alacritate ae 
eagerness and 



atque 

and 

omnes 

all 

studio, 
zeal, 



quo (abl.) 
which 



consuevgrant 
they had been accustomed 



uti 

to use 



in 
in 



pedestribus proeliis. 

infantry battles. 

9.T Quod I'lbi Caesar 

Which when Caesar 



:o. 



animadvertit, 
perceived, 



jussit 
he ordered 



204 The Commentaries of CcEsar. BOOK iv 

lon^as naves species quarum et 

the long ships [war ships], the appearance of which both 

l^rat inusitatior barbilris, et motus 

■was more unusual to the barbarians, and tlie motion 

expeditTor ad usum, removeri paulum ab 

more easily for use, to be removed a little from 

onerariis navibus, et incitari 

the burden [transport] ships, and to be impelled 

remis, et constitui ad apertum lS,tus 

with oars, and to be stationed at the open flank 

hostium, atque hostes propelli ac 

of the enemy, and the enemy to be repulsed and 

submoveri inde fundis, tormentis, 

to be removed from there by slings, shooting engines, 

sagittis ; quae res fiiit magno usiii 

arrows; which thing [means] was for [of] great use 

nostris. Nam barbari permoti et 

to our (men). For the barbarians much alarmed both 

figura navium, et motu remorum, 

by the shape of the ships, and by the motion of the oars, 

et inusitato genere tormentorum, constit- 

and by the unusual kind of the shooting engines, halt- 

erunt, ac :'etulerunt p6dem paulum. Ac, 

ed, and retraced (their) foot [steps] a little. And, 

nostris militibus cunctantTbus, maxTme propter 
our soldiers delaying, chiefly on account of 

altitudinem maris, qui ferebat aquilam 

the depth of the sea, (he) who was bearing the eagle 

decTmae legionis, obtestatus deos, ut ?a 

of the tenth legion, having implored the gods, thai this 

res eveniret felicTter legioni: inquit, 

thing might happen fortunately to the legion: says, 

Desilite, commilitones, nisi vultis prod?re 
"Jump down! fellow soldiers, unless you wish to betray 

aquilam hostibus; ^go certe praestit^ro 

the eagle to the enemy; I certainly shall have performrd 

m^um officTum rei publTcae atque Imperatori." 

ray duty to the republic and to (my) Commander." 



BOOK IV 



On the Gallic War. 



205 



Quum dixisset (pi. perf. subj.) hoc magna 



When he 

voce, 
voice. 

coepit 
began 

nostri 

our (men) 

universi 
every one 

ded^cus 

a disgrace 



had said 

proj ecit 
he cast 

ferre 

to bear 



this with a great [loud] 



se 
himself (forth) 

aquTlam 

the eagle 



ex 

from 



navi, 

the ship, 



in hostes. 

against the enemy. 



atque 
and 

Turn 

Then 



cohortati inter 

having encouraged among 

desilierunt ex 
leaped down from 

admitteretur. Quum 

should be allowed. When 



se, 
themselves [each other], 



navi, 

the ship, 



ne 

lest 



tantum 
so great 



alii 
others 



item 

also 



ex 

from 



proxTmis navibus conspexissent (pi. perf. subj.) hos, 

these, 

hostibus (dat.). 
the enemy. 

utrisque (plur.) 



beheld 
appropinquarunt 



the nearest ships 

subsecuti 

having followed close they approached 

26. Pugnatum-est ^ acriter ab 

It was fought vigorously by each 

TS.men nostri perturbabantur magnopSre, qu6d 
However our(men) were disordered [confused] very greatly, because 



pot^rant 

they were able 



n^que 

neither 



serv^are 
to keep 



ordines, 

(their) ranks. 



ngque 
nor 



insistSre firmiter, n^que subs^qui signa, 

to stand firmly, nor to follow the standards (closely), 



atque 
and 



alius ex alia navi 

one from one (another from another) ship 



aggregabat se quibuscumque signis occurr^ret. 

was attaching himself to v.hatever standards he should meet. 

Ver6 hostes, omnibus v^dis notis, 

But the enemy, all the shallows having been [being] known, 



tibi conspex^rant ex litt6re 

when they had beheld from the shore 



ex 

from 



egredientes singulares 

coming out single [singly] 

incitatis, adoriebantur 

(having been) urged on, were attacking 

Plures circumsistebant 

More [several] were surrounding 



navi, 
a ship, 



alTquos 
some 

^quis 

(their) horses 



impeditos. 
(them) encumbered. 



paucos : 
a few: 



alTi 
others 



206 



The Commentaries of Ccesar. BOOK IV 



conjiciebant tela in universes ab aperto 

were liurling (tlieir) weapons upon the whole [the mass] from the open 



latere. 

flank 



Quod 
Whicli 



quum 
when 



perf. subj.), jussit 
he ordered 



Caesar 
Caesar 

scTiplias 

the skiffs 



animadvertisset (pi. 
had observed, 



[war ships], 

militibus ; 
with soldiers, 



Item 
likewise 

et 

and 



longarum 
of the long 

speculatorla-navigia 

the spy-boats 



submittebat 
he was sending 



subsidia 

aid 



navTum, 

ships, 

compleri 
to be filled 

his, 

to these. 



quos conspex^rat 

whom he had beheld 

atque constiterunt 
as they stood 



laborantes. 

laboring. 



Nostri 
Our (men) 



in 

on 



SUIS 

their (comrades) 



consecutis, 
having followed, 



in 

upon 

ffigam : 
flight: 

quod 
because 



hostes, 
the enemy, 

ngque 
nor 

equites 

the horsemen 



atque 
and 



arido, 

dry (ground), 

fecerunt 

made 

dederunt 

gave [put] 



simul- 
as soon 

omnibus 
all 

imp§tum 
a charge 



60s 
them 



in 

to 



potuerunt 
were they able 



non 

had not 



prosequi 
to pursue 

potu^rant 
t)een able 



cursum, atque 
(their) course, and 

unum defiiit 

one (thing) was wanting 



fortunam. 

good fortune. 

27. Hostes, 
The enemy. 



capSre insulam. 

to take [reach] the island. 

Caes^ri ad 
to Caesar for 



longTus 
rather far 

tenere 
to hold 

Hoc 

This 



pristTnam 

(his) former 



superati 
having been overcome 



proelTo, 

in the battle. 



miserunt 
sent 



pace, 

peace, 

fflga 
flight: 



statim 
immediately 

simul-atque 
as soon as 

po'ilicTti-sunt 



legatos 
ambassadors 

receperunt 
they recovered 

sese 



ad 

to 



CaBsS.rem 
Caesar 

se 

themselves 
daturos 



de 
about 

from 



they promised (that they) themselves about to [would] give 



obsTdes, 
hostages. 



que 

and 



facturos 
about to [would] do 



quae imperasset. 
what he might command. 



BOOK IV 



On the Gallic War. 



207 



Atrgbas 

the Atrebatian 



CommTus 

Cominius 

legatis, quem 
ambassadors, whom 

um (-esse) in 
been sent before into 



venit 
came 



una 

together 



cum 

with 



his 

these 



demonstrav^ram 
I had shown 



Britanniam 
Britain: 



illi 

they 



supra praemiss- 
above to have [had] 

com preh en dgrant 
had seized 



hunc egressum e 

him having disembarked from 



navi, quum deferret 
the ships, when he was bearing, 



(i 



imp. su 



Caesaris 
of Caesar 

vincula. 

chains. 



bj.) modo 

in the character 



oratoris 
of an envoy, 



mandata 

the commands 



ad 
to 



60s, 
them. 



Tum 
Then 



remiserunt 

they sent (him) back 



et 

and 



culpam 
the blame 

petiverunt, 

sought, 



ejus 

of this 



atque conjecgrant in 

and had thrown (him) into 

proelTo facto, 

the battle having been done [fought], 

in petenda pace contulerunt 
in seeking peace they laid 

r6i in multitudinem, et 

thing upon the multitude. and 



Ut 
that 



ignosceretur 
it might be pardoned 



propter 
on account of 



questus 
having complained 



qu5d 
that 



pacem 

peace 



a 

from 



imprudentiam. Caesar 
ignorance. Caesar, 

petissent (pi. perf. subj.) 

they had sought 

legatis missis ultr6 in continentem, 

ambassadors having been sent voluntarily into [to] the continent, 

intulissent (pi. perf. subj.) bellum 

they had waged war 



sme 
without 



quum 
when 

se, 
himself. 



causa, 



cause. 



dixit ignoscgre 

said to [he would] pardon 



imprudentiae,'*^ que 
(their) indiscretion, and 



obsTdes : partem quorum illi dederunt 

hostages: part of whom they gave 

statim : dixerunt sese daturos 

immediately: they said (that they) themselves about to [would] give 

paucis diebus 
in a few days 

oribus l6cis. Interna jusserunt suos 

distant places. Meantime they ordered their (people) 



imperavit 
demanded 



partem 

a part 



arcessitam 

sent for 



ex longinqui- 
from more 



208 The Conimcniarics of Cccsar. BOOK IV 



remifjrare in .'ifrros; que princTpes 

to return into [to] the lands [country] ; and the chiefs 

coeperuiit convenere undique et commendare 

began to assemble from every side and to recommend 

se que suas civitates Ca^sari. 

themselves and their states to Cijcsar. 

28. Pace firmata his rebus, 

Peace having been established by these things, 

octodgeim naves de quibus demonstratum-est 

the eighteen ships concerning which it had been shown 

supra, quae sustulerant ecjuTtes, solverunt 

above, which had taken up [embarked] the cavalry, cast loose 

ex superiore portu leni vento, quar- 

from the-apper harbor with a gentle wind, the 

turn diem post quam ventum-est in 

fourth day after that it was come [they came] into 

Britanniam : quum quae appropinquarent 

Britain: when which [these] were approaching 

(imp. subj.) Britannt^ae (dat), et viderentur (imp. 
Britain, and were seen 

subj.) ex castris (pi.), tanta tempestas 

from the camp, so great a storm 

subito coorta-est, ut nulla earum posset (imp. 
suddenly arose, that no one of them was able 

subj.) tenere cursum, sed aliae referrentur 

to hold the course, but some were carried back 

(imp. subj.) codem unde profectae ?rant ; 

to the same (place) whence they had set out ; 

aliae dejicerentur (imp. subj.) ad inferiorem 

others were cast down [driven] to the lower 

partem insulae, quae est propTus occasum 

part of the island, which is nearer the setting 

solis cum suo ma<i^no periciilo quae 

of the sun [the west] with their great danger which [they] 

ta,men, anchoris jactis, cum complerentur 

however, anchors having been cast, wlien they were filled 

(imp. subj.) fluctibus, provecta* necessaries 

with the waves, having been borne out necessarily 



BOOK IV 



On the Gallic War. 



209 



in 

into 



altum 
the deep 

continenteni. 
the continent. 

29. Accidit 
It happened 

esset (imp. subj.) 



adversa nocte, petiverunt 

in an unfavorable night, they sought 



eadem 

in the same 



plena, 
full, 



nocte, 

night, 

quae 

which 



Ut 
that 

dies 

day 



suevit 

accustomed 



in 

in 



oceS.no ; 

the ocean ; 

Ita 

Thus 



effic6re 
to produce 

que 

and 



id 

this 



maxinios 
the greatest 

6rat 
was 



maritimos 
maritime 

incogmtum 
unknown 



luna 
the moon 

con- 
has been 

aestus 
tides 

nostris. 
to our 



(men) 

et 

both 



curavgrat 
had taken care (that) 



aestus 
the tide 



complebat 

was filling 



quas 
which 



longas naves, 

the long ships [war ships], 

exercitum 
the army 

Caesar subduxgrat in 
Caesar had drawn up on 



Caesar 
Caesar 



uno tempore 
at one time 

(quTbus'^^ 
(in which 

transportandum) 
to [should] be carried over) 

aridum ; et 

dry (ground) ; and 



quae 

which 



tempestas afflictabat onerarias, 

the storm was shattering the transports, 

6rant ad anchoras (pi.): n6que ulla 
fastened at anchor nor any 



deligatae- 
had been 



aut administrandi 

either of managing 

nostris. Compluribus 

to our (men;. Very many 

quuni reliquae 
[wrecked], since the rest 



aut auxiliandi 
or of aiding 

navibus ^^^^y,^^, 

ships having been broken 

essent (imp. subj.) inutiles 

useless 



facultas 
opportunity 

dabatur 
was given 

fractis, 



were 



ad navigandum, 

for sailing, 

reliquis 
the remaining 

perturbatio 
alarm 



que 

and 



quod 
which 



6rat 
was 



funibus, anchoris, 

ropes [cables], anchors, 

armamentis (pi.) amissis, magna 

rigging having been lost, a great 

totius exercTtus facta-est, (id 

of the whole army was occasioned, (this 

necesse accid6re). Enim n6que 

inevitable to happen). For neither 



210 The Comme7itaries of Ccesar. BOOK IV 

6rant alTae naves, qu!bus possent (imp. 

were (there) other ships, l)y wliich they were able 

subj.) reportari ; et omnia^^^ degrant, 

to be carried back ; and all (things) were wanting, 

quae essent usiii ad reficiendas ; naves 

which would be for [of] use for repairing; ships 

et qu5d constabat omnibus oportere 

and because it was evident to all (it) to be [was] expedient 

hiemare in GallTa, frumentum non provisum 
to winter in Gaul, corn had not been 

6rat in his l6cis in hiSmem. 

provided in these places against the winter. 

30. Quibus rebus cognitis, princTpes BritannTae, 
Which things having been known, the chiefs of Britain, 

qui post proelTum convengrant ad Caesarem^ 

who after the battle had come together to Caesar 

collocuti inter se ; quum intelliggrent 

having conferred among themselves; when they were understanding 

(imp. subj.) ^quites, et naves et frumentum 
(that) horsemen, and ships and corn 

deesse Romanis, et cognoscgrent (imp. 

to be [were] wanting to the Romans, and were ascertaining 

subj.) paucitatem nostrorum milTtum ex exifjuitate 
the fewness of our soldiers from the smallness 

castrorum (pi.); quae etiam 6rant (pi.) angustiora 
of the camp ; which also was more narrow 

hoc, qu5d Caesar transportav^rat 

from this fact, because Caesar had brought over 

legiones sine impedimentis ; duxerunt esse 

the legions without baggage; considered (this) to be [was] 

optimum factu, rebellione facta, prohibere 

best tot)edone, a revolt having been made, to prevent 

nostros frumento que commeatu, et produc?re 

our (men) from corn and provisions, and to prolong 

rem in hi?mem ; qucM his superatis, 

the thing [campaign] into the winter; because these having been 

aut interclusis reditu, confidebant 

overcome, or intercepted from a return, they were trusting (that) 



BOOK IV 



On the Gallic War. 



211 



nemTnem 

no one 

Britanniam 

Britain 

conjuratione 
a conspiracy 

disced6re 

to depart 

deduc6re 
to lead out 

31. At 

But 



postga 
afterwards 

causa 
for the sake 



m 

into 



transiturum 
about to [would] crossover 

inferendi belli. It^que, 

of waging war. Therefore, 



facta 
having been made 



paulatim 
little by little 



ex 

from 



rursus, coeperunt 

again, they began 

castris (pi.), ac 
the camp, and 



clam 

secretly 

Caesar, 
Caesar, 



SllOS 
their (men) 



ex 

from 



agris. 
the fields. 



eorum 

their 



consilia 
plans 



etsi 
although 

t&men 
however 



nondum, 
he had not yet, 



cognov6rat 
known 



suspicabatur 
he was suspecting 



f5re, 
to be about to [would] be, 



suarum 
of his 



navium, 

ships. 



quod 
which 

et 
and 



id 

(that) this 

accTdit, et ex eventu 
happened, both from the fate 



ex 

from 



60, 
this (fact). 



intermisgrant 
they had omitted [failed] 



comparabat 
he was preparing 



omnes 
all 



nam 

for 



et 

both 



agris 
the fields 

(abl.) 

[timber] 



in 
into 



dare obsides 
to give hostages 

subsidia (pi.) ad 
aid [remedies] for 

conferebat frumentum 

he was bringing corn 

castra;(pl.) et utebatur 
the camp; and was using 



quod 
because 

ItS^que 
Therefore 

casus : 

crises: 



quotidie ex 
daily from 

materia 
the material 



atque aere earum 
and copper of these 



naves, 

ships, 



quae 

which 



afflictae 
had been 

rellquas 
the rest 



Srant gravissTme, ad reficiendas 

shattered most severely [seriously], for repairing 

et jubebat comportari ex continenti, 

and was ordering to be brought from the continent, 

quae 6rant usui ad 6as res. ItS^que, 

what were for [of] use for these things. Therefore, 

quum id administraretur (imp. subj.) summo 
since this was performed with the highest 

studio a militibus, duodgcim navibus 
[greatest! zeal by the soldiers, twelve ships 



212 The Commentaries of Ccesar. BOOK IV 

amissis, offecit/ ut posset 

having been lost, he acconiplislied, that it [they] might be able 

navigari comm5de rellquis. 

to be sailed [to sail) readily in the rest. 

32. Dum ^a ijeruntur, una legione, 

While these (things) are transpiring, one legion, 

quae appellabatur septima, missa frumen- 

which was called the seventh, having been sent to bring 

latum ex consuetudine, n6que ulla suspicione 

corn according to custom, nor any suspicion 

belli interposita ad id tempus, quum 

of war having been offered [shown] to this time, when 

pars hommum remaneret (imp. subj.) in 

a part of the men were remaining in 

agris, pars etiam ventitaret (imp. subj.) 

the fields, a part also were coming often 

in castra (pi.); li? Qui grant in statione 
to the camp ; those. who where on guard 

pro portis castrorum (pi.), renunciaverunt 

before the gates of the camp. announced 

Caes^ri, majorem pulv6rem, quam con- 

to Caesar, (that) a greater dust, than cus- 

suetudo ferret, videri in ^a 

tom bore [warranted], to be [was] seen in this 

parte, in quam partem legio fecisset 

part, into which part the legion had made 

(pi. perf. subj.) iter. Caesar suspicatus, 

the march. Caesar having suspected, 

id quod §rat, alTquid n5vi consilli 

this which was, (that) some (thing) (of) new plan 

inTtum(esse) a barbftris. jussit 

to have [had] been entered on by the barbarians, ordered 

cohortes, quae grant in stationTbus (pi.), pro- 
the cohorts, which were on guard, to 

ficisci secum in gam partem, diias 

set out with himself into this part, two (cohorts) 

succedgre in stationem, relTquas armari, et 

to succeed on guard, the rest to be armed. and 



BOOK IV On the Gallic War. 213 

se subsgqui confestim. Quum proces- 

to follow himself closely immediately. When he had 

sisset (pi. perf. subj.) paulo longTus a castris 

advanced a little farther from the camp, 

(pi.), animadvertit siios pr§mi * 

he perceived (that) his own (men) to be [were] pressed 

ab hostlbus, atque aegre sustinere, et 

by the enemy, and hardly (to) withstand, and 

legione conferta, tela 

the legion having been crowded together, (that) weapons 

conjici ex omnibus partibus. Nam, 

to be [were] thrown from all parts [sides]. For, 

quod omni frumento demesso ex 

because all the corn having been cut down [reaped] from 

reliquis partibus, una pars 6rat reliqua, 

the remaining parts, one part was left, 

hostes, suspicati nostros esse 

the enemy, having suspected (that) our (men) to be [were] 

venturos hue, delitu6rant noctu in silvis. 
about to come hither, had lurked by night in the woods. 

Turn subito adorti disperses. 

Then suddenly having attacked (them) dispersed^ 

occupatos in metendo, armis depositis, 

engaged in reaping, (their) arms having been laid aside, 

paucis interfectis, perturbav6rant reliquos 

a few having been slain, they had disordered the rest 

incertis ordinibus ; simul circum- 

in uncertain [confused] ranks ; at the same time they had 

dedSrant equitatu atque ess6dis. 

surrounded (them) with cavalry and with chariots. 

33. Hoc est ggnus pugnae ex essSdis : 

This is the kind of battle from the chariots: 

primo, perequTtant per omnes partes, et 
first, they ride through all parts, and 

conjiciunt tela : atque perturbanf ordines 

hurl (their) weapons: and they disorder the ranks 

plerumque terrore ipso equorum, et 

generally by the terror itself o\ the horses, and 



214 The Commeiitaries of Ccesar. BOOK \\ 

strepTtu rotarum : et quum insinuavere 

rattling of the wheels: and when they have introduced 

se inter turmas equTtum, desilTunt 

themselves among the troops of the horsemen, they leap down 

ex essSdis et proeliantur''^ pedlbus. 

from the chariots and fight on feet [on foot). 

Interim aurigae excedunt pauluin e 

Meantime the charioters retire a little from 

proello, atque coll(5cant se !ta, ut si 

the battle, and place themselves so, that if 

illi premantiir a multitudine hostlum, hab- 
those are pressed by the multitude of the enemy, they 

6ant expeditum receptum ad suos. Ita 

may have an unhindered retreat to their own (men). Thus 

praestant mobilitatem eqmtum, stabilitem 

they display the activity of cavalry, the stead I nest 

peditum in proellis ; ac efficTunt tantuni 

of infantry in battles; and they accomplish so much 

quotidiano usu et exercitatione, ut con- 

by daily practice and exercise, that they have 

suev6rint (perf. subj.) in declivi ac praeciplti 
been accustomed in a sloping and steep 

loco, sustinere 6quos inctatos, et moderari 

place, to rein in (their) horses spurred on, and to control 

ac flectgre br6vi, et percurrgre 

and (to) turn (them) shortly [sharply], and to run along 

per temonem, et insist^re in jugo, 

though [on] the pole, and to stand on the yoke, 

et recipgre se inde citissTme in 

and to betake themselves thence most quickly into 

currus. 
the chariots. 

34. Nostris perturbatis qulbus 

To our (men) having been disordered by which [these] 

rebus, novitate piigna^, Caesar tfilit 

things, by the novelty [strangeness] of the battle, Caesar brought 

auxillum opportunisslmo temp5re : namque hostes 
3id at a most seasonable time: for the eneroy 



BOOK IV On the Gallic War. 215 

constiterunt ejus, adventu nostri receperunt 

halted on his, arrival our (men) recovered 

se ex timore. Quo facto, 

themselves from fear. Which having been done, 

arbitratus'^^ tempus esse . alienum ad 

having thought the time to be [was] improper for 

lacessendum hostem et committendum proelium, 
attacking the enemy and for engaging in battle, 

continuit se suo l5co ; et br6vi 

he kept himself in his own place; and a short 

temp6re intermisso, reduxit legiones 

time having been passed [spent], he led back the legions 

in castra. Dum haec geruntur, omnibus 

into the camp. While these (things) are passing, all 

nostris occupatis, qui grant in agris 

our (men) having been engaged, who were in the fields 

relTqui^^ discesserunt. Tempestates secutae-sunt 

the rest departed. Storms followed 

complures continiios dies, quae et continerent 
many successive days, which both were restraining 

(imp. subj.) nostros in castris (pi.)) et prohib- 

our (men) in camp, and were 

erent (imp. subj.) hostem a pugna. Interim 
hindering the enemy from battle. Meantime 

barbari dimiserunt nuncios in omnes 

the barbarians dispatched messengers into all 

partes, que praedicaverunt siiis pau- 

parts, and proclaimed to their own (people) the 

citatem nostrorum milTtum ; et demonstraverunt 

fewness of our soldiers ; and showed 

quanta facultas daretur (imp. subj.) faciendae 

how great an opportunity was given of making 

praedae atque liberandi siii in perpetuum, 

plunder and of freeing themselves forever, 

si expulissent Romanos castris (pi.). Magna 

if they should drive the Romans from the camp. A great 

multitudine peditatus que equitatus co- 

multitude of infantry and of cavalry having been 



216 



The Commentaries of Ca;sar 



BOOK IV 



acta celeriter his rebus, 

assembled quickly with these things [objects], 

castra (pi.)* 
the camp. 

Etsi 



venerunt 

they came 



ad 
to 



35. 



Although 



Caesar 
Caesar 



f(5re, 
to be about to [would] be, 



diebus 
days ; 



ut, 
that, 



SI 
if 



videbat idem 

was seeing (that) the same (things) 

quod acciderat superioribus 
which had happened in former 

hostes essent pulsi, 

the enemy should be routed. 



efFug^rent 
they would escape 



periciilum 

danger 



celeritate ; 
by speed ; 



tarn en 

nevertheless 



nactus circiter triginta 
having got about thirty 

Atrebas, (de 

the Atrebatian, (of 



equites, 
horsemen. 



quos 
whom 



quo 

whom 



transportav^rat 
had brought over 



in 

in 



acie 

battle line 



commisso, 
having been joined. 



secum, 
with himself. 

pro 

before 

hostes 

the enemy 



dictum-est 

it has been mentioned 

constitfiit 

he drew up 

castris (pl.)« 
the camp. 



Commius 
Commius 

ante) 

before) 

legiones 
the legions 

Proelio 
The battle 



pot ue runt 

were able 



non 

not 



ferre 
to bear 



impetum nostrorum militum diutius ac verterunt 

the charge of our soldiers longer and turned 

terga : quos secuti tanto spatio, 

(their) backs [retreated] : whom having followed for so great a distance, 

quantum potuerunt efficere cursu et 

as they were able to accomplish by running and 

viribus (pi.), occiderunt complures ex lis: 

by exertion, they killed many from [of] them : 

deinde omnibus aedificTis incensis longe 

then 



que 
and 

36. 



all the buildings having been burned far 

late, receperunt se in castra (pi.), 

wide, they betook themselves into the camp. 



Eodem 
On the same 



die 

day 



legati 
ambassadors 



missi ab 
(having been) sent by 



hostibus 
the enemy 



venerunt 
came 



ad Caesar 6m de 

to Caesar concerning 



pace. 

peace. 



BOOK IV On the Gallic War. 217 

Ca^sur duplicavit his numSrum obsTdum, 

Caesar doubled for these [them] the number of hostages, 

quern imperav6rat ant6a ; que jussit ^os 

which he liad ordered before ; and commanded tliem 

adduci in continentem ; quod, die 

to be conducted to the continent ; because, the day 

aequinocti propinqua, existimabat navigationem^^ 

of the equinox (being) near, he was thinking the voyage 

non subjiciendam hi^mi infirmis navibus: 

not to [would not] be exposed to winter with weak ships: 

ipse nactus idon^am tempestatem solvit 

he himself having gained suitable weather cast loose 

naves paul6 post mediam noctem ; omnes 
the ships a little after mid night ; all 

quae pervenerunt incoliimes ad continentem. 

which [these] passed safe to the continent. 

Ex his, duae onerariae potuerunt 

From [of] these, two burden [transport ships] were able 

non cap6re eosdem portus, quos 

not to take [reach] the same harbors, which [asl 

rellquae ; sed delatae-sunt paulo infra, 

the rest ; but were carried down a little below. 

37. Ex quibus navibus, quum circlter 

From which ships, when about 

trecenti milites expositi-essent (pi. perf. subj.), 
three hundred soldiers had been landed, 

atque contend^rent (imp. subj.) in castra (pi.), 
and were hastening into camp, 

Morini, quos Caesar reliqu^rat pacatos 

the Morini, whom Caesar had left subdued 

proficiscens in Britanniam, adducti spe 

setting out into Britain, induced by hope 

praedae, primo circumsteterunt num^ro 

of plunder, first surrounded (them) with a number 

suorum non ita magno, ac jusserunt 

of their own (men), not so large, and ordered 

pon^re arma, si nollent 

(them) to lay down (their) arms, if they were unwilling 



218 



The Commentaries of Ctzsar, BOOK iv 



(that they) 

orbe 
a circle 



sese 

themselves 

facto, 
having been formed, 



sese, circiter 

themselves, about 

ad clamorem 
at the shout 



sex 

six 



interflci. Quum illi, 

to [should] be slain. When they, 

defend^rent (imp. subj.) 
were defending 

millTa celenter convenerunt 

thousand quickly assembled 



homlnum. 
of the men. 



Qua 

Which 



re 

thing 



nun- 
having been 



tiata, Caesar misit omnem 

announced, Caesar sent all 

siiis castris(pl,) auxilio stiis. 

his camp for aid to his (men). 



equitatum 
the cavalry 

Interim 
Meantime 



milites sustinuerunt impgtum hostium, 
soldiers bore the attack of the enemy. 



ex 

from 

nostri 

our 

atque 
and 



pugnaverunt fortissime amplTus quatiior horis ; 

fought most bravely more (than) four hours ; 

et, paucis vulneribus acceptis, occiderunt 

and, a few wounds having been received, killed 

complures ex lis. Vero posteSquam noster 

many from them. But after (that) our 

equitatus venit in conspectum, hostes, 

cavaJry came into sight, the enemy, (their) 



armis abjectis, verterunt 

arms having been thrown away, turned 



que 
[retreated] and 



38. 



Caesar 
Caesar 



magnus 
a great 

misit 

sent 



num^rus 
number 



eorum 
of them 



legatum Titum 

(his) lieutenant Titus 



terga, 

(their) backs, 

occisus-est. 

was killed. 

Labienum 

Labienus 



post^ro 
the following 



die, 

day, 



cum 
with 



lis 
these 



legionibus 
legions, 



, quas 

which 



in 
into 

quum 
when 



Morlnos, 
the Morini, 



habe- 

they were 



redux^rat ex Britannia, 

he had brought back from Britain, 

qui fecerant rebellionem. Qui, 
who had made a rebellion. Who, 

rent (imp. subj.) non qu6 

having not [no] where 

se propter siccitates (pi.) paludum, 

themselves on account of the dryness of the marshes, 



recip^rent 
they might betake 



BOOK IV 



On the Gallic War. 



219 



quo perfugTo (abl.) usi-fu^rant 
which refuge they had used 



superiore 

in the former 



anno, 

year, 



f6re 
nearly 

At 

But 

qui 

who 



omnes prevenerunt in 
all came into 



potestatem Labieni. 
the power of Labienus, 



Quintus Titurius et Lucius Cotta, legati, 

Quintus Titurius and Lucius Cotta, the lieutenants, 

in fines Me- 

into 



dux^rant 
had led 



legiones 
the legions 



the territories 



of the 



napiorum 
Menapii, 



omnibus 

all 

frumentis (pi.) 
the corn 



eorum 
their 



agris 
lands 



vastatis, 
having been devastated, 



succisis, 
having been cut down, 



que 
and 



incensis, qu6d omnes 

having been fired, because all 



se 
themselves 

se 
themselves 



in 

among 

ad Caesarem. 
to Caesar. 



densissTmas 

the thickest 



Menapii 

the Menapii 

silvas, 
woods. 



aedificlis 

the buildings 

abdid^rant 
had hid 



receperunt 

betook 



Caesar 
Caesar 



constituit 
established 



berna omnium legionum 
quarters of all the legions 

diiae civitates omnino 
two states altogether 



in Belgis. 
among the Belgae. 

ex Britannia 
from Britain 



obsTdes : reliquae neglexerunt. His 

hostages : the rest neglected (it). These 



gestis, 

having been accomplished, 

dierum decreta-est 
days was decreed 

Uteris (abl.) Caes^ris. 



supplicatio 
a general thanksgiving 



hi- 

the winter 

E6 

There 

miserunt 
sent 

rebus 

things 

viginti 
of twenty 



a 

by 



senatu, 
the senate. 



ex 

from [because of] 



the letters 



of Caesar, 



220 The Commentaries of Cczsar. BOOK v 



FIFTH BOOK 



The fifth book includes the description of Caesar's second campaign 
against the Britons and an account of certain nitcrnal trouble and re- 
volts which endangered several Roman encampments Caesar in pre- 
paring to leave his winter quarters ordered"^ a huge fleet of specially 
constructed ships to be made ready A second expedition against Britain 
IS undertaken, and boldly resisted by the tribesmen of the island The 
Roman fleet suffers severe losses through storms The Britons throw a 
fresh offensive against the Romans , but they are defeated Caesar with 
hostages returns to Gaul There the tribes are involved in an internal 
war, and a revolution under Indutiomarus and Ambiorix is attempted. 
Contrary to his custom. Caesar quarters his army in divisions and Gaul 
IS finally brought again to a peaceful state. 

1. Lucio DomitTo, Appio ClaudTo 

Lucius Domitius. Appius Claudius (being) 

Consulibus, Caesar discendens ab hibernis 

Consuls. Caesar departing from winter quarters 

in Italiain, ut consuerat fac^re 

into Italy. as he had been accustomed to do 

quotannis, imp^rat legatis (dat.)? quos 

yearly (every year], orders the lieutenants. whom 

prsefec^rat legionibus (dat), uti 

he had appointed over the legions, that 

curent quam plurimas naves 

they should take care (that) as many ships 

possent aedificandas hi^me, que 

as might be possible to [should) be built in the winter. and 

vetgres reficiendas. Demonstrat eorum m5dum 

the old (ships) to [should] be repaired. He shows their size 

que formam ; fScit paulo humiliores quam 

and form; he makes (them) a little lower than 

quibus(abl.) consuevTnius uti in 

(those) which we have been accustomed to use in 



BOOK V 



On the Gallic War. 



221 



nostro 
our 



man, 

sea, 



ad 
for 



que 
and 



subductionis; 
of drawing up [beaching]; 



celeritatem onerandi, 
quickness of loading, 

atque id mSgis 66, 

and tins the more for this reason, 



quod 
because 

fluctus 
waves 



cognovgrat 

he had learned 

figri 
to be [are] found 



(that) 

ibi 

there 



minus 

less [not so] 



magnos 
great 



commutationes 

changes 

quibus (abl.) 
what 
3 



aestuum ; 
of the tides; 



propter 
on account of 

paulo 
a little 



crebras 

the frequent 

latiores 
wider 



quam 
than 



utimur 

we use 



in 

in 



reliquis maribus, 



the other 



ongra 
loads 



et 
and 



ad transportandum 
for transferring 



jumentorum. 
of beasts of burden. 



Impgrat 
He commands 
4 



omnes 
all 



ad 

seas, for 

multitudinem 
a multitude 

has fi^ri 

these to be made 



actuarias : ad quam 
fast sailing-. for which 

multum. Jubet 
much He orders 

armandas'^ naves 

rigging ships 

Ipse, conventibus citerioris GallTae 
He himself, the as.semblies of nearer Gaul 

proficiscTtur in Illyricum ; quod 
sets out into Illyricum; because 



rem 

thing [object] 



ea, quae 

these things, which 

apportari 
to be brought 



humilitas adjuvat 
the lowness aids 



sunt 
are 

ex 

from 



USUI 
for use 



ad 
for 



Hispania. 
Spain. 



finitimam partem Provinciae 

the neighboring part of the Province 

incursionibus a Pirustis. 

with incursions by the Pirustae. 

(pi. perf. subj.) 65, imp6rat 
there. he demands 



peractis, 
having been finished, 

audiebat 
he was hearing (that) 

vastari 
to be [was] ravaged 



Quum 
When 



venisset 

he had come 



civitatibus (dat.) 

(of) the states 



milites, que jiibet convenire in certum l5cum 

soldiers, and orders (them) to assemble to [into] a certain place. 



Qua re nuntiata, 

Which [This] thing having been announced. 



Pirustae 
the Pirustae 



mittunt legatos ad 6um, qui doc6ant nihil 
send ambassadors to him, who may show that nothing 



222 



The Commentaries of Ccssar. BOOK V 



earn in 
of these 

concilTo : 
council : 



rerum factum (-esse) publico 

things [acts] to have [had] been done by public 



que demonstrant 

and they show 



sese esse 

(that they) themselves to be 



paratos satisfac§re omnibus rationibus de 

[are] prepared to satisfy by all means regarding 

injuriis. Eorum oratione accepta, 

the injuries. Their speech having been received [heard], 

Caesar impgrat obsTdes, que jubet #os adduci 

Caesar demands hostages, and orders them to be brought 



ad 

to [on] 

demonstrat 

he shows 

civitatem 

the state 

diem, ut 



certam 
a certain 



diem : 
day : 



nisi 

unless 



fec^rant 
they should do 



Tta, 
so. 



sese 

(that he) himself 



persecuturum 
about to [would] pursue 



day. 

inter 
among 



bello. lis adductis ad 

by war These having been brought on the 

dat arbitros 

he gives [appoints] arbitrators 



imperav^rat, 
he had commanded. 



civitates, 
the states, 



qui 
who 



aestiment 
may value 



litem 

the suit [the damage] 



que 
and 



constitfiant 
may determine 

His rebus 

These things 



pcenam , 

the penalty 



confectis, 
having been accomplished, 



conventibus 
the assemblies 



peractis, 
having been concluded, 



revertitur 
he returns 



que 
and 

in 
into 



citeriorem GallTam, atque inde proficiscTtur ad 
hither Gaul, and thence sets out to 



exercitum . 
the army. 

omnibus 
all 



Quum 
When 



venisset (pi perf subj.) ^o, 



he had come 



hibernis 
the winter quarters 



circuitis, 
having been visited, 



circiter 
about 



sexcentas 

SIX hundred 



naves 

ships 



ejus 

of this 



jyen^ris, 

kind. 



demonstravimus 
we have shown 



supra, 
above . 



et 

and 



viointi 
twenty 



octo 

eight 



there. 

invenit 
he found 

cujus 

(of) which 

lonfjas 

long 



constructas, singular! studio milTtum, 
[warships] built, by the singular zeal o/*li<? soldiers. 



BOOK V 



On the Gallic War. 



223 



in summa inopia omnium rerum, neque multum 
in the highest want of all tilings, nor 

ab &o, 

from this (condition), 



abesse 
to be [was] wanting 

possent 
they miglit be able [could] 



deduci 
(to) be launched 



paucis 
in a few 



much 

quin 
but that 

diebus. 
days. 



Militibus 

The soldiers 

praefuerant 
had presided 



collaudatis, 
having been commended 



atque lis, 
and to those. 



negotio, ostendit 

in the business [undertaking], he shows 



qui 

who 

quid 
what 



velit figri; atque jubet omnes convenire 

he wishes to be done; and orders all to assemble 



ad portum 

to [at] the port 

cognov6rat 
he had learned 



ItTum : 

Itius [Boulogne] 



ex 

from 



quo 

whicli 



portu 
port 



trajectum 

the passage 



in 

into 



commodissTmum , 
the most convenient, 



passuum 

paces 

visum-est 
seemed 



[expedition] 



a 
from 

esse 

to be 



circiter 

about 

continenti. 

the continent. 



Britanniam esse 

Britain to be [was] 

triginta millium 

thirty (of) thousand 



satis 
enough 



milTtum 

(of) soldiers 



Relinquit 
He leaves 

huic 

for this 



quod 
what 

r^i: 
thing 



ipse 

(he) himself 



pi'oficiscitur cum quatuor 
sets out witii four 



expeditis legionibus, 
light-armed legions, 



et octingentis equitibus, 
and eight hundred cavalry. 



in fines Trevirorum ; quod hi ngque 

into the territories of the Treviri ; because these neither 



concilia, 

the councils, 

que 

and 



veniebant ad 

were coming to 

imperio (dat.), 
(his) command, 

Germanos transrhenanos. 

the Germans beyond the Rhine. 

3. Haec civitas valet 

This state prevails 



ngque 
nor 

dicebantur 
were said 



longe 
by far 



parebant 
were obeying 

sollicitare 
to be inciting 



plurimum 
the most 



totius 
of the whole 



;jiraiiiae 
of Gaul 



equitatu, 
in cavalry. 



que 
and 



habet magnas 
has great 



224 The Coynmentaries of Ccesar. BOOK V 

copias pedltum ; que tangit Ilhenum, ut 
forces of infantry ; and borders the Rhine. as 

demonstravimus supra. In 6a ci\ itate duo, 
we have shown above In this state two (men), 

IndutiomSrus et Cingetonx, contendebant^^ inter 
Indutiomarus and Cingetonx, were striving among 

se de principatu : alter ex 

[between] themselves about the supreme authority : one from [of] 

quibus, simul atque cognitum-est de adventu 

whom, as soon as it was known concerning the approach 

Caesaris que legionum, venit ad 6um ; confirmavit 
of Caesar and of the legions, came to him; he declared 

se que omnes suos futures 

(that he) himself and all his (people) about to [would] be 

in officio, n^que defecturos ab 

in duty [allegiance], nor about to [would] revolt from 

amicitia Romani popiili ; que ostendit, 

the friendship of the Roman people; and he shows, 

quae gererentur (imp. subj.) in Treviris. 

what (things) were transpiring among the Treviri. 

At Indutiom&rus instituit coggre equitatum que 
But Indutiomarus began to collect cavalry and 

peditatum ; que lis, qui per aetatem pot6rant 
infantry; and those, who through age were able 

non esse in armis, abditis in silvam 

not to be in arms, having been hid within the forest 

Arduennam, (quae ingenti magnitudine 

of Arduenna [Ardennes], (which of great extent 

pertinet a flumine Rheno ad initium 

reaches from the river Rhine ;to the beginning 

Rhemorum per medios fines Trevirorum) 

oftheRhemi through the central territories of the Treviri) 

parare bellum. Sed posteS^quam nonnulli 

[to] prepare [prepares] war. But after (that) some 

principes ex 6a civitate, et adducti familiaritate 
chiefs from this state, both induced by the intimacy 

CingetorTgis, et perterriti adventu nostri 

of Cingetonx, and alarmed by the approach of our 



BOOK V 



On the Gallic War. 



225 



exercitus, venerunt ad Caesarem, et coeperunt pet6re 
army, came to Caesar and began to seek 

ab eo de suis 

from him about their own 



privatis rebus, quoniam 
private affairs, since 



possent (imp. subj.) non 



they were able 

Indutiomarus 

Indutiomarus 

ab omnibus, 
by all. 

(that he) himself 

suis, 

his own (people). 



not 

veritus 
having feared 



coiisul6re 
to consult 



civitati : 
for the state 



lie 

lest 



desereretur 

he might be abandoned 



mittit legatos ad CaesSrem ; 
-sends ambassadors to Caesar; (to say) 



a 

from 



disc6dere idcirco 

to withdraw [withdraws] for this reason 

atque noluisse venire ad 

and to have [had] been unwilling to come to 



Sum, 

him. 



quo 

in order that 



contineret 
he might restrain 



civitatem 
the state 



in officio; ne 

in duty [allegiance] : lest 



discessu 

by the departure 



fflClllUS 
more easily 

omnis 
of all 



nobilitatis, plebs laberetur propter 

the nobility. the common people might -slip through (their) 



imprudentiam 

indiscretion : 



itaque civitatem esse in sua 

therefore the state to be [was] in his 



potestate ; que se venturum 

power ; and (that he) himself (to be) about to [would] come 

ad 6um in castra (pi), si Caesar permitt^ret; 

to him into the camp. if Caesar would permit 



et permissurum 

and (to be) about to [would] consign 



suas fortunas que 
his own fortunes and 



civitatis 
(those) of the state 



-.13 
qua causa 

what cause 



ejus fidgi. 
to his faith. 

4. Etsi Caesar intelligebat de 

Although Caesar was understanding from 

6a dicerentur (imp. subj.), que quae res 

these things were said. and what thing 

deterreret (imp. subj.) gum ab instituto 

was deterring him from (his) determined 

consilio ; tamen, ne cogeretur consumere 

purpose; however, lest he might be compelled to waste 



226 



The Commentaries of CcEsar. BOOK V 



aestatem 

tlie summer 



m 

amonff 



comparatis 
having been prepared 



Indutioma,rum 
Indutiomarus 



ad 
for 

venire 
to come 



obsidibus. 
hostages. 



Treviris, omnibus rebus 
the Treviri. all things 

BritannTcum bellum, jussit 
the Britannic war, he ordered 

ad se cum ducentis 

to himself with two hundred 

et filio 

and (his) son 



His adductis, 

These having been brought, 



in 

anion J 



lis, 
them. 



que omnibus ejus propinquis, 
and all his relations, 



evocavSrat 
he had called out 

hortatus (est) 
encouraged 

in officio. 

in duty [allegiance] 

Trevirorum 
of the Treviri 



nominatim, 
by name, 

IndutiomSrum, 

Indutiomarus, 



consolatus est 

he consoled 



quos 
whom 

que 
and 



iiti permaneret 

that he might continue 



Tamen, nihilo seciiis principibus 
Yet, nevertheless the chiefs 



convocatis ad se, 

having been called together to himself, 

conciliavit §os siiigillatim Cingetorigi: quod 

he reconciled them individually to Cingetorix; which 

intelligebat cum fi^ri a se 

(thing) he was understanding not only to be [was] done by himself 

ejus merito (sing.) tum arbitrabatur interesse 

by his deserts but also he was judging to concern 

magni, ejus auctoritatem 

[it concerned] (him) of great [greatly] (that) his authority 

valere quam pluiTmiim inter suos, 

to [should] prevail as much as possible among his own (people), 

cujus voluntatem perspexisset (pi. perf. subj.) 



whose 


(good) will 


he had 


perceived 






(was) 


tam 
so 


egregiam 
excellent 


in 
toward 


se. 

himself 


I 


ndutioniilrus tiilit 
Indutiomarus bore 


id 

this 


factum 
act 


graviter, 
heavily [bitterly]. 




siiam 

his o\\ n 


gratiam 

favor 


minui 

to be [was] diminished 


inter 
among 


suos : et 

his own (people) and 


qui 

(he) who 


fuisset (pi. perf. subj.) inimico 
had been in [of] unfneri 


aiiTmo 
idly spirit 


ante 
before 



BOOK V 



On the Gallic War. 



227 



in 
toward 

doloie. 
vexation 



nos 
us 



exarsit multo gravTus hoc 

blazed forth [raged] much more violently by this 



5. 

ad 
at 

!bi, 
there, 

in 

among: 



lis 
Those 



rebus constitutis, 

things having been settled, 



Caesar pervenit 
Caesar arrived 



portum ItTum cum legionibus. 
the harbor Itus with the legions. 



quadraginta naves, 

(that) forty ships, 

Meldis, rejectas 

the Meld I. thrown back 

potuisse ^ tenere 

to have [had not] been able to hold 



quae 

which 



Cognoscit 
He learns 

factae grant 
had been made 



tempestate, non 

by a storm. not 

cursum, atque 

(their) course. and 



relatas e5dem, unde profectae grant : 

(were) carried back to the same (place) whence they had set out : 

invgnit reliquas paratas ad navigandum, atque 
he finds the rest prepared for sailing, and 



instructas omnibus rebus, 
furnished with all things 

GallTae convenit eodem, 

of Gaul assembled in the same (place) 



Equitatus 
The cavalry 



totius 

of the whole 



numgro quatuor 
to the number of four 



millTum, que principes ex omnibus civitatibus; 

thousand. and the chiefs from [of] all the states. 

perpaucos ex quTbus, quorum fidem in 

a very few from [of] whom. whose fidelity toward 



se perspexerat, 

himself he had clearly seen, 



decrevgrat 
he had resolved 



rehnqugre in 
to leave in 



Gallia; ducgre relTquos 

Gaul ; (and) to lead [take] the rest 



obsTdum ; 

of hostages , 



quod 
because 



quum 
when 



ipse 

(he) himself 



verebatur 

he was fearing 

abesset. 

was absent. 



secum 
with him 

motum 
a disturbance 



loco 
in the place 

GallTae, 
of Gaul. 



6. Dumn6rix 
Pu.i>norix 



vEdiius 
the iEduan 



caetgris 
he rest, 



de 
concerning 



grat 
was 

quo 
whom 



una 
together 



cum 

with 



dictum est 
it has been spoken 



228 



Tlie Commentaries of CcBsar. 



BOOK V 



[mention was made] 



a 

by 



ducere 
to conduct 

cognovgrat 
lie had known 



hunc 

him 



nobis 

lis 

secum 
with hiin 



antga, Constitugrat 

before He iiad resolved 



eum 
him 



cupidum 

desirous 



in|)rimis, 

in particular, 

novarum 
of new 



qu6d 

because 

rerum, 
things 



cupTdum imperil, niaf^iii anirni, majrnse 



[revolution]. desirous of power 

auctoritatis inter Gallos. 

authority among the Gauls 

quod Dumnorix dixerat 

that Dumnorix had said 

^duorum, 
of the /Edui. 



of Ingii spirit, 

Aecedebat 
It was added 



.lam 
already 



in 

in 



(that) 

deferri 
to be [was] conferred 

dictum ^diii 

saying the iEdui 

audebant mittere 

were they daring to send 

causa recusandi 

for the sake of objecting 



rep^num 
the government 



of great 

huc/« 
to this, 

concilio 
a council 

civitatis 
of the state 



Slbl 
to [on] himself 

ferebant 
Avere bearing 



a 

by 



Ca?sare. 
Caesar. 

graviter, 

heavily [ill]. 



legatos 
ambassadors 



ad 

to 



cognov6rat 
had known 
-17 



id 

(that) this 



neque deprecandi. 
nor of protesting. 

factum (esse) 
to have been [was] done 



suis 

his 



hospitibus. 

guests. 



Ille 

He 



primo 

at first 



contendit 

strove 



Quod 

Which 
n§que 

nor 

Caesarem 
Caesar 

Caesar 
Caesar 

ex 

from 

petgre 
to seek 



omnibus precibus, 



by all 

partim 
partly 

subj.) 



ut relinqueretur in Gallia; 
entreaties, that he might be left in Gaul ; 

insuetus navigandi timeret (imp. 

unused of [to] voyaging he was fearing 

dic^ret (imp. subj.) 
he was saying 



quod 

because 

mS,ria ; 

the sea ; 



partim (juod 
partly because 



sese 
(that he) himself 

Poste^quam 

After (that) 



imped iri 

to be [was] hindered 



religionibus. 
by religious scruples 

:18 



vidit id negari^* obstinate 

he saw this to be [was] denied obstinately 



sibi, omni spe impetrandi adempta, 

to himself, all hope of obtaining (it) having been taken awaj', 



BOOK V On the Gallic War. 229 

ccEpit sollicitare principes Galiiae, sevocare 

he began to instigate the chiefs of Gaul, to oall apart 

singulos que hortari, ut remanerent in 

individuals and to exhort, that Ihey should remain on 

continciiti ; territare ' inetu 

the continent , (saying) he to be [uasj alarmed with the fear (that tliis) 

fieri non sine causa, ut Gallia 

to be [was] done not without reason, that Claul 

spoliaretur oiniii iiobilitate. Id esse 

might be stripped from [of] all the nobility. (Tiiat) this to be [was] 

consilium Caesaris, ut necaret omnes 

the plan of Caesar, that he might destroy all 

hos transductos in Bntanniam, quos 

these conveyed over into Britain, whom 

vereietur (imp. subj.) interficere in conspectu 

he was fearing to slay in the sight 

Galliae. Interponere fidem reliquis ; 

of Gaul. To suggest [He suggests] a pledge to the rest ; 

posc6re jusjurandum, ut administrarent 

to demand [he demands] an oath, that they would perform 

communi consilio, quod intellexissent esse 

with common design, what they should understand to be 

ex usu GallTae. 

[was] from [for] the use [advantage] of Gaul. 

7. Haec deferebantur ad Caesarem a 

These (matters) were reported to Caesar by 

compluribus. Qua re cognita, Caesar, quod 

very many. Wliich thing having lieen known, Caesar, because 

tribuebat tantum dignitatis i^duae civitati, 

he was granting so much (of) honor to the .i^lduan state, 

statuebat Dumnorigem coercendum 

was determining (that) Dumnorix to [should] be restrained 

atque deterrendum quibuscunque rebus 

and to [should] be checked by whatever things [means] 

posset; quod videbat ejus amentiam 

he might be able ; because he was seeing his madness 

progrgdi longTus, prospiciendum,^^ ne 

to Lwould] proceed further, (it was) to be provided, lest 



230 The Commentaries of Caesar. BOOK v 

posset nocere sibi (dat.) ac 

he might be able [should] (to) injure himself and 

rei publTca? (dat.). ItTuiue com mo rat us in fo 

the republic. Therefore having delayed in this 

loco circlter vifjinti quiiique dies, quod ventus 
place about twenty five days, because the wind 

Corus impediebat navigationem, qui 

Corus (North West wind) was hindering the passage, which 

consuevit flare in his l5cis mag^nam partem 

IS accustomed to blow in these places a great part 

omnis temporis, dabat op^ram,^^ ut 

of every season. he was giving work [attention], that 

contineret Duranorigem in officio ; tftmen 

he might keep Dumnorix in (his) duty . yet (that) 

cof^noscgret nihild-secius omnia ejus consilia. 
he should learn nevertheless all his designs. 

Tandem nactus idon^am tempestatem, jiibet 

At length having got favorable weather, he orders 

miltes que equites conscendere in naves. At 
the soldiers and cavalry to embark on the ships. But 

animis omnium impeditis, Dumnorix cum 

the minds of all having been occupied, Dumnorix with 

equitibus ^duorum, Caesare insciente, coepit 
the cavalry ofthe^Edui, Caesar not knowing, began 

disced^re domum a castris (pi.). Qua re 

to depart home from the ca»np. Which [This] thing 

nuntiata, Caesar, profectione inter- 

having been announced. Caesar the departure having been 

missa atque omnibus rebus postposTtis, 

discontinued and all things having been postponed, 

mittit magnam partem equitatiis ad insequendum 
sends a large part of the cavalry to pursue 

6um, que imperat retrfihi ! si faciat^^ 

him, and orders (him) to be dragged back • if he may do 

vim, ngque par^at, jfibet interfici : 

violence. nor may obey, he commands (him) to be killed: 

arbitratus hunc facturum nihil 

having considered him (that he) about to [would] do nothing 



BOOK V 



On the Gallic War, 



231 



pro sano, qui neglexisset (pluperf. subj.) 

for [as] a sound [sane] (man), who had disregarded 

imperium praesentis. Enim ille revocatus 

the command of (him) present. For he having been summoned 



coepit resistere, 
began to resist, 

que implorare 
and to entreat 

clamitans ssepe, 
crying out often, 



ac defend^re se 
and to defend himself 



manu, 

by hand [force], 



fidem 

the faith [support] 



suorum ; 

of his own (people) ; 



se esse lib&rum, 

(that he) himself to be [was] a free (man). 



que 
and 

que 
and 

at 
but 



liberae 

of a free 

interficiunt 

slay 



civitatis. 
state. 

hominem, 
the man. 



Isti 
They 

ut 
as 



circumsistunt 
surround 

imperatum 6rat : 
it had been ordered : 



omnes 
all 



^dui 

the iEduan 



equites 
horsemen 



revertuntur 
return 



ad 
to 



Caesarem. 
Caesar. 

8. His 

These 



rebus gestis, Labieno 

things having been performed, Labienus 



relicto in 

having been left on 

et duobus millibus 

and two thousand 



continente cum tribus legionibus 
the continent with three legions 



equitum, ut 

(of) cavalry, that 



tueretur 
he might defend 



portus, et provideret frumentariae rei, que 
the harbors, and might provide for the grain supply, and 



cognosceret 

might ascertain 



quae 
what 



gererentur 
might be transpiring 
-24 



in Gallia, et 
in Gaul, and 



capgret consilium pro ^ tempore et pro 

might take counsel for [according to] time and for 

re: ipse cum quinque legionibus et 

the affair: (he) himself with five legions and 

pari numero equTtum, quem relinqu^rat in 

an equal number of cavalry, which he had left on 



continente, 
the continent, 

solis ; 
of the sun ; 



solvit 
cast loose 



naves 

the ships 



ad 

at [about] 



et provectus 

and having been carried forward 



occasum 
the setting 

leni 
by a gentle 



232 The Commentaries of Ccssar. BOOK \ 

Africo, vento intermisso circiter 

Soutli West wind. the wind having discontinued about 

media nocte, teiiuit non cursum : et 

mid night. he held not the course: and 

delatus longius aestu, luce 

being carried away farther by the tide, the light [day] 

orta, conspexit Britanniam relictam sub 

having risen. he beheld Britain left [lying] under [on] 

sinistra. Turn rursus secutus commutationem 

the left. Then again having followed the change 

aestus, contendit remis, ut cap6ret 

of the tide, he strove with oars, that he might lake [reach] 

#am partem insiilae, qua cofrnoverat 

this part of the island, on which he had known 

superiore aestate esse optimum egressum. In 

in the former summer to be [was] the best landing. In 

qua re virtus militum fuit 

which [this] thing [attempt] the merit of the soldiers was 

admodum laudanda, qui, labore remigandi non 
very much to be praised, who, the labor of rowing not 

intermisso, adaequaverunt cursum longarum 

having been interrupted. equalled the course of the long 

navium, vectoriis que gravibus navigiis. 

ships [war-ships]. with transports and heavy vessels. 

Accessum est ad Britanniam omnibus navibus 

It was [They] approached to Britain with all the ships 

f6re meridiano temp6re. N6que" hostis visus est 
nearly at noon time. Nor an enemy was seen 

in $o loco. Sed, ut Caesar post&a compfrit 
in this place. But, as Caesar afterwards discovered 

ex captivis, quum magnae m3,nus convenissent 
from the prisoners, when a great band had assembled 

(pi. perf. subj.) 66, perterritae multitudlne 

there, having been alarmed by the multidude 

navTum, quae amplTus octingenta? visa^ 6rant 

of ships, which more (than) eiglit-hundred liad been seen 

una cum annotlnis que privatis, 

together with last year's (ships) and the private (ones), 



BOOK V 



On the Gallic War. 



233 



quas 
which 



quisque 
each 



fecgrat 
had made 



causa 
for the sake 



comm6di, discessSrant timore a 

convenience. tliey liad departed in fear from 

ac abdiderant se in 

and had concealed themselves in 



SUl 

of his own 

litt6re, 
the shore, 



supenora 

the higher 



l6ca. 
places. 



capto, 
having been taken, 



ac 

and 

ubi 
when 



9. Caesar, exercitu exposlto, 

CiEsar, the army having been disembarked, 

loco idongo castris (pi.) 
a place suitable for a camp. 

cognovit ex captivis, in quo l6co copTae 

he learned from the prisoners, in what place the forces 

hostium consedissent (pi. perf. subj.), decern 

of the enemy had encamped, ten 

cohortibus relictis ad mSre, et 

having been left at [near] the sea, and 



qui 
who 

ad 
to 



essent 
were 

hostes 
the enemy 



praesidio 
(for) a guard 



cohorts 

equitibus, 
horsemen, 

contendit 
hastened 

veritus 
having feared 

relinquebat 

he was leaving (them) fastened at anchor 



trecentis 
three-hundred 

navibus, 
to the ships, 



de 

on 



65 
for this reason 



minus 
the less 



tertia 
the third 

navibus, 
for the ships. 



vigilia ; 
watch ; 

quod 
because 



deligatas ad anchdras (pi.) in molli 



atque aperto littore ; et 

and open shore; and 



praefecit 
he put in command 



on a soft 

Quintum 

Quintus 



Atrium 

Altrius 

noctu 

by night 



praesidio navibus. 
for protection to the ships. 



Ipse progressus 

He himself having advanced 



circiter 

about 



conspicatus est 
discovered 

progressi 

having advanced 



ad 

to 



essgdis, 
chariots, 

superiore 
the higher 



coeperunt 
began 

l6co 
place 



duod6cim 

twelve 

copias 
the forces 

flumen 

the river 

prohibere 

to check 



millTa 
thousand 

hostium. 
of the enemy. 

equitatu 

with the cavalry 

nostros 
our (men) 



passuum 
(of) paces 

Illi 

They 

atque 
and 

ex 

from 



et 
and 



committere 
to engage 



proelTum. 
battle. 



234 The Commentaries of CcEsar. BOOK V 

Repulsi ab equitatu, nacti lOcum 

Having been repulsed by the cavalry. having got a place 

enrre^Te munitum et natiira et op?re, 

excellently fortified l)oth by nature and by work [art], 

qiiem, (ut videbantur,) praBparvgrant jam 

which. (as it was seeming ) they had prepared already 

ante, causa domestici belli, abdiderunt 

before, for tiie sake of domestic war they hid 

se in silvas : nam crebris arboribus 

tliemselves in the woods : for the thick trees 

succissis, omnes introitus pracclusi-^rant. 

liaving been cut down, all the entrances had been shut up. 

Ipsi rari propufjnabant ex 

They themselves, few [m squads], were charging from 

silvis, que proliibebant nostros ingredi^^ 

the woods, and were preventing our (men) to enter 

intra munitiones. At milites 

[from entering] within the fortifications But the soldiers 

septimsB legionis, testudine facta, et 

of the seventh legion. a testudo having been made, and 

ao^^^re adjecto ad munitiones, 

a mound having been thrown up against the fortifications, 

ceperunt locum, que expulerunt ^os ex silvis, 
took the place, and drove them from the woods, 

paucis vulneribus acceptis. Sed Carsar 

a few wounds having been received But Caesar 

vetiiit pers^qui §os fuo:ientes lono^Tus, et quod 
forbade to pursue them fleeing farther. both because 

ignorabat naturam loci, et quod 

he was not knowing the nature of the place. and because 

magna parte diei consumpta, volebat 

a great part of the day having been spent, he was wishing 

tempus relinqni munitioni 

(that) time to [should] be left for the fortification 

castrorum (pi.). 



of tlie camp 










10. PostridTe 


ejus 


diei, 


misit 


mane 


The day after 


this 


day 


he sent 


in Ihe morning 



BOOK V On the Gallic Wa7\ 235 

milTtes que equites tripartite in 

the soldiers and cavalry in three divisions on 

expeditionem, ut persequerentur ^os, qui 

an expedition, that they mif^ht pursue these, who 

fugSrant. lis progressi aliquantum 

had fled. These having advanced a considerable part 

itin^ris, quum jam extremi essent 

of the march, when already the last [the rear] were 

(imp. subj.) in conspectu, equTtes venerunt a 
in sight, horsemen came from 

Quinto AtrTo ad Caesarem, qui nuntiarent 
Quintus Atrius to Caesar, who announced (that) 

maxima tempestate coorta superiori nocte, 

a very great storm having arisen on the former night, 

omnes naves ]:)rope afflictas-esse atque 

all tlie ships nearly to have [had] been daslied and 

ejectas in litore; quod neque anchorae 

thrown up on the shore ; because neither the anchors 

que funes subsist^rent (imp. subj.), neque nautae 
^nd cables were liolding. nor the sailors 

que gubernatores possent (imp. subj.) pAti 

and pilots were able to endure 

vim tempestatis. Itaque magnum 

the violence of the storm. Therefore great 

incommodum acceptum esse ex 60 

damage to have [had] been received from this 

concursu navium. 
collision of the ships. 

11. His rebus cognitis, Caesar jubet 

These things having been known, Caesar orders 

legiones que equitatum revocari, atque 

the legions and the cavalry to be recalled, and 

desistere itinere, ipse revertitur ad 

to halt from the march. he himself returns to 

naves: perspTcit coram fere eadem, 

the ships: he observes when present nearly the same (things), 

quae cognoverat ex nuntiis (Hteris^^ (pi.)); 

which he had known from the messengers (the letters) ; 



236 



The CommentajHes of Ccesar. BOOK V 



sic ut, circTter quadra f^inta navibus amissis, 

so that, about forty ships having been lost, 

tamen reliciuae 
however the rest 



viderentur (imp. subj.) 
were seeming 



posse 
to be able 



refici 

to be repaired 

fabros 
mechanics 

arcessi 
to be summoned 



magno 
with great 



negotio. 
trouble. 



ex 
from 



ex 

from 



legionibus, 
the legions, 

continenti : 

the continent 



et 

and 



Itaque 
Therefore 

jllbet 
orders 



debgit 
he selects 

alios 
others 



Ut 
that 



instittiat 
he construct 



quam-plurimas 
the greatest number 



scribit Labieno, 

he writes to Labienus, 

naves (ace.) 

(of) ships 



posset 

he may be able 



lis 
with those 



legionibus, 
legions. 



quae 

which 



eum. 
him. 

opgrae 
trouble 



[it was] 



Ipse, 
He himself, 



etsi 
although 



res 

the thing 



erat 

was 



sunt apud 

are with 

multae 

(of) much 



ac laboris, 
and labor. 



tamen 

however 



statiiit 
determined (that) 



commodissimum , 
most convenient. 



(that) 



subduci, et 

(to) be drawn up, and 

cum castris (pi.)- 
with the camp. 



conjungi 
(to) be united 



omnes 
all 

una 

in one 



esse 

to be 

naves 
the ships 



munitione 

fortification 



Consumit circiter decem 
He spends about ten 



dies 
days 



in his rebus, 

in these things [matters], 

(pi.) quTdem intermissis 

even having been intermitted [lost] 



JB 



ne nocturnis temporibus 

not the night time 



ad 

for 



militum. 
of the soldiers. 

castris (pi.) 
the camp 



Navibus subductis 

The ships having been drawn up 



laborem 

the lal)or 

que 

and 



egregie munitis, relinquit easdein 
excellently fortified, he leaves the same 



copias quas ante, praesidio navibus : 

forces which [as] before, for a guard to the ships: 

ipse proficiscitur eodem, unde 

(he) himself sets out to the same (place), whence 



redigrat. 
he had returned. 



Quum 
When 



venisset (plup. subj.) (?o, 



he had come 



there, 



BOOK V 



On the Gallic War. 



237 



majores 

greater 

unduiue 
from every side 



copTae Britannorum 

forces of the Britons 

in 6um l6cum. 
into this place. 



jam conven^rant 

now had assembled 

C 30 

summa 
The supreme authority 



imperil que administrandi belli permissa-est, 
of command and of managing the war was assigned, 



communi 
by a common 



consilio, 
counsel, 



Cassivellauno, 

to Cassivellaunus, 



fines 
the territories 



cujus flumen, quod appellatur TamC'sis, 

of whom a river, which is called Tamesis [Thames], 

dividit a maritlmis civitatibus, circiter octoginta 

divides from the maritime states. about eighty 



millia 
thousand 



passum 

(of) paces 



a 

from 



man. 

the sea. 



bella 

wars 



Continentia 
Continual, 

intercess6rant huic (dat.) cum reliciuis civitatibus 
JLhad involved him with the rest of the states, 



supenori 

m former 



him 

temp6re ; 
times ; 



sed 

but 



Britanni, 
the Britons. 



permoti 

alarmed 



nostro adventu, praefec^rant hunc toti bello 

by our arrival, had appointed him over the whole war 

que imperio (dat.). 
and command. 

12. Interior pars Britanmae incolTtur ab 

The interior part of Britain is inhabited by 

quos dicunt proditum memoria 

whom they say (to have [it has] been) handed down by memory 



lis, 
those, 



natos in 

(to) have been born in 



insula 
the island 



il)sa ; 

itself; 



maritima 
the maritime 



(is inhabited) 

Belgis 
the Belgae 



ab 

by 

causa 
for the sake 



lis, qui transigrant 

those, who had crossed over 



pars 
part 

ex 

from 



qui 

who 



omnes 
all 



civitatum, 
of states. 

pervenerunt 
they arrived 



f6re 
nearly 

ex 

from 

66, 
there. 



praedae 
of plunder 

appellantur lis 

are called by those 



ac inferendi, belli 
and of waging, war 



nominibus 
names 



quibus 
which 

ex 

and 



civitatibus 

states 



bello 
war 



orti 
having sprung 

illato 
having been waged 



238 The Co:}uuc)ita} ics of C(rsar. BOOK V 

remanserunt ibi, nt(]iie ccrpeiunt colrre agros. 

rcmauied there. and bej,^aM to till tlie lands. 

Multitudo hominum est infinita, (jue 

The multitude of men [inhaljitants] is boundless, and 

aedificTa cieberrima fc're consiniilia GallTcis : 

the buildinj?s most numerous nearly snnilar to the Gallic: 

num^rus pec5ris magnus. Utuntur aut 

the number of the cattle (is) great. They use either 

aere (abl.)> ^lut aereo numnio aut ferrets taleis 
brass, or brass coin or iron bars 

(abl.) examinatis ad certum pondus, pro nummo. 
regulated to a certain weight, for coin 

Album plumbum nascTtur idi in mediterran^is 
White lead [tin] is procured there m the midland 

regionibus ; ferrum in maritimis ; sed 

countries; iron in the maritime (parts), but 

copia ejus est exigiia : utuntur importato 

the quantity of it is small: they use imported 

aere. Est materia cuj usque generis, ut in 

brass (There) is timber of every kind as in 

Gallia, praeter fagum atque abietem. Piitant 

Gaul. except the t^eech and the fir tree They think (it) 

non fas gustare leporem et gallinam et 
not right to taste the hare and the hen and 

anserem : tamen alunt haec causa 

the goose : however they breed these for the sake 

animi que voluptatis. Loca sunt 

of mind [the interest] and of pleasure The places are 

temperatiora quam in Gallia, frigoribus (pi.) 
more temperate than in Gaul the cold 

remissioribus. 
(lieinj?) more mild 

13. Insula natura triqu^tra, unum latus 

The island (is) by nature triangular one side 

cuj us est contra GallTam. Alter angulus 

of which is opposite Gaul. The one aiifrle 

hujus latgris, qui est ad CantTum, 

of this side, which is near Cantium [Kent], 



BOOK V On the Gallic War, 239 

quo naves ex Gallia f^re appelluntur, 

where ships from Gaul generally are landed, 

ad orientem solem ; inferior 

(is) toward the rising sun [the East] , the lower (angle) 

spectat ad meridiem. Hoc latus tenet 

looks (is directed] to the south This side holds [extends] 

circiter (^uingenta millia passiium. Alt^rum 

about live hundred thousand (of) paces The other (side) 

vergit ad Hispaniam, atque occidentem solem: 
inclines toward Spain, and the setting sun: 

ex (jua parte est Hibernia, minor 

from [on] which side is Hibernia [Ireland), less 

dimidio cpiam Britannia, ut existimatur ; sed 
by half tlian Britain as it is thought . but 

transmissus est pari spatio atque ex 

the passage across is with [of an] equal distance as from 

Gallifi in Bntanniam. In medio lioc cursu 

Gaul to Britain. In the middle of this course 

est insula, qua? appellatur Mona. Complures 

is an island which is called Mona [Man]. Several 

minores insiiki? praeterfia existimantur objectae, 

lesser [smaller] islands besides arc thought (to be) interposed, 

de quTbus insiilis nonnulli scripserunt, noctem 

of which islands some have written. (that) the night 

esse triginta continuos dies sub bruma. 

to be [is] thirty successive days under [during] winter. 

Nos reperiebamus nihil de ?o 

We w'ere discovering nothing concerning this 

percunctationibus, nisi videbamus certis 

by inquiries except we were seeing by certain 

mensuris ex 5,qua, noctes esse 

measures of water. (that) the nights to be [were] 

breviores quam in continente. Lonoitudo hujus 
shorter than on the continent The length of this 

lateris est septmgentorum millium passiium, 
side IS (of) seven hundred thousand (of) paces, 

ut opinio illorum fert Tertium 

as the opinion of them [their opinion] reports The third (side) 



240 The Commentaries of CcEsar. BOOK V 

est contra Septentrionem ; cui parti nulla 

IS opposite the North , to which part no 

terra est objecta, sed angulus ejus latgris 
land IS opposed, but the angle of that side 

spectat maxime ad Germanlam. 

looks [is directed] chiefly toward Germany. 

Existimatur octingenta millia passuum 

It is thought (that) eight hundred thousand (of) paces 

in longitudinem esse huic. Ita 

in length to be [is] to [on] this (side). Thus 

omnis insula est vicies centena millia 

all the island is twenty times a hundred thousand 

33 

passuum in circuitu. 
(of) paces in compass 

14. Ex omnibus his, qui inc6lunt 

From [Of] all these, (those) who inhabit 

Cantium, sunt longe humanissimi; omnis 

Cantium [Kent], are by far the .nost civilized . all 

quae regio est maritima, n^que differunt multum 
which tract is maritime. nor do they differ much 

a GallTca consuetudine. Plerique interiores 

from the Gallic custom. Most of the interior 

s6runt non frumenta (pl.)j sed vivunt 
(inhabitants) sow [plant] not corn, but live 

lacte et carne, que sunt vestiti pellibus. 

on milk and flesh [meat], and are clad with skins. 

Vero omnes Britanni inficiimt se vitro, 

But all the Britons stain themselves with woad, 

quod efficit caerulSum colorem, atque hoc 
which forms a bluish color, and by this 

sunt horribiliores adspectu in pugna: 

they are more frightful in appearance in battle; 

que sunt^* promisso capillo, atque omni parte 
and they are with long hair, and every part 

corpSris rasa, praeter cSput et superius 

of the body shaved, except the head and upper 

labrum. Deni que duodeni hS.bent uxores 

lip. Ten and twelve (men) have wives 



BOOK V 



On the Gallic War. 



241 



communes 
common 



inter 
among 



se, 

themselves. 



et 

and 



cum fratnbus, et 
with brothers. and 



pa rentes cum 
parents with 



maxmie 

chiefly 

libgris. 
children 



fratres 
brothers 



Sed 

But 



SI 
if 



qui 
any 



sunt 
are 



liberi 
the children 

deducta est. 
was married. 

15. Equites 

The cavalry 



nati 
born 

eorum. 
of those. 



ex 

from lofl 

quo 

to whom 



que 

and 



his, 

these 

quaeque 
each 



essedarii 
charioteers 



habentur 

they are considered 



Virgo 
virgin 



primum 

first 



hostium 
of the enemy 



proelio 

in battle 



cum nostro equitatu 
with our cavalry 



conflixerunt acriter 

engaged sharply 

in itin^re, ita t^men, ut nostri fu6rint 

on the march, so. nevertheless. that our (men) were 

(perf. subj.) superiores omnibus partibus, atque 

superior in [on] all parts [sides]. and 

60s in silvas 

them into the woods 



compulgrint (perf. subj.) 
drove 



que 
and 



colles ; sed, compluribus 
hills, but. very many 

cupidius, 

rather eagerly 



(them) 

suis. 
their own. 

subito 
suddenly 

(men) 



interfectis, insecuti 

having been killed, having pursued 

amiserunt nonnullos ex 
they lost some from [of] 



At 

But 



llli, 
they, 



spat 10 
an interval 



ejecerunt se ex 

cast themselves from 



imprudentibus atque 
(being) unaware and 

munitione castrorum (pi.); 

the fortification of the camp; 



intermisso, 
having been interposed 

silvis, nostris 
the woods. our 

occupatis in 
engaged in 



que 
and 



impgtu 

an attack 



facto 
having been made 



qui 

who 



collocati grant 
had been stationed 



in 60s, 

upon these, 

in statione pro castris (pi.), pugnaverunt acriter: 
on picket before the camp they fought sharply: 

que duabus cohortibus missis subsidTo a 

and two cohorts having been sent for aid by 



242 The Commentaries of Ccssar. BOOK v 

Caes^re, atque liis primis duarum lef?ionum, 
Caesar, and these the first of two leg^ions, 

quum hae constitissent (pluperf. subj.), perexiguo 
when these had taken stand. a very small 

spatio l5ci intermisso inter se, 

space of ground havinj? been left between themselves, 

nostris perterritis n5v"o genSre pugnae, 

our (men) having been alarmed by the new kind of battle, 

proriiperunt audacissime per medios 

Ihcy burst most daringly through the midst (of our men) 

que receperunt se inde incolumes. 

and betook themselves from there safe [safely]. 

Eo die Quintus LaberTus Durus, tribiinus 

On this day Quintus Laberius Durus, a tribune 

militum interficitur : illi repelluntur, pluribus 
of soldiers is slain : they are repulsed, more 

cohortibus submissis. 

cohorts having been sent up. 

16. In hoc toto genSre pugnae, quum 

In this whole kind of battle, since 

dimicaretur (imp. subj.) sub oculis omnium ac 
it was fought under the eyes of all and 

pro castris (pi.), intellectum est, nostros 

before the camp, it was understood. (that) our (men) 

esse minus aptos ad hostem hujus generis, 

to be [were] less adapted to an enemy of this kind, 

propter gravitatem armorum, quod possent 

on account of the weight of the arms, because they were able 

(imp. subj.) n^que insequi cedentes, n6que 

neither to pursue (them) yielding nor 

auderent (imp. subj.) discedere ab signis; 

(did) they dare to depart from the standards ; 

autem equites dimicare proelio cum magno 

but the cavalry (to) contend in battle with great 

pericTilo, propterea (juod illi etiam cederent (imp. 
danger. because (that) they also were giving way 

subj.) plerumque consulto; et quum rcmovissent 
very often purposely; and when they had removed 



BOOK V 



On the Gallic War. 



243 



(pluperf. subj ) nostros paulum ab legionibus, 

our (men) a liltle from the legions. 



desilirent 
they would leap down 

pedibus 

with feet [on foot] 



ex 

from 



ess6dis 
the chariots 



et contendgrent 
and would contend 



dispari proelio. (Autem ratio 



ligiit. 



equestris 
of the cavalry 



proelii. 

fight' 



in an equal 

et 
(they) both 

inseqiientibus, inferebat par 

pursuing, was offering an equal 

periculum.) Accedebat 

[alike] danger) It was added 

proeharentur (imp. subj.) nunquam 
they were fighting never 



(But 
cedentibus 

yielding 



the method 



et 

and 



atque 
and 



idem 
the same 



35 



llUC, 
to this. 



ran qi e magnis 

few [in open ranks] and at great 



conferti, 
in close order. 

intervallis, 
distances, 



Ut 
that 

sed 

but 

que 
and 



haberent (imp. subj ) stationes disposTtas; atque alii^^ 
were having pickets posted , and some 

excipSrent (imp. subj ) alios deinceps, que 

\. ere relieving others in succession, and 

recentes succed^rent (imp. subj.) 

new (men) were replacing 



integri 

fresh 



et 
and 



defatigatis. 
the exhausted 

17 Post^ro 

On the following 



procul a 
far from 



die 

day 

castris (pi.) 
the camp 



hostes 
the enemy 



constiterunt 
took stand 



in 

on 



coeperunt ostend6re se, 

began to show themselves. 



collibus ; que rari 
the hills. and squads 

et lacessgre nostros 
and to provoke our 



equites proelio lentius, quam pridie. 

cavalry to battle more slowly. than the day before. 

Sed meridie, quum Caesar misisset (pluperf, subj.) 
But at noon, when Caesar had sent 

tres legiones atque omnem equitatum cum Caio 
three legions and all the cavalry with Caius 



Trebonio 
Trebonius 



legato 

the lieutenant 



causa 
for the sake 



pabulandi, 
of foraging. 



244 



The Commentaries of Ccssar. BOOK v 



advolaverunt 
they flew 



omnibus partibus, 

all parts [sides). 

absistgrent^^ (imp. subj.) 
keeping apart 



ab 

from 



signis 
the standards 

facto 



repente ad pabulatores ex 

suddenly to the foragers from 

sic uti non 

so that they were not 

que 
and 

legionibus Nostri, imp6tu facto acriter 

the legions Our (men) an attack having been made sharply 

fecerunt finem 
did they make 

confisi 
relying 

legiones post 

the legions behind 

egerunt hostes praecipites : que magno 
drove the enemy headlong. and a great 

ngque dederuiit 
neither 



in 60s, repulerunt, 
upon them, repulsed (them) 



ngque 
nor 



insequendi, 
of pursuing. 



quoad 
while 



equites, 
the cavalry, 



an end 

subsidio, 
on aid. 



quum 

since 

se, 
themselves. 

numSro 
number 



viderent (imp subj.) 
they were seeing 



eorum 
of them 

.38 



interfecto, 
having been killed 



facultatem 

the power [the chance] 

consistendi, 
of halting, 



colligendi 
of collecting 

aut desiliendi 

or [nor] of leaping down 



sui 

themselves 



they gave 

n6que 

nor 



Auxilia, 
The auxiliaries 

discesserunt 
departed 



quae 
which 

protinus 
immediately 



convengrant 

had assembled 



ex ess6dis. 

from the chariots. 

undique, 
from every side. 



ex 

after 



hac 

this 



fuga; 

flight 



ngque 



post id tempus hostes unquam contenderunt 

after this time (did) the enemy ever contended 



nobiscum summis copTis 

[contend] with us with (their) highest [entire] forces 

18. Caesar, eorum consilTo 

Caesar, their design 



cognito, duxit 

having been known led 



exercitum 
the army 

fines 
the territories 

transiri 
to be crossed 



ad flumen Tam^sin in 

to the river Tamesis [Thames] into 

quod flumen pOtest 

which river is able 

pedibus (pi ) omnino uno loco, atque 
on foot only in one place, and 



Cassivellauni : 

of Cassivellaunus 



BOOK V On the Gallic War, 245 

hoc aegre. Quum venisset (pUiperf sul)j.) 

in this with difficulty When he had come 

66, animadvertit magnas copTas liustTum 

there he perceived (that) great forces of the enemy 

esse instructas ad alteram ripam fluminis. 

to be (were) drawn up at [near] the otlier bank of llie river. 

Autern ripa 6rat munita aciitis sudibus 

But the bank was fortitied with sharp stages 

praefixis, que slides ejusdem generis defixae 
fixed in front. and stakes oftiiesame kind (hiven 

sub aqua teoebantur Hutniiie. lis rebus 

under water were covered by the river Tliese things 

cognitis a captivis que perfugis, 

having been learned from the prisoners and deserler.s, 

Caesar, equitatu pracmisso, jussit 

Caesar the cavalry having been sent before. ordered 

legiones subs&qui confestim. Sed milites 

the legions to follow immediately But the soldiers 

igrunt 6a celeritate atque eo 

went with this [such] speed and with this [such] 

imp6tu, quum exstarent (imp. subj.) ex 

force when they were standing out from 

aqua capTte solo, ut hostes possent 

the water with the head alone, that tlie enemy were able 

(imp. subj.) non sustinere impetum legionum 

not to withstand the attack of the legions 

que equTtum, que dimitt?rent (imp. subj.) 

and of the cavalry and were abandoning 

ripas ac mandarent (imp subj.) se 

the banks and were consigning themselve«! 

ftigae. 
to flight. 

19. Cassivellaunus, omni spe contentionis de- 

Cassivellaunus all hope of a contest having been 

posita, ut demonstravimus supra, amploribus 

abandoned. as we have shown above (his) larger 

copiis dimissis, circTter quatiior millTbus 

forces having been dismissed, about four thousand 



turos 


Iter 


make 


the march 


se 


liberius 


Itself 


more freely 



246 Tie Commentaries of Ccrsar. BOOK V 

essedariorum relicitis, servabat nostra 

(of) charioteers havinj? been left was watching our 

itinera, que excedehat paulum ex via, 

marches. and was withdrawing: a little from tlie way, 

que occultabat sese inipeditis atque 

and was concealing himself in entangled and 

silvestribus locis, atque compellebat ])ec6ra (pi.) 
woody places and was driving tlie cattle 

atque homines ex agris in silvas Tis 

and men from the fields into the woods from these 

reo^ionibus, quibus cognov^rat nos fac- 

regions. in which he had known us [we] about to [would] 

et quum noster equitatus ejecerat 
and when our cavalry cast 

in ao'i'os causa vastandi 

into the fields for the sake of ravaging 

que praedandi, emittebat essedarios ex 

and of plundering. he was dispatching the charioteers from 

silvis omnibus viis que semitis ; et conflioebat 
the woods by all ways and paths and was combatting 

cum lis cum magno periciilo nostrorum equitum; 
with them witii great danger of [to] our horsemen. 

atque hoc mStu prohibebat vajTari 

and by this fear was hindering (them) to rove [from roving] 

latTus Rehnquebatur, ut Capsar nt^que 

more widely. It was left that Caesar neiliier 

pateretur discedi^^ lonjjTus ab 

would allow (it) to t)e departed [them to depart] farther from 

agmTne lef]^ionum ; et noceretur 

the marching line of the legions: and it might be injured (they 

hostlbus in vastandis a^ris, que 
might injure] (to) the enemy in ravaging the fields and 

faciendis incendlis tantum quantum Icfrionarii 

in making burnings [(ires] as much as the legionary 

milites poN^M'ant efficere labore atque itin^re. 
soldiers were able to effect by labor and on the march 

20. Interim Trinobantes, prope firmissima 

Meanwhile the Trinobantes. nearly the strongest 



BOOK V 


U7i the G< 


aiiic 


civTtas earum 


region um, 


ex 


state of these 


countries. 


from 



Vn}\ 247 

qua Mandiibracius 

winch Mandubracius 

adolescens, secutus fidem Caesftris, 

a youth liaving secured the j?ood faith of Caesar. 

ven^rat ad T'um in continentem (GallTani), (cujus 
had come to him to the continent (Gaul), (whose 

pater obtinu^rat refrnum in 6a 

father had obtained the kingdom [the throne] in this 

civitate, que interfectus 6rat a Cassivellauno; 
state and had been slain by Cassivellaunus: 

ipse vitav?rat mortem fiiji^a,) mittunt 

he himself had avoided death by flight.) send 

leo^atos ad Caesfirem, que pollicentur dedit- 

ambassadors to Caesar, and promise (that) to be about to 

uros (esse) sese 6i et facturos 

[they would] surrender themselves to him and about to [would] do 

imperata P^tunt ut defendat 

(his) commands They request that he may defend 

MandubratTum ab injuria Cassivellauni, atque 
Mandubracius from the injustice of Cassivellaunus. and 

mittat in civitatem, qui prapsit 

may send (him) into (their) state who may preside [be over it] 

que obtm^at imperium. Caesar imp^rat liis(dat.) 
and may obtain theauthority Caesar orders these 

quadrafvinta obsides que frumentum 

(to furnish) forty hostages and corn 

exercitiii; que mittit MandubratTum ad 60s. 
for tlie army . and sends Mandubracius to them. 

Illi fecerunt imperata celeriter; miserunt 

They did (his) commands quickly, they sent 

obsides ad num6rum, que frumentum. 

hostages to the number (stated). and corn. 

21, Trinobantibus defensis, atque 

The Tnnobantes having been protected, and 

prohibitis ab <[)mni injuria militum, 

having been kept from all injury of the soldiers. 

Cenimagni, Seo^ontiaci, Ancalites, Bibroci, Cassi, 
theCenimagni. Segontiaci, Ancalites, Bibroci, Cassi, 



248 The Commentaries of Ccssar. BOOK V 

legationibus missis, dediderunt sese 

embassies having been sent, sunendeied themselves 

Ca?Sclri. Cognoscit ab his, oppidum 

to Ctesar. He understands from these. (that) the town 

Cassivellauni abesse non longe ex 60 

of Cassivellaunus to be [is] distant not far from this 

loco, munitum silvis que paludibus, quo 

place, fortilied by woods and by marshes, whither 

numgrus s&tis magnus hominum que pec6ris 

a number sufficiently great of men and of cattle 

convengrit (perf. subj.)- Autem Britanni v6cant 
has assembled. But the Britons call 

oppTdum, quo consueverunt convenire, 

(that) a town, where they have been accustomed to assemble, 

causa vitandae incursionis hostium, quum 

for the sake of avoiding an invasion of the enemy. when 

munierunt impeditas silvas vallo 

they have fortified the entangled woods with a rampart 

atque fossa. E6 proficiscitur cum legionibus : 

and a trench. Thither he sets out with the legions: 

reperit locum egregie munitum natura atque 
he finds the place excellently fortified by nature and 

opere ; tamen contendit oppugnare hunc 

by work [artl ; however he endeavors to storm this 

ex duabus partibus. Hostes morati 

from [on] two sides. The enemy having delayed 

paulisper, non tulerunt impgtuni nostrorum 

a little while, did not bear the attack of our 

militum, que ejecerunt sese ex alia parte 

soldiers, and cast out themselves from another part 

oppidi. Magnus numSrus pecoris repertus (est) 

of the town. A great number of cattle was found 

ibi ; que multi comprehensi sunt atque interfecti 
there; and many were seized and killed 

in fiiga. 
in the flight. 

22. Dum haec geruntur in his 

While these (things) are transpiring in these 



BOOK V On the Gallic War. 249 

l5cis, Cassivellaunus mittit nuntios ad Caiitium, 
places. Cassivellaunus sends messengers to Cantiuni 

quod demonstravTmus supra esse ad 
[Kent], which we have shown above to be [is] at [near] 

mare, quibus re<ijioriibus quatuor reges prae^rant, 
the sea. which countries four kinjjs ruled. 

Cingetorix, Carvilius, Taximagulus, Seoonax ; at(|ue 
Cingetorix, Carvilius. Taximagulus. Segonax ; and 

impfirat his, ut omnibus copiis 

he commands these. that all (their) forces 

coactis, adoriantur iiavalia castra (pi.) 

having been collected, they attack the naval camp 

de improviso, atque oppugnent. Quum hi 

unexpectedly. and storm (it). When these 

venissent (pi. perf. subj.) ad castra (pi,), nostri, 
had come to the camp, our (men). 

eruptione facta, multis eorum mter- 

a sally having been made many of these having been 

fectis, etlam nobili duce LugotorTge 

killed. also (their) noble leader Lugotonx 

capto, reduxeruiit siios incoliimes 

having been taken (they) led back their (men) safe. 

Cassivellaunus, hoc prcelio nuntiato, tot 

Cassivellaunus, tins battle having been announced so many 

detrimentis acceptis, finibus 

reverses having been received, (his) territories (having been) 

vastatis, etiam maxime permotus defectione 
ravaged also chiefly alarmed by the revolt 

civitatum, mittit lej^atos ad Caesarem per 

of the states sends ambassadors to Caesar through 

Commium Atrebatem de deditione Quum 

Commius the Atrebatian about a surrender. Since 

Caesar statuisset (pi, perf subj.) ag6re hiemem 
Caesar had resolved to spend the winter 

in continente propter repentinos motus 

on the continent on account of the sudden commotions 

Galliae; n^que multum aestatis superesset 

of Gaul ; nor much of the summer was remaining ; 



250 



The Commentaries of CcEsar. 



BOOK V 



'imp. subj.); atque intelli«»eret (imp. subj.), id 

and he was understanding (lliat), this 



posse 
to be able [could] 



et 
and 



constituit 
decreed 



quid 
what 



extrfthi 
(to) be protracted 

obsides 

hostages ; 

Romano 
to the Roman 

Interdicit^^ 
He prohibits 

(dat.), ne noc6at 

(that) he may not injure 



facile, 

easily, 



imperat 

he demands 



vectigahs Britannia 
(of) tribute Britain 



pendSret 

should pay 

(pi.). 



populo 

people 



in 

(on) 



singiilos 
each 



annos 
year. 



atque 
and 



Cassivellauno 
Cassivellaunus, 

Mandubracio (dat.), neu 



imperat 
commands 



Mandubracius, 



Trinobantibus. 
the Trinobantes. 

23. Obsidibus 

The hostages 

ad 

to 



acceptis, 
having been received. 



exercitum 
the army 

His 

These 



mare : 

the sea: 



invenit 

he finds 



naves 

the ships 



deductis, 

having been launched 



constittiit 

he resolved 



exercitum 

the army 

habebat 
he was having 

nonnullae 
some 

accidit 
it happened 

tot 

in so many 

superiore 



duobus 
by two 

magnum 

a great 



commeatibus, 

passages, 



et 

both 



nor 



reducit 
he leads back 

refectas. 
repaired. 

reportare 
to carry back 

quod 

because 



numgrum 
number 



naves 

ships 



deperierant 
had perished 



captivorum, et 

of prisoners, and 

tempestate. Ac 

by the storm. And 



SIC. 



Ut 

that 



ex 

from 



. navigationibus, 

voyages. 

ulla 



anno, 
in the foregoing year, 

portaret (imp. subj.) 
was carrying 

subj.), 



any 



tanto 
so great 

nSque 
neither 

navis 
ship 



numgro 
a number 

hoc 

in this 

omninOj 
at all 



navium 
of ships 

ngque 
nor 

quae 
which 



milites, desideraretur (imp. 
the soldiers, was missing 



at 
but 



ex 

from [of] 



(imp. subj.) inanes ad 
empty to 



lis, 
these. 

6um 

him 



quae 

which 



remitterentur 

were sent back 



ex 

from 



continente, 
the continent. 



(and) 



BOOK V 



On the Gallic War. 



251 



militibus prioris commeatus 

the soldiers of the former [first] passage 

43 



et 

and 



quas 
which 



Labienus 
Labienus 



post6a 
afterwards 



exposltis, 

having been landed. 

curav^rat 
had taken care 



faciendas, num^ro sexaginta, perpaucae 

to [should] be made. in number sixty, very few 

capgrent (imp. sudj.) l(5cum, f6re omnes 

were taking [reaching] the place, nearly ail 

rellquae rejicerentur (imp. subj.). Quas^^ quum 

the rest were thrown back. Which when 

Caesar exspectasset (pi. perf subj.) aliquandiu frustra, 
Caesar had awaited some time in vain. 



ne excluderetur 

lest he might be prevented 



navigatione 
from the voyage 



anni, 

of the year. 

collocavit 
stowed 

summam 
the utmost 



qu6d aequinoctlum subSrat, 
because the equinox was near. 



milTtes 
the soldiers 



angustius, 
more closely. 



Ac 

And 



tranquilhtatem 
calm 

(pi. perf. subj ), secunda 
the second 



quum 
when 

vigilla 
watch 



tern p5 re 
by the time 

necessario 
(he) necessarily 

consecutus 
having secured 

solvisset 

he had cast loose. 



inlta, 
having been begun. 



attTgit 
he touched 



terram 

land 



prmia 

in the first 



luce, que 

light [early dawn]. and 



perduxit 
brought in 

24. Navibus 
The ships 

Gallorum 
of the Gauls 

coactus est 

he was compelled 

aliter ac 
otherwise than 



omnes naves mcoliimes. 
all the ships safe 



subductis, 
having been drawn up 

Samarobrivae 

at Samarobriva 



que 
and 



concilio 
a council 



peract6, 
having been completed, 



collocare 
to place 



exercTtum 
the army 



m 

in 

que 

and 



legiones 
the legions 

frumentum 
the corn 



in 

into 



superioribus annis, 
in former years 

plures civitates, quod 
more states because 



liibernis 
winter quarters 

distribu^re 

distribute 



eo 

in this 



provengrat 
had yielded 



angustius 
more narrowly [scantily] 



anno 
year 

in 
in 



252 The Commeyiiaries of Ccssar. BOOK v 

Gallia, propter siccitates: ex quTl)us^^ 

Gaul, on account of the droughts- from [of] winch 

dedit unam Calo Fablo lefjato ducendam 

he gave one to Caius Fabius the lieutenant to be led 

in MorTnos, alteram Qiiinto Ciceroni in 

among the Monni. another to Qumtus Cicero among 

NervTos, tertiam Lucio Rosclo in Esuvlos ; 
the Nervii, the third to Lucius Roscius among the Esuvii ; 

jussit quartam hiemare in confinio Trevirorum, 
he ordered the fourth to unite r on the border of the Tre\ in, 

in Remis cum Tito Labieno: collocavit tres 
among thellemi with Titus Labienus: he placed three 

in Belfflo : praefecit his Marcum Crassum 

in Belgium : he appointed over these Marcus Crassus 

quaestorem, et Lucium Munatium Plancum, et 
(as) Quaestor, and Lucius Munatius Plancus. and 

CaTum Trebonium legatos Misit unam 

Cams Trebonius (as) lieutenants. He sent one 

legionem, quam conscrips^rat proxime trans PSdum, 
legion. which he had levied very lately across the Po. 

et quinque cohortes, in Eburones, maxima 
and five cohorts. into the Eburones. the greatest 

pars quorum est inter Mosam et Rhenum, 
part of whom is between the Mense and the Rhine. 

qui erant sub imperio Ambioiigis et 

who were under the authority of Ambiorix and 

Catuvolci. Jussit legatos Quintum Titurium 

of Catuvolcus. He ordered the lieutenants Qumtus Titurius 

Sabinum et Lucium Aurunculeium Cottam 

Sabinus and Lucius Aurunculeius Cotta 

praeesse his militlbus (dat. ). Leg'ionibus distri- 

to command these soldiers. The legions having been 

butis ad hunc modum, existimavit 

distributed according to this manner, he thought (that he) 

sese posse mederi facillime frumentariae 

himself to be able [could] (to) relieve most easily (to) the corn 

inopTae; atque tclmen liiberna omnium 

scarcity: and moreover the winter quarters of all 



BOOK V On the Gallic War. 253 

harum legionum continelxintur centum millibus 
of these legions were contained in a hundred thousancJ 

passuum (praeter $am, quam ded6rat LucTo 
(of) paces (except this (one), wliich he liad given to Lucius 

RoscTo ducendam in pacatissimam et 

Roscius to be led into the most peaceful and 

quietissimam partem). Interna ipse constituit 

calmest portion). Meanwhile (he) himself resolved 

morari in Gallia, quoad cognovisset (pi. perf. subj.) 
to tarry in Gaul, until he had known 

lef^iones collocatas, que hiberna 

(that) the legions being [were] settled, and the winter quarters 

munita. 
fortified. 

25. Erat in Carnutibus TasgetTus natus 

There was among the Carnutes Tasgetius born 

summo loco; cujus majores obtinu&rant 

in the highest place [rank] , whose ancestors had obtained 

regnum in sua civitate. Caesar 

the kingdom [sovereignty] in their own state. Caesar 

restituerat locum majorum huic pro 

had restored the position of (his) ancestors to him for 

ejus virtute atque benevolentia in se, 

his valor and (his) good will toward himself, 

quod usus fu^rat ejus singular! (abl.) opgra 
because he had used his remarkable works 

in omnibus bellis. Inimici interfecerunt 

[efforts] in all the wars. (His) enemies slew 

hunc palam, regnantem jam tertium annum, multis 
him openly. reigning now the third year, many 

etiam ex civitate auctoiibus. Ea 

also from [of] the state (being) authors (of the deed). This 

res defertur ad Caesarem. Ille veritus, 

matter is reported to Caesar. He having feared, 

ne ci vitas defic§ret impulsu eorum, 

lest the state might revolt by the instigation of these, 

quod res pertinebat ad plures, celeriter 

because the affair was relating to several. quickly 



254 



The Commentaries of CcEsar. BOOK V 



jubet Lucium Plancum proficisci in Carnutes 

orders Lucius Plancus to set out among the Carnutes 

cum legione ex Be]f?To, 

witli a legion from Belgium, 



que 
and 



hiemare 
to winter 



ibi ; 
there. 



que 

and 



mittgre 
to send 



hos 

those 



comprehensos ad se, 

arrested to himself, 



op^ra 



quorum 
of whom 



by the work 

interfectum 
(to have (had] been) killed 

ab omnibus 
[was informed) by all 



cofrnov^rit 
he may have learned 

Interim 
Meantime 



Tasgetium 

Tasgetius 

factus est certior 
he was made more sure 



the 



legatis 
lieutenants 



que 
and 



quaestoribus, 
quaestors. 



quibus 
to whom 



tradid^rat 
he had delivered 



legiones, 
the legions. 



perventum esse 
to have been [that they had] arrived 



m 

into 



locum munitum 

the place (to have [had] been) fortified 

diebus / circiter 
days about 



hiberna, 

winter quarters. 

hibernis. 
for winter quarters 



que 

and 



26. Quind§cim 
In fifteen 



quTbus 

in which [since] 



ventum est 
it was come [they came] 

repentini tumultus 
of a sudden tumult 



in 

into 

ac 

and 



hiberna, mitium 

winter quarters, the beginning 

defectionis ortum est ab 
revolt arose by 

Ambiorige et Catuvolco* qui quum fuissent 
Ambiorix and Catuvolcus • who although they had l)een 

(pi. perf. subj.) praesto Sabino que Cottae 

near (to) Sabinus and (to) Cotta 

ad fines 
at the borders 

(plup. subj.) frumentum in hiberna, impul- 

corn into winter quarters, having been 

si nuntiis Indutiomari TrevTri, 

instigated by the messengers of Indutiomarus theTreviri, 



Sill 
of their 



regent, 
kingdom 



que comportavissent 
and had carried 



concitaverunt 
incited 



SUOS 
their own (people). 



que 
and 



lignatoribus 
the wood cutters 



oppressis subit6, 

having been overwhelmed suddenly. 



venerunt 
they came 



magna 
with a great 



BOOK V On the Gallic War. 255 

mfinu oppugnatum castra (pi). Quum nostri 
band to assault the camp. When our (men) 

cepissent (pi. perf. subj.) arma celeriter, que 
had taken arms quickly, and 

adscendissent (pi. perf. subj ) vallum, atque 

had ascended the rampart. and 

Hispanis equitibus emis.sis ex una 

the Spanish cavalry having been sent out from one 

parte, fuissent (pi. perf subj.) superiores ^ 

part [sidel had been superior 

equestri proelio, re desperata, 

in the cavalry fight. the thing [action] having been despaired of. 

hostes reduxerunt suos ab oppufjnatione. 

the enemy led back their (men) from the assault 

Turn conclamaverunt suo more, fiti a]T(iui 

Then they cried out in their manner, that some 

ex nostris prodn-ent ad colloquium ; 

from [of] our (people) should come forth to a conference ; 

sese habere, quae vellent 

(that they) themselves (to) have (things), whicli they wish 

(imp. subj.) dic^re de communi re, quibus 
to .say about a common matter. by which 

sperarent (imp. subj ) controversias posse 
they were hoping (that) the disputes to be able [could] 

miniii. 

(to) be diminished 

27. Caius Arpineius, Romanus ?ques, familiaris 

Caius Arpineius. a Roman knight, an acquaintance 

Quinti Titurii mittitur ad ?os causa 

ofQuintus Titurius is sent to them for the sake 

colloquendi; que Quintus Junius, quidam ex 

of conferring ; and Quintus Junius, a certain (one) from 

Hispania, qui jam ante consueverat 

Spain, who already before had been accustomed 

ventitare ad Ambiorigem, missu Caesaris. 

to come often to Ambiorix, on the mission of Caesar. 

Apud quos Ambiorix locutus est in hunc 

Before whom Ambiorix spoke after this 



256 Tlie Commentaries of Ccpsar. BOOK V 

modum: Sese confiteri debere 

manner: " Jle himself to confess jconfessesl to owe [that he owed) 

])liirTnuini ei, pro heneficiis Caesaris in 

ver> much to him, for the kindnesses of Caesar toward 

se, quod ejus op^ra liberatus esset (pi. perf. 

himself, because by his efforts lie had been freed 

subj.) stipendTo, (juocl consuesset (pi. perf. 

from the tribute, which he had been accustomed 

subj.) pendere siiis finitimis Aduatucis; que 
to pay to his neighbors the Aduatuci ; ' and 

qu5d et filius et films fratris, 

because both (his) son and the son of (his) brother, 

quos Aduatuci tenuissent (pi. perf. subj.) in 
whom the Aduatuci had held in 

servitute et catenis apud se, misses 

slavery and chains among themselves, having been sent 

num^ro obsidum, remissi essent (pi. perf. subj.) 

in the number of hostages, had been returned 

ab Caesare : n?que fecisse id, 

by Caesar: nor (that he) to have [had] done this 

quod fecerit (perf. subj.) de oppu«Tnatione 

which he had done in the storming 

castrorum (pi), aut judicTo aut 

of the camp, either by (his own) judgment or 

sua voluntate, sed coactu civitatis: que 

his own will, but by compulsion of the state: and 

sua imperia (pi.) esse ejusmodi, ut 

his own authority to be [was] of this sort. that 

multitudo haberet (imp subj.) non minus 

the multitude were having not less 

juris in se, quam ipse in 

(of) jurisdiction towards himself than (he) himself towards 

multitudinem. Porro banc fuisse causara 

the multitude. Moreover this to have [had] been the cause 

belli civitati : quod potuerit (perf. subj.) 

of war for the state : because he was able 

non resist^re repentinae conjurationi Gallorum ; 

not to withstand (to) the .sudden conspiracy of the Gauls, 



BOOK V On the Gallic War. 257 

se posse probare id facile ex 

he liiinscif to be [was] able to prove tins easily from 

sua luuiiilitate ; quod sit non ade6 

his own liuinbleiiess [weakness]: because lie is not so 

imperitus rerum(gen.), ut confidat 
unacquainted with things, that he may trust (that he) 

se posse superare Romanum populum 

himself to be able [can] (to) overcome the Roman people 

suis copiis ; sed esse commune' consilium 

with his forces; but to be [it is] the common design 

GallTae. Hunc esse dictum diem omnibus 

of Gaul This to be [is] the said [appointed] day of all 

hibernis Caesaris oppugnandis, ne qua 

tlie winter quarters of Caesar to be assaulted. lest any 

legio posset venire subsidTo alteri 

legion might be able [should] (to) come foraid to another 

legioni : Gallos"*^ non fficile potuisse negare 

legion- Gauls not easily to have been [are] able to refuse 

Gallis (dat); praesertim quum consilium videretur 
Gauls; especially when a design was seeming 

(imp. subj.) initum de recuperanda 

entered into concerning regaining 

communi libertate, Qulbus quoniam satisfec^rit 
(the) common liberty. Whom since he has satisfied 

(perf. subj.) pro pietate, se 

for [as regarded] patriotism, (he) himself 

habere nunc rationem officii ; monere 

to have [had] now a regard of moral duty; to advise 

CaesSrem pro beneficiis, orare TiturTum pro 

Caesar for (his) kindnesses. to beseech Titurius for 

hospitio, ut consulat suae saluti 

(his) hospitality, that he may consult for his own safety 

ac militum : magnam manum Germanorum 

and (that) of the soldiers : a great band of Germans 

conductam transisse Rhenum ; banc 

having been hired (to) have crossed the Rhine ; this 

affore biduo ; esse ipsorum 

t.o be about to [would] be in two days •. to be [it is] their 



258 



The Commentaries of Ccssar. 



BOOK V 



consilium v^lint ne deduc^re milites eductos 

counsel wliether they wish to conduct the soldiers led out 

hibernis aut ad Ciceronem aut ad 

winter quarters either to Cicero or to 

Labienum, prius quam finitimi sentiant, 

Labienus, before (tliat) (their) neighbors may perceive (il): 

alter quorum absit(pres. subj.) circiter quinquaginta 

about fifty 

alter paulo amplius : 

the other a little more: 



ex 

from 



the one of whom is distant 



millTa 

thousand 



passuum, 
(of) paces, 



se 
(that he) himself 

confirmare 



polliceri 

to promise [promises] 



jurejurando, 
to affirm [affirms] by oath. 



urum 

[would] give 

1 50 



per 

through 



quod' 

which 



[consults] 



quum 
when 



tutum iter 
a safe journey 

facTat sese 

he does (he) himself 



illud et 

that [this] and 

dat- 
about to 

siios fines : 
his territories: 



se 

(that he) himself 



et 

both 



consul^re 
to consult 



civitati, 
for the state, 



quod 
because 



hibernis, et referre 

from winter quarters, and to return [returns] 

pro ejus meritis. Hac oratione 
for his services." This speech 

Ambiorix discedit. 
Ambiorix departs. 

28. CaTus Arpineius et 
Caius Arpineius and 



levetur 
it may be relieved 

gratiam Caesari 
a favor to Caesar 

habita, 
having been delivered. 



Junius 
Junius 



def^runt 

report 



ad 
to 



legatos 
the lieutenants 

repentina 
by the sudden 



quae 

what 

re. 



audi^rant. 
they had heard. 



nil 

They 



etsi 
although 



dicebantur 
were said 



tamen 

however 



affair [condition], 

ab hoste, 

by an enemy 

negligenda : 
to [must not] be neglected 

permovebantur hac re, 

were much alarmed by this affair [condition] 



perturbati 
much disturbed 

?a 
these (things) 



existimabant 
were thinking (that 



they) 



non 

not 



que 

and 



maxima 

especially 



quod 

because 



Srat 

it was 



BOOK V On the Gallic War. 259 

vix credendum ignobilem atque humilem 

hardly to be believed (that) the mean and hurable 

civitatem Eburonum ausam (esse) fac^re 

state of the Eburones to [vvouldl have dared to make 

bellum sua sponte Romano populo. 

war by [ofl its own accord on the Roman people 

Itaque def6runt rem ad concilium, que 

Therefore they report the matter to a council and 

magna controversia existit mter ^os Lucius 
a great controversy arises among them. Lucius 

Aurunculeius que complures tribuni militum et 
Aurunculeius and very many tribunes of soldiers and 

centuriones primorum ordlnum existimabant "nihil'^ 
centurions of the first ranks were thinking "nothing 

agendum tem^re, n^que discedendum 

to [must] be acted rashly nor to be departed [must they 

ex hibernis injussu Caesaris. 

depart] from winter quarters without the command of Caesar 

Docebant quantasvis magnas copTas 

They were showing (that) howsoever great the forces 

etiam Germanorum posse sustmeri, 

even of the Germans to be able [they could] (to) be withstood. 

hibernis munitis. Rem'^ 

the winter quarters having been fortified The thing 1 fact] 

esse testimonio, quod sustinu&rint (perf. 

to be [is] for a testimony. that they have withstood 

subj.) fortissTme primum imp&tum hostium, 

most bravely the first attack of the enemy. 

multis vulneribus illatis ultr6. Non 

many wounds having been inflicted besides. Not 

prSmi frumentaria re. Interna 

to be [They are not] pressed by the corn supply Meantime 

subsidia conventura et ex proximis 

aids (to be) [are] about to assemble both from the nearest 

hibernis et a Caesare. Postremo, quid 

winter quarters and from Caesar Lastly what 

esse levius aut turpius, quam capgre 

to be [is] lighter or more base than to take 



260 The Co7n7nentaries of CcEsar. BOOK v 

consilium de summis rebus, hoste 

counsel about the most important matters. an enemy 

auctore? 
(being) the adviser? 

29. Contra 6a Titurius clamitabat, 

Against those (reasonings) Titurius was exclaiming, 

facturos sero, quum majores manus 

"about to [they would] act late, when greater bands 

hostium, Germanis adjunctis, conven- 

or the enemy. the Germans having been united, should have 

issent ; aut quum aliquid (neuter) calamitatis 

assembled; or when some (of) calamity 

acceptum essent in proximis hibernis. 

might have Ihad] been received in the nearest winter quarters. 

Occasionem consulendi esse br^vem Arbitrari 

The opportunity of consulting to be [was] short To believe 

Caesarem profectum (esse) in Italiam: 
[He believes] Caesar to have Ihadl set out into Italy: 

n^que^ Carnutes aliter fuisse 

neither the Carnutes otherwise to have been (would havel 

captures consilium interficiendi Tasgetii; 

about to form [formed] thedesign of slaying Tasgetius; 

n§que Eburones esse venturos ad castra 

nor the Eburones to be about to [would] come to the camp 

(pi.) cum tanta contemptione nostri, si ille 
with so great contempt of [for] us. if he 

adesset (imp. subj.). Non spectare hostem 

were near. He does not (to) regard the enemy 

auctorem sed rem Rhenum subesse : 

(as) an adviser but the fact. The Rhine to be [is] near : 

mortem Ariovisti et nostras superiores victorias, 
the death of Ariovistus and our former victories. 

esse magno dolori Germanis r Galliam 

to be [are] a (for) great grief to the Germans; Gaul 

ardere tot contumeliis acceptis, reductam 

is aflame so many insults having been received, reduced 

sub imperium Romani popiili, superiore 

under the authority of the Roman people. the former 



BOOK V 071 the Gallic War. 261 

gloria militaris r6i (sing.) extincta. 

glory of (its) military affairs having been extinguished. 

Postremo, quis persuaderet""^ hoc slbi, 

Lastly. who should persuade this to himself, (that) 

Ambiorigem descendisse ad consilium 

Ambiorix to have [had] descended to advice 

ejusm5di sTne certa re? Suam 

of this kind without a sure thing (reason) ? His 

sententiam esse tutam in utramque 

opinion to be |\vas] safe for either 

partem: si sit nil durlus, 

part lease] . if there may be nothing harder [worse], 

perventuros (esse) ad proximam legionem 

to be about to [they would] arrive at the nearest legion 

cum nuUo penculo ; si omnis GallTa consenlTat 
with no danger if all Gaul conspires 

cum Germanis, unam salutem esse positam 

with the Germans the one safety to be [is] placed 

m celentate Quldem quern exltum consilium 

in speed Indeed w hat result [would] the advice 

Cottae atque eorum, qui dissentirent, haberet? 
ofCotta and of those who might disagree, have? 

In quo"^ SI non praesens periculum, at certe 
In which if not present danger, still certainly 

fames esset pertimescenda longniqua obsidione. 
famine would be to [must] be dreaded in a long siege," 

30, Hac disputatione liabita in utramque 

This dispute having been kept up on both 

partem (sing ) quum resisteretur (imp subj.) acrlter 
sides since it was opposed sharply 

a Cotta que primis ordniibus; Sabinus inquit, 
by Cotta and the first ranks. Sabmus says. 



>» 



Vmclte, si vultis ita, et id clariore 

"Conquer if ye wish so " and this with a louder 

voce, ut magna pars milltum exaudiret: 

voice that a great part of the soldiers might hear: 

n&que sum is, inquit, ex vobis, 

"neither ami this (man) " gays he " from [of] you 



262 



The Commentaries of CcEsar. BOOK V 



qui 

who 



terrSar 
is frightened 

Hi 

These (men) 



gravissTme 
most severely 



sapient; 
will know ; 



et, 
and. 



SI 
If 



accident, 
shall have happened 



reposcent 
they will demand 



periculo 
by the danger 

quid 
any (thing) 

rationem 

an account 



mortis, 
of death 

gravius 
more severe 



abs 

from 



qui, 
who. 



SI 
if 



lic^at 
it were allowed 



per 
by 



te, 

thee. 



conjuncti 
being united 



te; 

thee ; 

cum 

with 



proxTmis 
the nearest 

sustin^ant 
would endure 

rejecti 

driven back 



perendino, 

after to-morrow. 



hibernis die 

winter quarters on the day 

communem casum cum reliquis ; nee 

a common chance with the rest nor 



el 

and 



relegati 
separated 



longe 
far 



ab 

from 



caet^ris, 

the rest 



Consurgitur 
It IS risen (They rise] 



utrumque 
both 



comprehendunt 

they seize 



rem 

the thing 



intereant aut ferro aut fame, 

would perish either by iron [the sword] or by famine 

ex concilio ; 
from the council 

et orant ; ne deducant 

and beseech , " they may not bring 

in summum periculum sua dissensione 
[situation] into the highest danger by their dissension 

et pertinacia: rem esse facilem, seu 

and obstinacy the matter to be [is] easy. whether 

seu proficiscantur, 
or set out. 

probent 
may approve 

nullam salutem in 
no safety in 



mangant 
they remain 

sentiant 
may think 



ac 

and 



unum 
one (thing) 



m6d6 
only 



omnes 
all 



Contra, 
On the other hand. 



se 

(they) themselves 

dissensione. 

dissension. " 



perspic&re 

(to) perceive 



Res perducitur disputatione ad 

The matter is protracted in dispute to 



mediam 
mid 



noctem. 

night 



31. Tandem Cotta 

At length Cotta 



permotus 

having been moved 



[yields] 



sententia 
the opinion 



Sabini 
of Sabinus 



sup? rat 
prevails 



dat mSnus : 

gives Hands 

Pronuntiatur 
It is announced 



BOOK V On the Gallic War. 263 

ituros prima luce 

about to (tliat they) [wouldl go at the first light [day break) 

RelTqua pars noctis consumTtur vigilTis (pi.) ; 
The remaining part of the night is spent in sleeplessness ; 

quum quisque miles circumspic^ret (imp subj.) 
since each soldier was examining 

sua, quid posset portare cum 

his own (things) what he might be able tocarry with 

se, quid cogeretur relinqu^re ex 

himself. what he might be compelled to leave from 

instrumento hibernorum OmnTa'^^ 

the equipment of the winter quarters All (things) 

excogitantur, quare maneatur 

are devised wherefore it may be remained Ithey may remain] 

ne sine periciilo, et periculum augeatur 

not without danger and the danger may be increased 

languore et vigilTis (pi ) milTtum. 

by the weariness and by the sleeplessness of the soldiers. 

Proficiscuntur prima luce ex 

They set out at the first light [early dawn] from 

castris (pi ) sic. ut quibus esset (imp. 

the camp so [just] as (they) to whom it was 

subjj ) persuasum consilium datum esse 

persuaded (that) the advice to have [had] been given 

non ab hoste, sed ab amicisslmo homlne 
not by an enemy but by a most friendly man 

Ambiorige, longissimo agmine que magnis 

Arabiorix in a very long marching line and with great 

impedimentis (pi.) 

baggage 

32 At posteSquam hostes senserunt de 

But after (that) the enemy learned about 

eorum profectione ex nocturno fremltu que 

their departure from the night din and 

vigiliis, insidiis coUocatis bipartite 

sleeplessness. ambuscades having been placed in two divisions 

in silvis, opportuno atque occulto lOco, 

in the woods, in a convenient and secret place, 



264 The Commeyitaries of Ccesar. BOOK v 

expectabant adventuni Romanorum a circiter 

tliey were waiting the approach of the Romans at about 

duobus millibus passiium: et quum major 

two thousand (oO paces: and when the greater 

pars agminis demisisset (pi. perf. subj.) 

part of the marching-line liad sent down 

se in magnam convallem, ostenderunt 

itself [descended] into a great valley, they showed 

sese subito ex utraque parte ejus vallis; 
themselves suddenly on each side of this valley , 

que coeperunt prem^re novissimos et prohibere 

and began to press the newest [rearl and to hinder 

primes adscensu, atque committere proelTum 

the first [van] from the ascent. and to engage battle 

l6co iniquissimo nostris. 

in a place most unfavorable to our (men). 

33. Tum demum Titurius trepidare, 

Then at last Titurius to bustle [bustled], 

concursare que dispongre cohortes, liti 

to run [ran] about and to arrange [arranged] the cohorts, as 

qui providisset (pi. perf. subj.) nihil ante, 
(one) who had foreseen nothing before. 

tamen, haec ipsa timide, atque 

however, (he did) these (things) themselves timidly, and 

ut omnia viderentur (imp. subj.) defic^re 

as (if) all (things) were seeming to fail (him) 

quod plerumque c6nsu6vit accidere lis qui 

which usually is accustomed to happen to those who 

coguntur capere consilium in negotio ipso, 
are forced to take counsel in the business itself 

At Cotta, qui cogitasset (pi. perf. subj.) haec 
But Cotta, who had thought these 

posse accid6re in itinere, atque 

(things) to be able to [could] happen on the march. and 

ob ^am causam non fuisset (pi. perf 

on account of this reason had not been 

subj.) auctor profectionis, de^rat communi 

the adviser of the departure, was failing for the common 



I 



BOOK V 



0?i the Gallic War. 



265 



nulla 
no 



re; 
tiling 



,60 



et praestabat 
and was performing 



officTa 
the duties 



saluti in 
safety in 

imperatoris in appellandis que cohortandis militTbus 
of a general in addressing and exhorting the soldiers 



et 
and 



militis 
of a soldier 



in pugna. Que quum propter 
in the battle. And when on account of 



longitudinem 
the length 

minus facile 
less easily 



agminis, 
of the marching-line, 



possent (imp. subj.) 
they were able 



obire 
to perform 



omnia 

all (things) 



per 

by 



se, 

themselves. 



et providere, quid esset faciendum quoque 

and to provide, what might be to [must] be done in every 

loco; jusserunt pronuntiari, ut relinqu^rent 

place; they ordered (it) to be proclaimed that they should leave 



impedimenta atque 
the baggage and 



consist^rent 
should take stand 



Quod 

Which 



[This] 



consilium, 
plan 



etsi 
although 



in 

in 

est 

it IS 



reprehendendum in casu 
to be blamed in a case 



ejusm^di, 

of this kind 



orbem. 

a circle. 

non 

not 

t elm en 

however 



accTdit incommode* nam minfiit spem nostris 
happened badly: for it diminished hope to [in] our 

militibus, et effecit hostes alacriores 

soldiers and rendered the enemy more eager 

adpugnandum; quod id videbatur^^ factum (esse) 
for fighting. because this was seeming to have been done 

non sine summo timore et 

not without the highest [utmost] fear and 



desperatione. 

despair 



Fraeter^a accidit, quod ^rat 

Besides it happened, what was 

fi^ri, 
to be done [to occur] 

discedgrent (imp subj ) volgo ab 

were withdrawing generally fron 

que quisque eorum properaret (imp subj ) petere 
and everyone of them was hastening to seek 

atque arripere ab impedimentis, quae 

and to seize from the baggage. what 



necesse 
necessary 



ut 

that 



milites 
the soldiers 

signis ; 
the standards : 



266 



The Commentaries of CcEsar. BOOK V 



habOret carissTma; 
he might hold most dear ; 

(imp. subj.) clamore 
with noise 

34. At consilium 
But prudence 

Nam duces 

For the leaders 



et omnia complerentur 

and all (places) were filled 

ac fletu. 

and with bewailing [lamentation] 



defuit 

was wanting 



eorum 

of them [their leaders] 



non barbclris. 

not to the barbarians 

jusserunt 
commanded (it) 



tota 
in the whole 



pronuntiari 

to be announced 

disced6ret ab 
should depart from 

reliquissent, 
might have left. 

reservari ill is : 

to be [was] reserved for them 



acie, 
battle-line. 



ne 

that not 



l6co : 

(his) place; 

esse illorum 

to be [was] their 



quaecunque 
whatsoever 



praedam, 

plunder. 



quis 
any (one) 

Romani 

the Romans 

atque 
and 



proinde 
wherefore 



existimarent 

they should think 



omnia posita in 

(that) all (things) (were) placed [hung] on 



victoria. Nostri 



victory 



grant pares pugnando et virtu te et 

were equal in fighting both in valor and 

tametsi deserebantur e duce 

although they were deserted by (their) general 



Our (men) 

num^ro: 
in number* 



et 

and 



by 



fortuna, tamen 
fortune, however 



ponebant 
they were putting 



omnem spem salutis 
all hope of safety 



in 

in 



virtute ; 

valor ; 



et 
and 



quoties 
as often as 



quseque 
every 



cohors 
cohort 



procurreret (imp. subj.), majjnus numerus hostium 



was charging 

cadebat 
were falling 



a great 



number of the enemy 



ab 

on 



ga 

that 



parte, 
side. 



Qua 
Which 



re 

thing 



animadversa, 
having been observed. 



Ambiorix jussit pronuntiaii, 

Ambionx ordered (it) to be announced. 



Ut 

that 



conjicTant 

they cast 



tela 

(their) weapons 



accedant 
approach 

Romani 
the Romans 



propius ; 
nearer ; 

fec^rint 
made 



et 

and 



in 
on 



pr6cul 

from a distance 

quam 
what (ever) 



neu 

nor 

partem 

side 



imp^tum, 
an attack, 



cedant ; 
(that) they give way: 



BOOK V On the Gallic War, 267 

nlhil^^ posse noceri lis 

nothing to be able [could] (to) be injured linjure] to them Ithem] 

levitate armorum et quotidiana exercitatione ; 

by the hghtness of (their) arms and by daily exercise. 

insequantur recipientes se rursus 

(that) they pursue (them) betaking themselves again 

ad signa 

to tlie standards 

35 Quo praecepto observato diligentissime 

Which direction having been observed most carefully 

ab lis, quum quaepiam c6hors excess6rat ex 
by them, when any coliort had gone out from 

orbe, atque fec^rat impetum, hostes 

the circle and had made an attack, the enemy 

refugiebant veloeissime ; interim 6rat necesse 

were retiring most swiftly meantime it was necessary 

nudari Sa parte, et tela 

to be exposed on this side and (that) weapons 

reclpi ab aperto latere. Rursus, (|uum 

to [would] be received on the open flank Again, when 

coepgrant adverti in 6um l6cum, unde 

they had begun to return into this place. whence 

egressi grant, circumveniebantur et ab lis, 
they had gone out. they were surrounded both by those. 

qui cesserant et ab Tis, qui stet6rant 

who had given way and by those, who had stood 

proximi ; autem sin vellent (imp. subj.) tenere 
nearest but if they wished to hold 

locum, nSque locus relinquebatur 

(their) place [ground] neither a place [opportunity] w-as left 

virtuti, nSque conferti poterant vitare tela 

for valor nor crowded were they able to avoid the weapons 

conjecta a tanta multitudine. Tamen conflictati 
hurled by so great a multitude However having struggled 

tarn multis incommodis, multis vulneribus 

with so many disadvantages many wounds 

acceptis, resistebant; et magna 

having been received, they were withstanding , and a great 



268 



The Commentaries of Ccesar\ BOOK V 



parte diei consumpta, 

part of the day having been spent. 

quod esset indignum 

which would be unworthy 

pugnaretur (imp subj.) a 
it was fought [they fouglit] from 

ad octavam horam. 

to the eighth hour [two o'clock] 



committebant nihil, 

they were doing nothing, 

ipsis (abl ), quum 

themselves, although 



prima 

the first 
.63 



luce 

light [early dawn) 



Tum utrumque femur 
Then each thigh 



transjicitur tragula 
IS pierced with a javelin 



viro, 

man 

pilum 

century 



Tito BalventTo, forti 

to [of] Titus Balvenlius, a brave 

.64 



et magnae auctontatis, qui dux^rat primum 



and of great 



superiore 
in the former 



ejusdem 
of the same 



ordinis 
rank 



authority. 

anno, 

year. 

pugnans 

fighting 



who 



had led 



Quintus 
Quintus 



the first 

Lucanius 

Lucanius 



fortissTme interficTtur, 
most bravely is slain, 



dum 

while 

Lucius 

Lucius 



subvenit 

he aids 



cohortes 
the cohorts 

adversum 
the front 



Cotta, 
Cotta 

que 
and 

OS. 



filTo (dat.) 
(his) son 

legatus 
the lieutenant 

ordines, vulneratur 
ranks is wounded 



circumvento. 
having been surrounded. 

adhortans omnes 
encouraging all 

funda in 

with a sling on 



face [squarely in the face] 

36 Quintus Titurius permotus 
Quintus Titurius much alarmed 

conspexisset (pi perf subj ) 
he had beheld 



his 

by these 



rebus, 

things 



quum 
when 



Ambiorigem 
Ambionx 



procul 
at a distance 



cohortantem 

exhorting 



SUOS, 
his ^men) 



mittit 

sends 



suum 

his 



eum, rogatum, 
him. to beseech. 



interprgtem, Cnaeium Pompeium ad 

interpreter Cnaeius Pompey to 

ut parcat sibi (dat ) que militibus(dat ). Ille 

that he may spare himself and the soldiers He 

appellatus respondit, licere 

having been addressed answered " to be [it is] allowed 

colloqui secum, si velit ; sperare 

to confer with himself. if he wishes. to hope [he hopes it I 



BOOK V On the Gallic War. 269 

posse impetrari a multitudine, 

to be able [can] (to) be obtained from the multidude. 

quod pertingat ad salutem milltum : ver5 

what may relate to the safety of Ihe soldiers : but 

nihil nocitum iri ipsi : que 

nothing to be about to be hurt [should harm] (to) liimself: and 

se interi)oiigre suam fidem in $am 

(lie) himself to put [puts] his own good faith on this 

rem Ille communTcat cum saucTo Cotta; 

thing." He communicates with the wounded Cotta. 

si videatur, ut excedant ])Uf?na, 

"if it may seem (best), that they retire from the battle, 

et colloquantur una cum AmbiorTj^e ; se 

and confer together with Ambionx : (he) himself 

sperare posse impetrari ab go 

to hope [hopes] to be able to [that it can] be obtained from him 

de sua salute ac milTtum. Cotta 

about his own [safety and (that) of the soldiers. " Cotta 

nggat se iturimi ad armatum 

refuses (that he) himself (about) to [should] go to an armed 

hostem atque persevgrat in So. (37.) Sabinus jubet 
enemy and persists in this. Sabinus orders 

tribuno milTtum, quos habebat circum 

the tribunes of soldiers, whom he was having about 

se in pra^sentia, et centuriones primorum 

himself at present, and the centurions of the first 

ordinum, sgqui se ; et quum accessisset 

ranks, to follow himself; and when he had approached 

(pi. perf. subj.) propTus Ambiorigem, jussus 

nearer Ambionx, having been ordered 

abjicgre arma, facit miperatum, que 

to throw aside (his) arms, he performs the command. and 

impgrat siiis (dat ), ut faciant idem. Interim, 
commands his (men), that they do the same. Meantime. 

dum agunt inter se de conditionibus, 

while they treat between themselves about conditions, 

que longTor sermo instituTtur consulto ab 

and a rather long speech is undertaken designedly by 



270 Tlie Commentaries of CcEsar. book v 

Ambiorige, circumventus paulatim, interficitur, 

Ambionx. having been surrounded gradually he is killed 

Turn vero conclamant victorTam atque tollunt 
Then indeed they shout victory and raise 

ululatum suo more que impStu facto 

a whoop in their manner and an attack having been made 

in nostros, perturbant ordines Ibi 

upon our (men) they disorder the ranks There 

Lucius Cotta pugnans interficitur, cum maxima 
Lucius Cotta fighting is killed with the greatest 

parte militum : relTqui recipTunt se in 

part of the soldiers-. the rest betake themselves into 

castra (pi ), unde egressi 6rant. Ex 

the camp. whence they had gone out From [Of] 

quTbus Lucius PetrosidTus aquilifer projecit 

whom Lucius Petrosidius the eagle bearer [ensign] cast 

aquilam intra vallum, cum premcretur (imp. 
the eagle within the rampart when he was pressed 

subj ) magna multitudine hostium ; ipse 

by a great multitude • of the enemy. (he) himself 

pugnans fortissime pro castris (pi ) occiditur. 
lighting most bravely before the camp is slain 

Alii aegre sustinent oppugnationem ad 

The others hardly [barely] support the assault until 

noctem ; ipsi omnes ad unum, salute 

night (they) themselves all to one [to a man] safety 

desperata, interficiunt se noctu 

having been despaired of. kill themselves by night. 

Pauci elapsi ex prcelTo perventunt 

A few having escaped from the battle arrive 

incertis itineiibus per silvas ad Titum 

by uncertain routes through the woods to Titus 

Labienum legatum in hiberna ; atque 

Labienus the lieutenant into winter quarters and 

fiiciunt 6um certiorem de rebus 

make him more sure [inform him] of the things 

gestis 

carried on. 



BOOK V On the Gallic War. 271 

38. Ambionx sublatus hac victorta, statim 

Arnbiorix elated by this victory imniediatfly 

proficiscTtur cum e(iuitatu in Aduatucos, 

sets out with (Ins) cavalry unto the Aduatiui. 

qui &rant fimtlini ejus rej^no; n&(}ue 

who were neij?ht)ors to his kinfjdom. neither 

intermittit clieni nf^iue noctem ; (jue jul)et 

does he pause day nor niglit . and lie orders 

peditatum subsociiii se Re denionstrata, 

the infantry to follow himself Tlie affair having tjcen explained. 

que Aduatucis concitatis, pervgnit post^ro 

and the Aduatuci luivinj? been incited he arrives on the follou iiifr 

die in NervTos, cjue hortatur 

day among the Nervii, and exhorts (them) "(thai) 

"ne diimttant occasionem liberandi sui 

they may not let slip [lose) the opportunity of freeing themselves 

in perpetuuni, atcjiie ulciscendi Ronianos pro 

forever and of punishing: the Romans for 

lis injurTis, quas accep^rint (perf. subj.); 

those injuries, which they have received 

demonstrat duos le^atos iiiterfectos esse, 

he shows (that) two lieutenants (to) have been killed, 

que magnam partem exercitus interisse : esse, 

and a great part of the army (to) have perished • to be 

nlhil^^ nefjotii legionem 

(that there is] nothing of business |no trouble] the legion 

subito oppressam, quae hi?met (pres. subj.) 

suddenly having been overwhelmed, which winters 

cum Cicerone mterflci : profitetur se 

with Cicero (that it) to [should] be slain : he declares himself 

adjutorem ad eam rem. 
a helper for this thing. 

39 Persuadet Nerviis (dat.) facile hac oratione. 
He persuades the Nervii easily by this speech. 

ItSque nunciis dimissis confestim ad 

Therefore messengers having been dispatched immediately to 

Centrones, GrudTos Levacos, Pleumoxios, Geidumnos, 
the Centrones Grudii, Levaci, Pleumoxii, Geidumni. 



272 



The Commentaries of CcEsar\ 



BOOK V 



qui 
who 



omnes 
all 



sunt sub 
are under 



eorum 

their 
,66 



imperio, 

authority, 



cogunt 

they collect 



mSnus quam maximas'"' possunt; et 

bands as greatest [great as] they can , and 

advolant de improviso ad liiberna Ciceronis, 

fly unexpectedly to the winter quarters of Cicero, 



fa ma 
the report 



de 

about 



morte 
the death 



perlata 
having been brought 



ad ^um. 

to him. 

necesse, 

necessary, 



67 



Ut 
that 



quod fiiit 

which [as] was 

qui discessissent (pL perf. subj ) 
who had departed 



Titurii nondum 

of Ti tun us not yet 

AccTdit quoque huic, 
It happened also to him, 

nonnulli 



some 



in 

into 



causa lignationis que 

for the sake of wood cutting and 

interciperentur (imp. subj.) repentino 

were cut ofT by the sudden 



equitum. 
of the cavalry. 



His 

These 



circumventis, 
having been-surrounded. 



Aduatuci, NervTi, 
Aduatuci. Nervii. 



omnium 

of all 

magna 

with a great 



horum, 

these. 



atque 
and 

incipiunt 

begin 



SOCll 
the allies 



et 

and 



oppugnare 
to assault 



manu. 
throng. 



ad 

to 



arma ; 
arms ; 



Nostri celenter 

Our (men) quickly 

conscendunt vallum, 

they mount the rampart. 



sustentatur 

IS supported 

ponebant 

were placing 

adepti 

having obtained 



aegre, 

hardly [with difficulty]. 



quod 
because 



milites, 
soldiers, 

silvas 
the woods 

munitionis 
of fortification 

adventu 

arrival 

Ebu rones, 
the Eburones, 

clientes 
dependents 

legionem 
the legion 

concurrunt 

run together 

Is dies 

This day 

hostes 
the enemy 



omnem 

all 

banc 

this 



spem 
hope 



in 

in 



celeritate, 

haste. 



atque 
and 



se 

(that they) themselves 

in perpetiium. 
forever. 



victoriam, confidebant 

victory, they were trusting 

f5re victores 

to be about to [would] be conquerors 



BOOK V 



On the Gallic War. 



273 



40. Lit^ra? (pi.) mittuntur (\A ) confestim 



ad 
to 



A letter is sent jmmediately 

Caesarem a Cicerone, magnis praemTis pro- 

Caesar by Cicero. great rewards having been 

posTtis, SI pertulissent. Omnibus viis 

offered. if tliey should carry (it). All the ways 

obsessis, niissi intercipiuntur. Centum 

having been blockaded, (those) sent are intercepted. A hundred 

et viginti turres excitantur incredibili celeritate 
and twenty towers are raised with incredible speed 

noctu ex f^i materia, quam comportav?rant ^^ 
by night from this material. which they had brought together 

munitionis. Quae videbantur 

of fortilication. What (things) were appearing 

Hostes, multo 
The enemy. much 



causa 

for the sake 

deesse 
to be wantini 



opSri perficiuntur. 

to the work are completed 



majorlbus 
greater 

castra (pi.) 
the camp 

Resistitur 
It IS withstood 

qua 

in which [as] 

deinceps 

afterwards 

nocturni 

of the night 



coplis coactis, 

forces liaving been collected, 

postero die, complent 

on the following day. they lili up 



a 

by 



nostris 
our (men) 



eadem 

in tlie same 



oppugnant 
assault 

fossa m. 
the trench. 

ratione, 
manner, 



pridie : 

the day before ; 

rellciuis 
on the remainini 



hoc 

this 



idem 

same (thing) 



diebus, 

days 



Nulla 

No 



fit 

is done 

pars 
part 



temp5ris intermittitur 
time IS discontinued 



ad laborem : 

for the labor: 



facultas 
an opportunity 

vulneratis 
to the wounded. 



quietis 
of [fori rest 



dc\tur 
IS given 



non 
not 



aegris, 
to the sick. 



non 
nor 



Quaecunque 

Whatever (things) 



sunt 
are 



6pus 

necessary 



ad oppugnationem 

for tlie assault 



proximi diei, comparantur 
of the next day are prepared 



praeustae, 
burnt at the point. 



magnus 
a great 



noctu. Multae slides 

by night. Many stakes 

numgrus murallum pilorum instituitur; turres 

number of mural [wall] javelins is prepared. towers 



274 



The Commentaries of Ccssar. BOOK V 



contabulantur ; 
are built up; 



69 



pinnae 
battlements 



que 

and 



loricae 

parapets 



attexuntur 

are woven 



ex 

from [of] 



cratibus. 
hurdles. 



CicSro 

Cicero 



ispe, 
himself 



quum 

although 



esset 

he was 



(i 



imp. su 



bj.) 



tenuissima 
in very delicate 

70 



valetudlne, relinquebat 
health. was leaving 

ne nocturnum'" tempus quidem sibi ad 

not the nigiit time even to himself for 

quietem ; ut cogeretur (imp, subj.) parcgre 

rest; so that he was compelled to spare 

sTbi (dat.) ultro concursu 

himself beyond [contrary to] (his wishes) by the running 

ac vocibus militum. 

[throngmg] (to him) and voices [words] of the soldiers. 

41. Tunc duces que princTpes Nerviorum, 

Then the leaders and chiefs of the Nervn, 

habebant aliquem aditum sermonis que 
were having some access of speech and 

amicitiae cum Cicerone, dicunt 

of friendship with Cicero, say 

Potestate 

The opportunity 

facta, commemorant eS.dem, quae 

having been made, they relate the same (things). which 

Ambiorix egerat cum TiturTo : Omnem 

Ambiorix had treated with Titurius. "All 

Germanos 



qui 
who 

causam 
cause 



sese 

(that they) themselves 



velle colloqui. 
(to) wish to parley. 



Galliam esse in armis : 

Gaul to be [is] in arms . the Germans 

Rhenum : hiberna Caesaris 

the Rhine . the winter quarters of Caesar 

Addunt etiam de 

They add also about 



transisse 
(to) have crossed 

que reliquorum 
and of the rest 



oppugnari. 

to be [are] stormed." 



Ambiongem 

Ambiorix 



Sabini. Ostentant 

of Sabinus. They display 

faciundae fid^i. 

of making faith [credit]. 

errare, si sperent quidquam 

(to) mistake, if they hope any 



Dicunt 
They say 



morte 

the death 

causa 
for the sake 

?OS 
(that) these 



praesidTi ab 
(of) protection from 



BOOK V 



On the Gallic War. 



275 



lis, qui diffidant (pres. subj ) suis 

tliose. who distrust (to) their own 



tamen 
however 



sese 

(they) themselves 



esse 

to be [are] 



hoc 

with [of] this 



rebus : 
affairs ■ 

animo 

111 I ml 



in Ciceronem que Romanum populum, ut 
towards Cicero and the Roman people. that 



recusent nihil, 

they may refuse nothing. 

nolint banc 

are unwilling (that) this 

.72 



nisi biberna, atque 

except the winter quarters. and 



consuetudTnem 
custom 



inveter- 
to [should] be 



asc$re ; 
established , 

disced^re 

to depart 

proficisci 

to set out 

v6bnt. 
they may wish. 

ad baec : 
to these : 



bee re 

(it) to be [is] allowed 

incolumlbus ex 
sa fe from 



per se ilbs 

by themselves to them 

bibernis, et 

the winter quarters. and 



sine m6tu in quascunque partes 
without fear into whatever parts 



Cic6ro 
Cicero 

"Non 

"Not 



respond it m(3d6 unum 
answered only one (thing) 



esse 

to be lit is not] 



consuetudTnem 

the custom 



Romani popub accipgre ullam conditionem ab 



of the Roman people to receive any 

armato boste : si v&Hnt 
an armed enemy . if they wish 



arm IS, 
arms. 

mittant 
may send 



utantur 
they may use 

legatos 
ambassadors 



se 

himself 



condition 

discedSre 
to withdraw 

adjutore, 
(as) a helper. 



from 

ab 
from 

que 
and 



ad 

to 



CaesSrem : 

Caesar . 



se 
(he) himself 



sperare 
to hope [hopes] 



impetraturos, quae 

them (to be) about to [they may] obtain, what 



petigrint, 
they may have sought. 



73 
pro 

on account of 



ejus justitia. 
his justice." 



42. NervTi repulsi ab 

The Nervii having been repulsed from 



hac 

this 



cingunt 
surround 



hiberna 

the winter quarters 



vallo 
with a rampart 



spe, 
hope, 

und^cim 

of eleven 



p6dum et fossa quind^cim p6dum. Cognov^rant 
feet and a ditch of fifteen feet. They had learned 



276 



The Commentaries of Ccssar. 



BOOK V 



haec et 

these (things) also 

superiorum 
of former 

captivos de 

prisoners of 

Sed nulla 



a 

from 



annorum; 
years ; 

exercitu, 
(our) army. 



nostris 

our (men) 

et 

and 



consuetudine 
by the custom 

nacti quosdam 

having got some 



docebantur ab his, 
they were taught by these. 



But 

quae 

which 



(there was) no 



copia 
supply 



esset 

might be 



idonga 

suitable 



ferramentorum his, 

of iron tools for them, 

ad hunc usum. 

for this use. 



Cogebantur 
They were forced 



circumcid6re 
to cut round 



caespitem 

the sod 



exhaurire 
to draw out 

sagulis. 
in cloaks 

hominum 
of men 



terram 
the earth 



manibus 
with (their) hands 



que 

and 



Ex 

From 



qua 

which 



re 

thing 



potuit 

was able 



cognosci. 
to be known. 



quidem, 

indeed. 

Nam 
For 



gladiis, 
with swords, 

(carry it) 

multitudo 

the multitude 



minus 
in less 



(than) 



tribus horis perfecerunt munitionem 
three hours they finished a fortification 



millium 
thousand 



passuum 

(of) paces 



in 

in 



circuitu. 

compass. 



Que 

And 



quind6cim 
of fifteen 

coeperunt 

they began 



parare 

to prepare 



ac 

and 



ad 
to 



altitudinem 
the height 



fac^re turres reliquis diebus 

to make towers on the remaining days 

falces que 

wall hooks and 



testudines, quas 
shelters, which 



43. Septimo 

On the seventh 

vento coorto, 

wind having arisen. 



valli, 
of the rampart. 

iidem captivi 
the same prisoners 

die oppugnationis, 
day of the siege. 



docugrant. 

had taught (them). 



coeperunt 
they began 



jac^re 
to throw 



ferventes glandes ex 

hot balls of 

jactila in casas, 

javelins on the cottages. 



fusili argiUa, et 
fusible clay and 

quae tectae ?rant 
which had been covered 



maximo 
a very great 

fund is 
with slings 

fervefacta 
heated 

stramentis 

with straw 



(pi.) GallTco more. Hae comprehenderunt 

in the Gallic manner. These caught 



BOOK V On the Gallic V/ar. ' 277 

ignem celerTter, et rnan^nitudlne venti, 

lire quickly, and from the greatness oftlicwind, 

distulerunt^^ in orniiem ICcum castrorum (pL). 
spread (it) into every place of the camp. 

Hostes insecuti maxTmo clamore, 

The enemy havjiif? followed with a very great shout, 

quS.si victoria parta atcjue explofata 

as if the victory (had) been obtained and assured 

jam, coeperunt ag^re turres que 

already, began to drive the towers and 

testudlnes et ascend^re vallum scalis. 

shelters and to mount the rampart with ladders. 

At tanta fiiit virtus atque prsesentia anlmi 
But so great was the valor and the presence of mind 

milTtum, ut, (juum torrerentur (imp. subj.) 

of the soldiers. that. although they were scorched 

flamma undlscjue, que premerentur (imp. subj.) 

by the flame on every side. and were pressed 

maxima multitudiue telorum, que 

with a very great nuiltilude of weapons, and 

intellig^rent (imp. subj.) omnia sua impedimenta 
were understanding (that) all their baggage 

atque omnes fortunas conflagrare, non 

and all (their) fortunes to be [werej on fire, not 

m6d6 nemo deced^ret (imp. subj.) de vallo 

only no one was wilhdrawing from the rampart 

causa demigrandi, sed"^ ne quisquam paene 

for the sake of going away. but not anyone hardly 

respic^ret (imp. subj.) quidem ; ac tum 

was looking back even ; and besides 

omnes pugnarent (imp. subj.) acerrime que 

all were fighting most vigorously and 

fortissime. Hic dies ffiit longe gravissTmus 
most bravely This day was by far the most severe 

nostris; sed tftmen habfnt hunc eventum, ut 

for our (men) . but however it had this issue, that 

&0 die maximus num^rus hostium vulneraretur 
on this day the greatest number of the enemy w as wounded 



278 Tke Coymiicntaries of Cc^sa?^ BOOK V 

(imp, subj ) atque interficeretur (imp. subj ); ut 
and was killed . as 

constipav^rant se sub vallo ipso, 

they had crowded themselves under the rampart itself 

que ultimi dabant non recessum 
[the very rampart[ and the last were giving no retreat 

primis, Quidem flamma intermissa paulum, 

to the first. Indeed the flame [fire] having ceased a little. 

et turri adacta quodam l6co, et 

and f. tower having been forced up in a certain place. and 

continoente vallum, centuriones tertiae 

touching the rampart. the centurions of the third 

cohortis recesserunt ex 60 loco, quo 

cohort retired from this place. in which 

stabant, que removerunt omnes siios ; 

they were standing. and removed all their (men); 

coeperunt vocare hostes nutu que vocibus, 

they began to call the enemy by nod [sign] and by voices 

si vellent introire, nemo quorum 

[words]. if they wished to enter no one of whom 

ausus est progr^di. Turn deturbati (sunt) 

dared to advance Then they were beaten off 

lapidibus conjectis ex omni parte, que turris 
by stones thrown from every side. and the tower 

succensa est. 
was set on fire. 

44. Erant in §a legione fortissimi 

(There) were in this legion (two) very brave 

viri, centuriones, Titus Pullo et Lucius Varenus, 
men. centurions. Titus Pullo and Lucius Varenus, 

qui jam appropinquarent (imp. subj.) primis 

who now were approaching (to) the first 

ordinibus. Hi habebant perpetuas 

ranks (of centurions) These were having constant 

controversTas inter se, liter 

controversies between themselves. (as to) which of the two 

anteferretur altgri ; que contendebant 

should be preferred to the other; and they were striving 



BOOK V On the Gallic War. 279 

summis simultatibus de l5co 

with the liighest [greatest] bickerings about place [precedence] 

omnibus annis. Ex lis Pullo inquit, 

in all the years. (One) from [of] these, Pullo says, 

quum pugnaretur (imp. subj. — pass, sing.) 

when they were fighting 

acerrime ad munitones, Quid dubitas, 

most vigorously at the fortifications. "Why dost thou hesitate, 

Varene? aut quern locum probandae tuae virtutis 
O Varenus? or what place of proving thy valor 

exspactas? Hic dies, hic dies judicabit 

dost thou wait for? This day, this day shall decide 

de nostris controversiis." Quum dixisset (pi. perf. 

about our disputes." When he had said 

subj ) haec, pit)cedit extra munitiones, et 

these (words), he advances outside the fortifications, and 

quae pars hostium visa est confertissTma, 

what part of the enemy seems most dense [most crowded], 

irrumpit in 6am. Nee Varenus quTdem turn 
he dashes upon this Nor Varenus indeed then 

continet sese vallo; sed veritus 

restrains himself on the rampart : but having feared 

existimationem omnium, subsequitur mediocri 

the opinion of all he follows closely, a moderate 

spatio relicto. Pullo mittit pilum in 

distance being left Pullo sends (his) javelin against 

hostes, atque transjTcit unum ex multitudine 

the enemy, and transfixes one from [of] the multitude 

procurrentem : quo percusso et exanimato, 

running forward who having been struck and laid senseless, 

hostes protSgunt hunc secutis, a et 

the enemy protect him with (their) shields, and 

universi conjiciunt tela in ilium, 

all hurl (their) weapons upon him [Pullo], 

ngque dant facultatem regrediendi. 

nor do they give (him) a chance of returning. 

Scutum' Pulloni transfigitur et verutum 

The shield for [of] Pullo is pierced and a javelin 



280 The Comvientaiies of Ccssar. BOOK v 

defigitur in balteo. Hic casus avertit 

is lixed in (his) belt. Tins niisliup turns away 

vaginam et moratur dextram milium 

the scabbard and retards (his) rifjht liand 

conantis educ6re gladium, que hostes 

endeavoring to draw out (his) sword. and the eneiu) 

circumsistunt impeditum. Varenus inimicus 

surround (him) entangled. Varenus (his) rival 

succurrit illi(dat.), et subv6nit 

succours [runs to help) him, and conies up [brings aid] (to him) 

laboranti. Omnis multitude fonfestim convertit 
laboring. All the multitude immediately turns 

se a Pullone ad hunc. Arbitrantur lUum 

itself from PuUo to him. They think him 

transfixum veriito. Illic vero 

[PuDo] run through [pierced] with the javelin. There, however 

Varenus occursat ocTus gladio que 

with (his) sword and 

atque uno 

and one 

interfecto, propellit relTquos paullum. Dum 

having been killed, he repulses the rest a little. While 

instat cupidius dejectus concTdit 

lie presses on more eagerly, having been thrown down he fell 

in inferiorem locum. Pullo rursus fert 

upon a lower place Pullo again brings 

subsidTum huic circumvento ; atque ambo incolumes, 
aid to him surrounded. and both safe. 

compluribus mterfectis, recipTunt sese 

several having been killed betake themselves 

cum summa laude nitra 

with the highest [greatest] praise [applause] withm 

munitiones. Sic fortuna versavit utrumque 

the fortifications. Thus fortune turned [treated] each 

111 contentione et certamine, ut alter 

in (their) strife and contest. (so) that the one 

inimicus esset (imp subj ) auxilTo que saluti 

nvai was (for) an aid and safety 



Varenus 


runs up 


very quickly \ 


ggrit 


rem 


cominus ; 


carries on 


the affair 


hand to hand , 



BOOK V 



On the Gallic War. 



281 



altgri ; ngque 

to the otiier, nor 

uter 

which of the two 

virtute. 
in valor, 

45. Quanto 

As much 

oppugnatio 6rat 

the siege was 



posset (imp. subj.) 

was it possible 



videretur 

should seem 



gravTor 
more severe 



anteferendus 
to be preferred 



atque 
and 



dijudicari, 

to be decided, 

litri 

to the other 



asperior 

more ardous 



indies, 

daily, 



magna 

a great 

res 
the case 



parte 
part 



militum 
of the soldiers 



perven6rat 

had come 



quod, 
because, 



paucitatem 
a fewness [scarcity] 



et maxTme 
and chiefly 

confecta vulneribus, 

having been spent with wounds 

ad 
to 



defensorum ; 

of defenders . 



tanto 
so much 



nuncn 

messengers 



crebriores 

more frequent 

mittebantur ad Caesilrem ; 



htgrae 

letters 



que 
and 



were sent 



to 



Caesar ; 



pars 
a part 



quorum 

of whom 



deprehensa 
having been caught 



conspectu 

sight 



nostrorum 

of our 



necabatur 
was put to death 

milTtum. 
soldiers. 



cum 

with 



cruciatu 
torture 



Erat 
There was 



in 

in 

unus 
one 



Nervius intus, nomine Vertico, natus honesto 
Nervian within, by name Vertico, born in an honorable 



l6co, 
place [rank], 



qui 
who 



profuggrat 
had fled 



ad 

to 



Ciceronem 

Cicero 



a 

from 



prima obsidione, 
the first siege, 



que 
and 



que 

and 



6i. Hie 

to him. This (man) 

libertatis 
of liberty 

litgras (pi.) ad 
a letter to 

illigatas in jaculo ; 
tied up in a javelin ; 

inter Gallos sine 

among the Gauls without 



praestit6rat siiam fid em 
had exhibited his fidelity 

persuadet servo (dat.), spe 

persuades a slave. with the hope 



magnis 
by great 

Caesarem. 

Caesar. 



praemiis, 
rewards, 

Ille 

He 



ut defgrat 

that he carry 

aflPert has (pi.) 

bears this 



et 
and 

ullu 
any 



Gallus 
the Gaul 



versatus 

having mingled 



suspicione, 
suspicion, 



pervenit 
comes 



282 



The Commentaries of Caesar. BOOK ^ 



ad 
to 



Caes3.rem 
Caesar 



Ciceronis 
of Cicero 



que 

and 



46. Caesar, 
Caesar, 

undecima 
the eleventh 

statim 
immediately 

BellovS,cos, 
the Bellovaci, 



Cognoscit 
He learns 

lejjionis. 

of the leffion. 

Iit(^ris (pi ) 
the letter 



ab 

from 



60 

him 



de 

of 



acceptis 
having been received 



60 

lum 



vif^inti 
twenty 



hora diei, 

hour of the day. 

ad Marcum Crassum 
to Marcus Crassus 

hiberna 

winter quarters 

millTa 

thousand 



mittit 
sends 



periculo 
the danger 



circitei 
about 

nuncium 

a messenger 



CUJUS 
whose 



quaestorem 
the quaestor 

abgrant 
were distant 



in 

among 

ab 
from 



quinque 
five 



passuum 

(of) paces. 



legionem 
the legion 



proficisci 
to set out 



media 
at mid- 



celeiiter ad 

speedily [quickly] to 



se. 

himself. 



nocte, 

night, 

Crassus 
Crassus 



que 
and 



Jubet 

He orders 

venire 

to come 



exiit 

came out 



nuncio. Mittit altgrum 

the messenger. He sends another (messenger) 

FabTum legatum, ut adducat 

Fabius the lieutenant, that he lead 



ad 

to 



cum 

with 

CaTum 

Caius 



in 

into 



fines 
the territories 



Atrebatium, 
of the Atrebates. 



iter 
the march 

Labieno, 
to Labienus. 



faciendum 
to [would! be made 



legionem 
(his) legion 

sciebat 

he was knowing 

sibi (dat.). Scribit 

by himself. 



qua 

where 



Sl 
if 



rei publicae, 
of the state, 

fines 
the territories 



posset 

he might be able 

veniat 

(that) he come 

Nerviorum. 
of the Nervii 



facere 
to do (it) 

cum 

with 



He writes 

commodo 
with the advantage 



legione 
(his) legion 



ad 
to 



Pfitat 
He thinks 



relTquam 
the remaining 



partem 
part 

quod 
because 



exercitus 
of the array 

ab&rat 

it was distant 



non 

(must) not 

paul5 longius 
a little farther . 



exspectandam, 

(to) be waited for, 

cogit circitei 
he collects about 



quadringentos equites ex proxTmis hibernis. 
four hundred cavalry from the nearest winter quarters- 



BOOK V 



On the Gallic War. 



288 



47. Factus est 

He was made 

Crassi ab 
ofCrassus by 



certTor de adventu 

more sure [was informedl of the arrival 
antecursoribus cirtiter 



scouts 



(abl) 



eo 

on this 



progreditur 
he advances 



viginti 
twenty 



die. 

day. 



Prieficit 
He appoints 



about 

millTa 
thousand 

Cassum 

Crass us 



tertia 
the third 



hora 

hour . 



passuum 

(of) paces 

Samarobrivae, 
to Samarobriva, 



que attnbiiit legionem 6i ; quod rebnquebat 

and assigns a legicn to liira ; because lie was leaving 

ibi impedimenta exercTtus, obsides civitatum, 

there the baggage of the army, the hostages of the states, 



publicas 
the public 



litgras, 
letters, 



que 
and 



omne frumeritum, quod 
all the corn. which 



devex^rat 
he had conveyed down 

hiemis, 
the winter. 



66 

there 



causa' 

for the sake 



tolerandae 
of enduring 



Fabius, ut 
Fabius, as 



imperatum 6iat, moratus 
it had been commanded, having delayed 



non Tta multum, 

not so (very) much, 

itingre. Labienus, 

the march. Labienus, 

caede cohortTum 

the slaughter of the cohorts 



occurrit 
meets (him) 

interitu 

the destruction 



cum 

with 



legione 
a legion 



Sabini, 

of Saciiiu.s, 



\\\ 
on 

et 

and 



cognita, 
having been known. 



quum omnes 

when all 



copiae 
the forces 



Trevirorum venissent (pi. perf. subj.) ad 
oftheTreviri .had come to 



6um, 

him. 



[against] 

profectionem 
the departure 



ne, 

lest, 



Sl 
if 



veritus 
having feared 

ex hibernis simTlem 

from winter quarters like 



fecisset 
he should make 

fugae, 
(to) a flight, 



ut posset 

that he might be able 



non 

not 



hostium, 
of the enemy, 



praesertim 
especially 



quos 
whom 



sustinere 
to support 

sciret (imp 
he was knowing 



impgtum 
the attack 

;ubj.) 



efferri recenti victoria, dimittit literas 

to be [werel elated by the late victory. despatches a letter 

(pi.) Caesari, cum quanto periciilo esset 

to Caesar. (to say) with how great danger he was 



284 The Commentaries of Caesar. BOOK v 

(imp.subj.) educturus legionem ex 

about to [he would] lead out the legion from 

hibernis : perscribit rem jrestam in 

winter quarters: he details the affair carried on among 

EburonTbus : docet omnes copias peditatus 

the Eburones : he shows (that) all the forces of infantry 

que equitatus Trevirorum consedisse tria 

and of cavalry oftheTreviri (to) have halted three 

millia passuum longe ab siiis castris (pi.)- 

thousand (of) paces away from his camp. 

48. Caesar, ejus consilio probato, etsi 

Caesar, his plan having been approved, although 

dejectus opinione trium 

(having been) disappointed in the expectation of three 

legionum, reciderat ad duas, tameii ponebat 
legions, was reduced to two, however he was putting 

unum auxilium communis salutis in celeritate. 
the one aid of the common safety in haste. 

VSnit magnis itinerlbus in fines 

He comes by great marches into the territories 

Nerviorum. Ibi cognoscit ex captivis, 

oftheNervii. There he learns from the nrisoncrs^ 

quae gerantur (pres. subj ) apud Ciceronem, 

what (things) are transpiring with Cicero, 

que in quanto periculo res sit (pres. subj.). 

and in how great danger the case [matter] is. 

Turn persuadet cuidam ex Galhs 

Then he persuades (to) a certain (person) from [of] the Gallic 

equitibus magnis praemiis, iiti def&rat epistolam 
horsemen by great rewards. that he carry a letter 

ad Ciceronem. Mittit banc conscriptam Graecis 
to Cicero. He sends this written in Greek 

btSris ; ne, epistola intercepta, nostra 

letters , lest, the letter having been intercepted. our 

consilia cognoscantur ab bostibus. Monet, 
plans may be learned by the enemy. He advises (him), 

si non posset adire, ut objiciat 

if he may not be able to approach to (Cicero), that he cast 



BOOK V 



On the Gallic War. 



285 



tragulam cum epist5la deligata ad 
a javelin will) the letter tied to 

intra munitiones castorum (pi.), 

within the fortifications of the camp 

in litgris (pi.), se profectum 

in the letter, (that he) himself having set out 

afF6re celeriter cum legionibus 

to [would] be present speedily [quickly] with the legions, 

hortatur ut retingat 

he encourages (him) that he retain 

Gallus verttus periciilum, 

The Gaul having feared danger. 



amentum 

the thong 

S crib it 
He writes 

to be about 



pristinam virtutem. 
(his) ancient valor. 



tragulam, 

the javelin. 



ut 

as 



praeceptum t^rat. 
it had been ordered 



ad 
to 



turrim 
a tower 



casu, 
by chance. 



n6que 
nor 



biduo 
for two days 

^onspicitur 

it is seen 

defertur 
it is carried 



ab 

by 



nostris; 
our (men), 



a quodam milite; 
by a certain soldier. 



mittit 
sends [throws] 

Ha?c adhaesit 

This stuck 

animadversa (est) 
w'as preceived 

die 

day 

dempta 

having been taken down 



tertio 

on the third 



ad Ciceronem. 



to 



lectam 

been read through. 

afFicit omnes 
affects all 



Cicero. 

in 

in 



Ille 

lie 



reel tat 
reads aloud, 



per- 

(it) having 



conventu 

an assembly 



que 
and 



maxima 

with the greatest 



militum, 
of the soldiers, 

laetitia. Tum 

gladness Then 



fumi (pi.) incendiorum videbantur (pi.) prficul, 
the smoke of the fires was seen afar off, 



quae res 

which thing 



expulit omnem dubitationem adventus 



banished all 

legionum. 
of the legions. 

49. Galh, re 

The Gauls, the fact 

exploratores, relinquunt 

spies, leave [raise] 

ad Caesarem omnibus 

to Caesar with all 



doubt 



of the approach 



cognita per 

having been learned by 

obsidionem ; contendunt 
the siege, they set out 



copiis : 

(their) forces , 



§ae 
these 



grant 
were 



286 The Commentaries of Ccesar. BOOK V 

circiter sexaginta millia armatorum. Cicero, 

about sixty thousand (of) armed (men) Cicero, 

facultate dilta, repf^tit Galium ab 

the opportunity having been {?iven. requests the Gaul from 

eodem Verticone, quern demonstravTmus supra, 
the same Vertico. whom we liave pointed out above, 

qui def^rat lit^ras (pi.) ad Caesarem. Admonet 
who carried a letter to Caesar He admonishes 

liunc, facTat Iter caute que 

him, (that) he make the journey cautiously and 

diligenter. Perscribit in literis (pi.), 
carefully He writes in the letter, (that) 

hostes discessisse ab se, que omnem 

the enemy (to) have departed from himself and all 

multitudinem convertisse ad 6um. Quibus 

the multitude (to) have turned to him. Which 

litgris (pi.) allatis Caesari circiter media 

letter having been brought to Caesar about mid 

nocte, facit certiores • siios que 

night, he makes more sure [informs] his (men) and 

confirmat ?os animo ad dimicandum, Post^ro 

strengthens them in mind for fighting On the following 

die m6vet castra (pi.) prima luce, 

day lie moves the camp at the first light [early dawn], 

et progressus circiter quatiior millia 

and having advanced about four thousand 

passiium, conspicatur multitudinem hostium 
(of) paces, he discovers the multitude of the enemy 

trans magnam vallem et rivum, Erat res 

beyond a great valley and rivulet It was a matter 

magni periciili dimicare cum tantulis copTis 
of great danger to contend with such small forces 

iniquo loco. Tamen quoniam sciebat 

in an unfavorable place However since he was knowing 

Ciceronem liberatum (fuisse) obsidione, 

(that) Cicero to have [had] been delivered from the siege, 

que 66 existimabat remittendum 

and therefore was thinking (it) to be [he must relax] relaxed 



BOOK V On the Gallic War. 287 

£cqu(5 anim5 de celeritate, consedit, et 

with an easy mind from speed. he lialted. and 

communit castra (pi.) loco quam aequissimo 

fortifies the camp in a place as (most) favorable 

potest: atque etsi haec ?rant (pi.) 

(as) he IS able [possible]; and although this was 

exigua per se (pi.), vis septeni 

small by itself, scarcely (of) [for] seven 

millium homlnum, praesertim cum nullis 

thousand men, especially with no 

imped imentis ; t3.men contrahit quam maxTme 

baggage, yet he contracts (it) as much as 

p5test, angustiis viarum 60 consilTo, ut 

he is able, by narrow passages, with this design, that 

veniat in summam contemptionem 

he may come into the highest contempt 

hostibus. Interim speculatoribus dimissis 

to [with] the enemy. Meantime scouts having been sent 

111 omnes partes, explorat quo itin^re 

into all parts, he examines by what route 

posset transire vallem commodissime. 

he may be able to cross the valley most conveniently. 

50. Eo die, parvulis equestribus proeliis 

On this day, trifling cavalry battles 

factis ad ^quam, utrique continent 

having been made at the water, each [both] keep 

sese suo l6co. Galli, quod exspectabant 
themselves in their place. The Gauls, because they were awaiting 

ampliores copias, quae nondum convenfrant : 
more extensive forces, which had not yet assembled ; 

Caesar, si forte posset elic^re hostes 

Caesar. if perhaps he might be able to entice the enemy 

in suum locum citra vallem 

into his own place on this side the valley 

simulatione timoris, ut contend^ret 

by a pretence of fear, (so) that he might contend 

prcelTo pro castris (pi) : si posset non 

in battle before the camp: if he would be able not 



288 



The Commentaries of Ccesar. BOOK V 



effic6re 
to effect 



id, 

this, 



transiret 
he might cross 

periculo. 
danger. 

hostium 
of the enemy 



ut. 
that 

vallem 
the valley 

Prima 
At the first 

accedit 

approaches 



itineribus 
the routes 



exploratis, 
having been examined. 



que 
and 



rivum 
rivulet 



cum 
with 



mmore 

less 



luce, equitatus 

light [^arlydawn], the cavalry 

ad castra (pi.), que 

to the camp, and 



committit proelium cum nostris equitibus. Caesar 



joins 

consulto 
designedly 

se 
themselves 



battle 
jubet 

orders 

in 

into 



with our cavalry, 

equites ced^re que 

the horse men to yield and 

castra (pl.)> sTmul 

the camp, at the same time 



castra (pi.) muniri altiore 

the camp to be fortified with a higher 



Caesar 

recip§re 
to betake 

j 11 bet 

he orders 

ex 

from [on] 



omnibus partibus, que 

all parts [sides], and 

atque concursari 

and to be hurried [to hurry] 



portas 

the gates 



vallo 
rampart 

obstriii, 

(lo be) barricaded. 



quam maxima in 

as much as possible in 



agl 
to be acted [to act] 



administrandis lis rebus, et 
performing these things, and 

cum simulatione timoris. 
with a pretence of fear. 

51. Omnibus quibus rebus hostes invitati 

By all which things the enemy having been induced 

transducunt 



copias, que constitttunt aciem 



lead over 



(their) forces, 

l5co. 
place. 

deductis de 

having been led down from 



iniquo 
in an unfavorable 



and 

Vero 
But 



station 



the battle-line 



nostris 

our (men) 



propius ; 
nearer; 

partibus 

sides 



et conjiciunt 
and throw 



vallo, 
the rampart. 

tela 

(their) weapons 



etiam 

also 

accedunt 
they approach 

ex omnibus 
from all 



intra 

within 



munitionem : 

the fortification 



que praeconibus 
and criers 



circummissis, 
having been sent about. 



jubent pronuntiari ; seu 

they order (it) to be declared. whetho' 



BOOK V 



On the Gallic War. 



289 



quis 
anyone. 

se 
themselves 



Gallus seu Romanus 
Roman, 



Gaul or 

ante 
before 



Sine periculo 

without danger . 



tertiam 
the third 

84 



v6lit cransire ad 

may wish to pass over to 

horam, licere 

hour, to be lit.is] aliov/c:! 



post 
after 



id 
this 



tempuSj 
time, 



non fore : 

not to be about to [will not] be ; 



ac 
and 



potestatem 

the opportunity 

contempserunt 
they despised 



nostros 

our (men) 



SIC. 



ut, portis obstructis 

that, the gales having been barricaded 



in 

in [for] 

quod 

because 



speciem 
appearance 



singulis 
with single 



ordinibus 
rows 



caespitum, 

of sods, 



6a, 
by that (way). 

vallum 
the rampart 

Tunc 
Then 



videbantur non posse nitrorump''jre 

they were seeming not tobeab'3 to burst in 

alii incip^rent (imp. subj.) scandgre 

were beginning to climb 

complere fossas. 

to fill up the trenches. 

facta omnibus 

having been made from all 



mS,nu, 
by hand, 



alii 
others 



Caesar, eruptione 
Caesar, a sally 



portis 

the gates 

hostes 

the enemy 

omnmo 
of all 

que occidit 
and he slew 



que equitatu 

and the cavalry 



emisso, 
having been sent out. 



dat 

gives [puts] 



celeriter in f ugam ; sic ut nemo 
quickly to flight, so that no one 

resist^ret (imp. subj.) causa pugnandi, 
was withstanding for tht. sake of fighting, 

his, 

these. 



magnum 
a great 



num^rum 

number 



atque 
and 

52. 



exfiit 
stripped off 



omnes 
all 



ex 

from [of] 

armis (abl,). 
(their) arms. 



quod 

because 

85 



Veritus prosequi longius, 

Having feared to pursue (them) farther. 

silvse que paludes intercedebant; (ngque 

woods and marshes were intervening ; (nor, 

videbat locum relinqui parvulo 

(was) he was seeing the place (to be) left with trifling 

detrimento illorum) ; omnibus suis copiis 

loss of them [on their part]) , all his forces 



290 



The Commentaries of Ccssar. 



BOOK V 



incolumibus, 
safe. 

Admiratur 
He admires 

hostium, 

of the enemy. 



pervgnit eodem die ad Ciceronem. 

he comes on the same clay to Cicero. 

turres, testudines, ([ue munitiones 

the towers. shelters. and the fortifications 



(which they) 



institutas 
prepared. 



producta, cognoscit quemque 

having been drawn out. he learns (that) every 

relictum esse 

(to have been) left 

omnibus his rebus, 

all these things. 



mi lit em 


non 


soldier 


(was) not 


vuhi^re. 


Ex 


a wound. 


From [Of] 



cum quanta 
with how great 



cum quanto periculo, et 

with how great danger, and 

res administratae sint (perf. subj.) 

affairs were managed. 



Legione 
The legion 

decimum 
tenth 

sine 
without 

judicat, 

he judges. 

virtute, 
valor, 



Ciceronem 

Cicero 

legionem : 
the legion : 

tribunos 

tribunes 



pro 

according to 

appellat 

he addresses 

militum, 
of the soldiers 



ejus 

his 



Collaudat 
He commends 

merito (sing. ), que 
deserts, and 



sigillatim 
individually 



centuriones 
the centurions 



que 
and 



quorum virtutem 

whose valor 



fuisse 
to have [had] been 



egregiam 
excellent 



testimomo 
by the testimony 



Cognoscit 
He learns 



certius 
more surely 



de 

of 



casu 
the calamity 



cognov^rat 
he had known 

Ciceronis. 
of Cicero. 

Sabini 
of Sabinus 



et 

and 



Cottae 
of Cotta 



ex 

from 



captivis. 

the prisoners. 



Postero die, 

On the following day, 



habita, 
having been held, 

gestam : consolatur 

transpired : he consoles 

ddcet detrimentum 

he shows (that) the loss, 

acceptum sit (perf. subj.) culpa et temeritate 

by the fault 

ferendum 
to [must] be borne 



concione 
an assembly 

(as it) 

milites : 
the soldiers 



has been received 

legati, 
of the lieutenant. 



proponit 

he sets before (them) 

et 
and 



and 



rem 

the affair 

confirmat 
encourages 

, quod 

which 



rashness 



aequiore 

with more even 



ammo 
mind 



BOOK V 



On the Gallic War. 



291 



hoc ; 
from this Ion this account]; 



immortalium 
Df the immortal 



deorum, 
gods. 



quod 

because 

et 

and 



beneficio 

by the kindness 



incommodo expiato, 

the disadvantage having been atoned for. 

laetatTo relinquatur (pres. subj.) 
rejoicing is left 



longior dolor 

longer grief 

53. Interim 
Meantime 



ipsis. 
to themselves. 



fa ma 

the report 



de 

of 



eorum 

by their 

ngque 
neither 

hostibus, 
to the enemy, 



victoria 

the victory 



virtute, 

valor, 

diutina 
a lasting 

n^que 
nor 



Caesaris 
of Caesar 



perfertur ad Labienum per Remos incredibili 

IS carried to Labienus by the Remi with incredible 

celeritate ; ut, quum abesset (imp. subj.) 

expedition, (so) that, though he was distant 

quinquaginta millTa passuum ab hibernis 

fifty thousand (of) paces from the winter quarters 

Ciceronis, que Caesar pervenisset (pi. subj.) ?6 



of Cicero. 



and Caesar 



post 
after 



nonam 
the ninth 



horam 

hour 



had arrived 

diei, 

of the day 



clamor 
a shout 



,imp. su 



bj.) 



ante medlam noctem ad 
before mid night at 



there 

oriretur 

was rising 

portas 
the gates 



castrorum (pi ); 
of the camp ; 



victoriae 
of victory 

Labieno 
to Labienus 



que 
and 



quo clamore significatio 

by which shout an indication 

gratulatio fi^ret (imp. subj.) 

congratulation was made 



ab 

by 



Remis, 

the Remi. 



Hac 

This 



perlata 
having been carried 



ad 

to 



TrevTros, 

the Treviri, 



Indutiomarus, 
Indutiomarus. 



oppugnare 
to assault 



die, 
day. 



profugit 

flees 



copias 

(his) forces 



fa ma 

report 

qui decrevgrat 
who had resolved 

castra (pi.) Labieni post^ro 

the camp of Labienus on the following 

noctu que reducit omnes 
by night and leads back all 

in TrevTros. Caesar remittit 

among the Treviri. Caesar sends back 



292 The Commentaries of Ccssar. BOOK v 

FabTum cum legione in sua hiberna. 

Fabius with the legion into their winter quarters. 

Ipse coiistitiiit hiemare trinis liibernis 

Me himself resolved to winter in triple winter quarters 

cum tribus legionibus circum Samarobrivam : et 
with three legions about Saraarobriva ; and 

quod taiiti motus Gallia? exstit^mnt 

because so great disturbances of Gaul had arisen 

ipse decrevit manere totam hiemem 

(he) himself determined to remain the whole winter 

ad exercitum. Nam, lUo incommodo de 

at [with] the army. For. that calamity from 

morte Sabini perlato, fere 

the death ofSabinus having been carried through (them), nearly 

omnes civitates Galliae consultabant de 

all the states of Gaul were deliberating about 

bello : dimittebant nuntlos que legationes 

war: they were dispatching messengers and embassies 

in omnes partes ; et explorabant, quid 

into all parts , and were searching out, what 

consilii reliqui cap^rent, atque unde initium 
(of) counsel the rest might take, and whence a beginning 

belli figret; que habebant nocturna 

of war might be made, and they were holding night 

concilia in desertis locis : neque ullum 

assemblies in desert places: nor (did) any 

tempus fere totius hiemis intercessit sine 

time nearly of the whole w-inter pass without 

sollicitudine Caesaris,^^ quin accip^ret (imp. 

the anxiety of Caesar. but that he was receiving 

subj.) aliquem nuntium de conciliis 

some messenger concerning the assemblies 

et motu Gallorum. In his factus est 

and disturbance of the Gauls. Among these he was made 

certior ab Lucio Roscio legato, 

more sure [was informed] by Lucius Roscius the lieutenant, 

quem praefec6rat decimae tertiae legioni, 

whom he had appointed to the thirteenth legion, (that) 



BOOK V 



On the Gallic War, 



293 



magnas 
great 



copias 

forces 



Gallorum earum civitatum, quae 
of the Gauls of these states, whicli 



appellantur ArmorTca?, 
are called Armoricae, 



sui; 

himself; 



o])puf?nandi 
of assaulting 

lonf;rius octo 

farther (than) eight 

hibernis ; 
winter quarters 

victoria 
the victory 



Ut 

that 



(their) 



convenisse causa 

to have [had] assembled for the sake 

nSque abfuisse 

nor to have [hadl been distant 

millia passuum ab suis 

thousand (of) paces from his 

sed, nuntio allato de 

but, a message having been brought about 

Caesaris, discessisse, ad?o 

of Caesar, to have (that they) departed, so 

discessus videretur (imp. subj.) similis 
departure was seeming like 



fllf^iT. 
(to) a flight. 

24. At 

But 



Caesar, 
Caesar, 



principibus cujusque civitatis 
the chiefs of each state 



ad 

to 



se, 

himself, 



tenuit man^nam partem 



vocatis 

having been called to himself, kept a great 

GallTae in officio, alias territando, 

of Gaul in duty, at one time by alarming, 

denuntiaret (imp. subj.), 
he was announcing, 

quae fiCrent (imp. subj.), alias 

[knew] what (things) were done, at another time 

cohortando. T&men Senones, quae est civTtas 
by encouraging. IIoAvever the Senones, which is a state 



se 
(that he) himself 



part 

quum 
when 

scire 
to know 



firma, et maj^nae auctoritatis inter 
strong. and of great authority among 

Gallos, conati (sunt) interficere publico consilio 



in primis 
particularly 



the Gauls 

Cavarinum, 

Cavarinus, 



apud 

among 

Caesaris 
of Caesar 



60s, 
them. 



attempted 

quem 

whom 

(cujus 
(whose 



to slay 



by public counsel 



Caesar 
Caesar 

f rater 
brother 



constituerat 
had appointed 



regem 
king 



Moritasgus, adventu 
Moritasgus, at the coming 



in 

into 



Galliam, 
Gaul, 



que 
and 



CUJUS 
whose 



ma J ores 
ancestors 



•294 



The Commentaries ol CcEsar. 



BOOK V 



regnum) ; 
the sovereignty ; 

(pi. perf. subj.) 



obtinu&rant 
had held 



quum 
when 



ille 

he 



praesensisset 
liad forknown 



insecuti 
having pursued (him) 

d5mo 
(him) from home 



ac 

and 

usque 
even 



profugisset (pi. perf. subj.), 
liad escaped. 



ad 
to 



fines, 
the borders. 



que 

and 



regno; 
the kingdom , 



et 

and 



expulerunt 
they expelled 

legatis 

ambassadors 



missis 
having been sent 



ad Caesarem causa satis- 

to Caesar for the sake of making 

faciendi, quum is jussisset (pi, perf. subj.) omnem 

satisfaction, when he had ordered 



senatum venire 
(their) senate to come 

audientes^*^ 

hearing [obedient] 

Spud barbaros 

among barbarian 



ad se, 
to himself 

ditto (dat ): 
to the word 



fuerunt 

they were 

Valuit 
It availed 



all 
non 

not 

tantum 
so much 



repertos esse 

to have been [were] found 



prmcipes 

leaders 



que 
and 



[heart] 

non 

not 



attuht 

it brought 

omnibus, 
to all 

suspecta 
suspected 



homines, aliquos 

men. (that) some 

inferendi belli, 

of [inj waging war. 

tantam commutationem voluntatum 

so great a change of wills 

ut f^re nulla civitas fufrit 

that scarcely no [any] state was 

nobis, praeter j^dfios et 

by us. except the yEdui and 



Remos, 
Rem I. 

honore, 

honor. 

erga 
toward 

officiis 
duties 

id 

this 



quos 
whom 



altfiros 
the former 



Caesar 

Caesar 

pro 

for 



semper 

always 



habuit 

had 



praecipiio 

in particular 



vetere 
ancient 



ac 

and 



perpetiia 
constant 



fide 
faith 



Romanum popiilum 
the Roman people . 



GallTci 

of the Gallic 



belli : 

war ; 



que 

and 



alteros 
the latter 

scTo 
know 



pro recentibus 
for the recent 



sit 
may be 



mirandum 
(to be) wondered at 



com pi u rib US 
many 



aliis 
other 



causis, 
causes. 



adeo, 
so 

tum 
but also 



baud, 
not. 

cum 
not only 

maxTme 
chiefly 



ne 

whether 



from 

quod 
because 



BOOK V 



On the Gallic War. 



295 



qui praeferebantur omnibus gentibus (dat ) 
(those) who were surpassing all nations 

virtute belli, dolebant gravissTme, 
in bravery in war. were grieving most severely. (that they) 



se 
themselves 

ut 

that 



deperdidisse 

to have [had] lost 

perferrent 

they should endure 



tantum opinionis ejus, 
so much of the reputation of it. 



imperTa 
the commands 



Romani 

of the Roman 



populi. 
people. 

55. Vero 

But 

intermiserunt^ 
omitted 



Treviri 

the Treviri 

nullum 
no 



atque IndutiomSrus 

and Indutiomarus 

tempus totius hi^mis, 
time of the whole winter. 



quin 
but that 



mitt6rent 
they might send 



sollicitarent 
(that) they might solicit 

pecunias (pi.)* 
money ; 



parte 
part 



nostri 
of our 



legatos trans Rhenum ; 

ambassadors across the Rhine ; 

civitates ; pollicerentur 

the states ; (that) they might promise 

di Cerent, magna 

(that) they might say. (that) a great 

exercitiis niterfecta, multo 

army having been slain. by far 



mmorem partem superesse. 
the lesser part to remain [remains]. 



N^que tamen 
Nor yet 



potuit 
was it possible 



persuaderi 
to be persuaded 



ulli 

to any [to persuade any] 



civitati Germanorum, ut 
state of the Germans, that 



transiret 
it should cross 



quum 
since 

expertos 

having tried 



dicgrent (mip. subj.) 



they were sayinj 



Rhenum ; 

the Rhine; 

se 

(that they) themselves, 



bis, 

tw ice 



bello 

in the war 



Ariovisti, 

of Ariovistus, 



et 

and 



transitu 
in the crossing 



Tencterorum, 

of the Tencteri. 



non 

not 



esse 

to be [are not] 



tentaturos 
about [going] to try 

lapsus 
having slipped [failed] 



fortunam amplius. Indutiomarus 
fortune further. Indutiomarus 

hac spe, nihilo miniis coepit 
in this hope. nevertheless began 



296 The Commentaries of Cccsa7\ BOOK v 

coggre copias, exigere a finitimis, 

to collect forces, to demand (them) from the neighboring 

parare 6quos, allic6re exules que damnatos 

(states), to procure horses, to entice exiles and condemned 



ad 


36 


magnis 


prsemiis 


tota 


Gallia : 


to 


himself 


by great 


rewards 


in all 


Gaul: 



(persons) 

ac comparav6rat jam tantam auctoritatem sibi 

and he procured now so great authority for himself 

lis rebus in Gallia, ut legationes 

by these things in Gaul, that embassies 

concurr6rent (imp. subj.) undique ad 6um; 

were assembling from every side to him ; 

peterent (imp. subj.) gratiam atque amicitiam 
they were seeking (his) favor and friendship 

publice que privatim. 
publicly and privately. 

56. Ubi intellexit veniri 

When he understood (it) to be come (that they came] 

ultro ad se; Senones que Carnutes 

voluntarily to himself; (that) the Senones and Carnutes 

instigates conscientia facinoris ex altera 

to be [were] instigated by a consciousness of crime on one 

parte, Nervios que Aduaticos parare 

side, (that) the Nervii and Aduatuci (to) prepare 

bellum Romanis (dat.) altera neque 

war against the Romans on the other side nor (that) 

copTas voluntariorum def6re 

forces of volunteers to be about to fwould] be wanting 

sibi, si coepisset (pi. subj.) progr?di ex 

to himself, if he was beginnmg to advance fro:u 

stiis finibus ; indicit armatum concilium, 

his own borders; he proclaims an armed council. 

Hoc, more Gallorum, est initium 

This, by the custom of the Gauls. is a commencement 

belli; quo omnes puberes coguntur 

of war; where all full grown (persons) are compelled 

convenire armati, communi lege; et qui 

to assemble armed. by a common law. and who 



BOOK V 



On the Gallic War, 



297 



ex lis venit novissimus, effectus 

[whoever] from [of] them comes last, having been visited 

omnibus cruciatibus necatur in conspectu 

with all tortures is put to death in sight 



multitudinis. 
of the multitude. 



In 

In 



necatur ir 

is put to death in 

Co concilTo 

this council 



curat 
he takes care 



Cingetorigem, principem alterius factionis, suum 
Cingetorix, the chief of the other party, his own 

gengrum, judicandum hostem (ciuem demonstravlmus 

son in law, to be [is] judged an enemy (whom we have shown 

supra, secutum fidem CaesSris, 

above, having secured the good faith of Caesar, 

discessisse ab 60), 

to have [had not] departed from him), 

b6na. His rebus 

goods. These things 



que 

and 



non 

not 

publicat 
he confiscates 



ejus 
his 



confectis, 
having been finished, 



pronunciat in concilio 

he declares in the council 

accersitum (esse) a Senonibus 

to have [has] been sent for by the Senones 



se 

(that he) himself 

et Carnutibus, 
and Carnutes, 



que 
and 



compluribus aliis civitatibus GallTae: 

by very many other states of Gaul 

facturum (esse) iter hue per 

to be [that he is] about to make (his) march hither through 



fines 
the territories 



Remorum, que 
of the Remi and 



agros ; 
lands, 



ac 
and 



populaturum eorum 
[is] about to ravage their 

oppugnaturum castra (pi ) Labieni 
is] about to assault the camp of Labienus 



prius quam 

before (that) 



quae 
what 



v6lit 
he wishes 

57. Labienus 
Labienus 



faciat 
he may do 

fieri, 
to be done. 

timebat 
was fearing 



id, 

thu 



que 
and 



praecipit, 
h» prescribes. 



nihil 

nothing 



de 

about 



suo 

his own 



periculo ac legionis, quum 

danger and (that) of the legion, since 

sese castris (pi ) munitissTmis et 

himself in a camp most fortified both 



contineret 

he was keeping 

natura 
by the nature 



298 



Tlie Commentaries of Ccesar. BOOK V 



l6ci, 
of the place, 



et 

and 



mSnu ; 

by liand [art] 



sed 

but 



ne dimitt^ret 
he should not lose 



r6i 
a matter 

quam 

which 

a 
from 



b6ne. 
well. 



quam 
any 

ItSque 
Therefore 



habu^rat in 
he had delivered in 



occasionem 
opportunity 

oratione 
the speech 

concilTo, 
the council. 



cogitabat 
he was thinking 

gerendae 
of carrying on 

IndutiomSri, 
of Indutiomarus. 

cognita 
having been known 



Cingetorlge atque ejus 
Cingetorix and his 



propinquis, mittit 
relations. he sends 



nuntios 
messengers 

conv5cat 

calls together 

certam 
a certain 



ad 
to 



finitimas 
the neighboring 



civitates, 

states. 



que 

and 



equites 
cavalry 



undlque. 
from every side. 



diem 
day 



conveniendi 
of meeting 



lis. 
for them. 



Dicit 

He says [fixes] 

Interim 
Meantime 



IndutiomSrus vagabatur pr6pe quotidie cum omni 

Indutiomarus was roving almost daily with all 

equitatu sub ejus castris (pi.); alias ut 

(his) cavalry near his camp ; at one time that 

cognosceret situm castrorum (pi.) ; alias 

he might learm the situation of the camp , at another time 

causa colloquendi aut territandi : omnes 

for the sake of parleying or of alarming: all 



equites plerumque 
(his) cavalry generally 



conjiciebant tela 
were hurling weapons 



vallum. Labienus continebant siios 
the rampart. Labienus was keeping his (men) 

augebat opinionem 

was increasing the supposition 



munitiones, 
the fortifications, 



que 

and 



intra 
within 

intra 

WlthlR 

timoris 

of fear 



quibuscunque rebus pot&rat. 

by whatsoever things [means] he was able 



58. Quum 

When 



acced&ret (imp. subj.) 
was approaching 



indies 

daily 



ad 
to 



equitibus omnium 
the cavalry of all 



Indutiomarus 
Indutiomarus 

castra (pi.) majore 
the camp with greater 

finitimarum civitatum, 
the neighboring states. 



contemptione, 

contempt. 



quos 
which 



BOOK V 



On the Gallic War. 



299 



curav6rat acces?endos, intromissis una 

he had taken care to be sent for. liaving been admitted in one 

nocte, continfut omnes siios custodiis (pi.) intra 

night, he kept all his (men) on guard within 

castra (pi.) trinta diligentia, ut ^'a res 

the camp with so great dihgence. that this thing 

posset enuntiari nulla ratione, aut 

might be able to [could | be told by no means. or 

perferri ad Treviros. Internn, ex 

(to) be carried to the Treviri Meantime. according to 

quotidiana consuetudine, Indutiomarus accedit 

daily custom. Indutiomarus approaches 

ad castra (pi.), atque consumit magnam partem 
(to) the camp, and spends a great part 

diei ibi. Equites conjiciunt tela, et 

of the day there (IIis) cavalry hurl weapons. and 

evdcant nostros ad pugnam magna"^ 

call out our (men) to battle with great 

contumelia verborum. Nullo response dS.to 

insult of words No answer having been given 

a castris (pi ), libi visum est, 

from the camp when it seemed (well) 



dispersi 
dispersed 

subito 
suddenly 

portis : 
gates 



ac dissipati sub 
and scattered about 



emittit 

sends forth 

praecipit 

he prescribes 



omnem 

all 



vespgrum, 
evening 

equitatum 

the cavalry 

92 



atque mterdicit, 
ar.d enjoins 



perterritis, atque 

having been dismayed and 

(quod videbat 

(which he was seeing 

accidit) omnes 

it happened) (that) all 



conjectis 
thrown 



in 
into 



discedunt 
they depart 

Labienus 

Labienus 

duabus 
from two 

hostlbus 
the enemy 

f 11 gam, 
flight. 



fore, 

to be about to [would] be 



peterent 

should seek 



sicut 

just as 

Indutiomarum 

Indutiomarus 



unum, 

one [alonel 



prius 
before 



quam 

(that) 



neu quis vulneraret quemquam, 

nor any (man) should wound anyone. 

videret ilium interfectum : quod 
he should see him killed. because 



300 The Commenta7'ies of Ccesar. BOOK v 

nolebat ilium, nactum spatium 

he was unwilling (that) him [he], having got space [timel 

mora reliquorum, effug&re. Proponit 

by delay of [with] the rest, to [should] escape. He offers 

magna praemia lis, qui occiderint : submittit 

great rewards to those, who should kill (him), he sends up 

cohortes subsidio equitibus. Fortuna comprobat 

cohorts for aid to the cavalry. Fortune approves 

consilium hominis ; et quum omnes 
[favors] the plan of the men ; and since all 

petgrent (imp. subj.) unum, Indutiomarus 

were seeking one, Indutiomarus 

deprehensus in vado ipso fluminis 

having been caught in the ford itself [the very ford] of the river 

interficitur, que ejus caput refertur in 

IS slain. and his head is carried back into 

castra(pL). Equites redeuntes consectantur atque 
the camp The cavalry returning pursue and 

occTdunt, quos possunt. Hac re cognita, 

slay (those), whom they can This thing having been known, 

omnes copiae Eburonum et Nerviorum, 

all the forces of the Eburones and of the N'ervii, 

quae convenSrant, discedunt ; que paulo post id 
which had assembled, depart, and a little after this 

factum, Caesar habtiit GallTam quietiorem. 

deed [action], Caesar had Gaul more tranquil. 



BOOK VI On the Gallic War. 301 



SIXTH BOOK 



The sixth book begins with a description of Caesar's rapid and success- 
ful campaign against the Senonnes and Carnutes. The Triveri attack 
Labienus who conquers them in battle after luring them by a stratagem 
into an unfavorable place, Caesar builds another bridge across the Rhine. 
He enters Germany and receives the surrender of the Ubii. He learns 
that the Suevi have taken refuge in the Bacenis forest. Caesar makes a 
digression in his narrative and compares the Gauls and Germans in a 
long descriptive passage. He returns to Gaul, having demolished the 
farther end of the bridge and fortified the Gallic approach to it. He 
marches in pursuit of Ambiorix into the'Ardennes forest. Meantime the 
Sugambri cross the Rhine, attack Cicero and return. During this period 
the Eburones are being plundered and exterminated by a general procla- 
mation as punishment for their treachery of the previous year. Ambiorix 
is pursued continuously but with a few horsemen succeeds in evading 
capture. After condemning Acco for the conspiracy of the Senones and 
Carnutes. Caesar quarters the legions for winter and departs for Italy to 
hold assemblies 

1. Caesar de multis causis expectans majorem 
Caesar for many reasons expecting (a) greater 

motum Galliae instituit per legates, 

commotion of Gaul determines through (his) lieutenants, 

M. Silanum, C. Antistium Reginum, T. Sextium, 

N. Silanus, C. Antistius Reginus. (and) T. Sextius, 

habere delectum. Simul p?tit ab CneTo 

to hold a levy. At the same time he requests from Cneius 

Pompeio, proconsule, quoniam ipse man^ret 

Pompey, proconsul, (that) because he was remaining 

ad urbem cum imperio, causa 

near the city with (military) command. for the sake of 

rei publTcae, juberet quos 

the public business, (that) he should order (those) whom 

rogavisset (pi. perf. subj.) sacramento consul ex 

he had enrolled by oath (as) consul in 



302 



The Commentaj'ies of CcEsar. BOOK vi 



Cisalpina Gallia convenire ad 



Cisalpine Gaul to assemble at 

existimans 
deem;ng (it) 



proficisci ad se ; 
march to him : 

ad 
(importance) regarding 



sio^na 
the standards 

interesse 
to be 



et 

and 

magni 
of great 



etiam 


in 


have) even 


for 


facultates 


Italiae 


resources 


of Italy 



opinionem Galliae 
tlie opinion of Gaul (which they might 

reliquum tempus 

remaining [future] time (that the) 

videri tantas ut si 

to [should] be seen so great that if 

quid (neut.) detrimenti acceptum esset in bello, 

any (of) detriment [harm] should be received in war. 

id non modo posset sarciri br&vi tempore, sed 
this not only could be repaired in a short time. but 

posset etiam augeri^ majoribus copiis. Quod 

could also be supplemented by greater forces. Which 

quum Pompeius tribuisset et rei publicae et 
when Pompey had granted both for the republic and 



amicitiae ; 

for (his) friendship . 



delectu 

a levy 



per 

through 



sues, 

his (lieutenants). 



celeriter confecto 

quickly having been made 

tribus legionibus et 
three legions lx)th 

constitutis et adductis ante hiemem exactum; 
having been raised and brought on before the winter had passed ; 

et numero earum cohortium, quas amis^rat cum 
and the number of these cohorts, which he had lost under 



Q. Titurio, 

Q. Titunus. 

celeritate 

by (his) promptness 

atque opes 
and resources 

2. Indutiomaro 
Indutiomarus 



duplicato, 
having been doubled. 



docuit 
he showed 



et 

both 



et 

and 



copns, 

by (his) forces. 



quid 

what 



disciplina 
the discipline 



Romani populi posset, 

of the Roman people were able (to do). 

interfecto ut docuimus, 

having been slain as we have shown, 



imperium defertur a Treviris ad ejus propmquos. 
the government is conferred by theTreviri on his relations. 

Illi non desistunt sollicitare finitimos Germanos 

They (do) not cease to invite the neighboring Germans 



BOOK VI 



On the Gallic War. 



303 



et polliceri pecuniam. Quum possent non impetrare 
and to promise money. When they could not obtain 



ab 

(this) from 

Nonnullis, 
Some. • 

confirmant 
they pledge 

cavent 

give security 

sibi 
to themselves 

rebus 
things 



proximis, 
the neighboring, 

civitatibus 
stales 

jurejurando 
by an oath 



tentant 
they try 



ulteriores.^ 
the more remote. 



inventis, 
having been found (compliant), 



inter 
among 



se, 
themselves. 



que 
and 



obsidibus 
by hostages 



de 

for 



pecunia; 
the money. 



adjungunt 
they unite 



Ambiorigem societate et foedere. Quibus 

Arabiorix by alliance and by treaty Which 



cognitis, Caesar quum videret bellum 

having been known. Caesar as he perceived war 
5 



pa ran 

to be [was] preparing 

ac Menapios, 
and the Menapu. 



undique; Nervios, Aduatucos 

on all sides, (that) the Nervji, the Aduatuci 



omnibus 
all 



cisrhenanis 
the hither-Rhine 



Germanis 

Germans 



adjunctis esse in armis; Senones non 

having been added were in arms; (that) the Senones (did) not 



venire ad imperatum, et 

come at (his) command, and 



communicare 
(that) they exchange 



consilia cum Carnutibus que finitimis civitatibus; 
counsel with the Carnutes and neighboring states; 



(that) 

J.egationibus ; 
embassies ; 



consider] 

3. Itaque 
Therefore 



putavit 
he thought 



quatuor 
the four 



Germanos sollicitari a Treviris cr6bris 
the Germans were invited by the Treviri infrequent 

cogitandum, 
to [it must] be considered [he must 

sibi (dat.) maturius de bello. 

by himself earlier 

hieme nondum 
the winter not yet 

legionibus 
legions 

fines 



proximis 
nearest 



regarding the war. 

confecta, 
having been completed, 

coactis, 
having been assembled. 



contendit improviso 
he marched suddenly 

prius quam illi 
before (that) they 



in 



Nerviorum ; 

into the territories oftheNervii; 



aut 
either 



possent 
could 



convenire, 
assemble, 



et 

and 

aut 
or 



304 The Comiyientaries of Ccssar. BOOK VI 

profugere magno numero pecoris atque hominum 
escape a great number of cattle and of men 

capto, atque 6a praeda concessa 

having been captured and this booty having been given up 

militibus, que agris vastatis, coegit 

to the soldiers, and (their) fields having been laid waste, he forced 

venire in deditionem, atque dare 

(them) to come into a surrender, and to give 

obsides sibi. Eo negotio celeriter 

hostages to himself. This business [campaign] having been quickly 

confecto, reduxit rursus legiones in hiberna. 
performed, he led back again the legions into winter quarters. 

Concilio Galliae indicto primo vere, ut 

A council of Gaul having been called in early spring. as 

institu6rat, quum reliqui praeter Senones, 

he had determined, since the rest except the Senones, 

Carnutes que Treviros venissent, arbitratus 

the Carnutes and Treviri had come. having judged (that) 

hoc esse initium belli ac defectionis, 

this to be [was] the beginning of war and of revolt. 

ut videretur postponere omnia, transfert 

although he might seem to postpone every thing. he transfers 

concilium in Lutetiam Parisiorum, Hi erant 

the council to Lutetia of the Parisii (Pans), These were 

confines Senonibus, que memoria patrum 

neighbors to the Senones, and in the memory of the fathers 

conjunxgrant civitatem, sed existmiabantur 

had united their state with (them). but they were thought 

abfuisse ab hoc concilio. Hac re 

to have been absent from this council. This thing 

pronunciata pro suggestu, proficiscitur 

having been proclaimed from the tribunal, he marches 

eodem die cum legionibus in Senones, que 
on the same day with the legions into the Senones, and 

pervenit e6 magnis itineribus. 

arrives there by long [forced] marches 

4. Ejus adventu cognito, Acco. qui fuerat 

His arrival having been learned. Acco. who had been 



BOOK VI 



On the Gallic War. 



305 



princeps ejus concilii, jubet multitudinem comenire 
the author of this council. orders the people to assemble 



in oppida. 
in the towns 



Nuntiatur 
It is announced 



conantibus, 
to (those) attempting, 



prius 
before 



ciuam 

(that) 



id posset effici 

it could be accomplished (that) the Romans 



(and) 

Romanos 



que 

and 



adesse. Necessario desistunt sententia, 

to have [had] come. Necessarily they desist from the design 

mittunt legates ad Caesarem causa deprecandi ; 
send ambassadors to Caesar for the purpose of imploring , 

adeunt per ^duos, in fide 

they approach (him) through the iEdui. under the protection 

quorum civitas erat antiquitus. ^Eduis 

of whom (their) state was formerly The ^^dui 

dat 



petentibus Caesar libenter 
petitioning Caesar readily 

excusationem, quod 

(their) excuse, because 



tempus esse 

time to be [was] (one) 



instantis 
of [for] impending 



qua'stionis. 

of [for] investigation 



Centum 
A hundred 



tradit 
he delivers 

mittunt 

send 



hos 

these 



usi 
having made use 



quorum 
of whom 



erant ; 
they were 



veniam, que accipit 
gives pardon, and receives 

arbitrabatur aestivum 

he was judging (that) the summer 

belli 

war (and) 

obsidibus 
hostages 

custodiendos 

to be guarded 

obsides eodem, 

hostages to the same place. 

Remis deprecatoribus, in clientela 
oftheRemi as intercessors under the protection 

ferunt 

they carry (back) 



i^duiS 
to the /Edui 



non 

not 

imperatis, 
having been ordered, 

Carnutes 
The Carnutes 



legatos 
ambassadors 



que 

and 



eadem 
the same 



responsa. 
answer. 



Caesar peragit 
Caesar held 

civitatibus (dat ). 
(of) the states. 



concilium, 
the council. 



que 
and 



imperat 
orders 



5. Hac 

This 

(himself) 



parte 

part 

totus 
altogether 



Galliae pacata, 

of Gaul having been pacified, 



et 

both 



mente 
in mind 



et 
and 



ammo in 
soul to 



equites 
horsemen 



insistit 
he appliei 

bellum 
the waf 



306 The Cot?imentaries of Ccssar. BOOK vi 

Trevirorum et Ambiorigis. Jubet Cavarinum 
of the Treviri and Ambionx. He orders Cavarinus 

proficisi secum cum equitatu Senonum, ne quis 
to march with him with the cavalry of the Senones, lest any 

motus civitatis existat aut ex hujus 

commotion of the state may arise either from his 

iracundia, aut ex ^o, quod meruerat odio, 

irascibility, or from this (fact), that he had merited hatred. 

His rebus constitutis, quod liabebat pro 
These things having been settled, because he was holding for 

explorato Ambiorigem non esse certaturum 

[as] well known (that) Ambionx would not contend 

prcelio, circumspiciebat animo ejus reliqua consiha. 
in battle, he was considering in mind his other plans. 

Menapii grant propinqui finibus Eburonum, 

The Menapii were neighboring to the frontiers of the Eburones, 

muniti perpetuis paludibus que silvis ; qui uni ex 
protected by continuous marshes and woods; who alone of 

Gallia nunquam miserant legatos ad CaBsarem 
Gaul never had sent ambassadors to Caesar 

de pace ; sciebat hospitium esse 

concerning peace, he was knowing (that) hospitality was [existed] 

cum iis Ambiorigi (dat.); item 

with [between] them (and) Ambionx . also 

cognoverat venisse in amicitiam 

he had discovered (that he) to have [had] come into friendship 

Germanis per Trevu'os. Existmiabat 

to [with] the Germans through the Treviri. He was thinking (that) 

haec auxilia detrahenda illi, prius quam 

these auxiliaries to [must] be detached from him. before (that) 

ipsum lacessendum bello; ne salute des- 

(he) himself to be [was] assailed in war; lest safety having been 

perata, aut abderet se in Menapios, 

despaired of, either lie might hide himself among the Menapii. 

aut cogeretur congredi cum transrhenanis. 
or be forced to unite with the over — Rhine (Germans) 

Hoc consilio inito, mittit impedimenta 

This plan having been formed. he sends the baggage 



BOOK VI On the Gallic War. 307 

totius exercitus ad Labienum in Treviros, que 

of all the army to Labienus among the Treviri. and 

jubet diias lef?iones proficisci ad eum. Ipse 

orders two legions to proceed to him. (He) himself 

proficiscitur cum quinque expeditis legionibus in 
marches with five light armed legions against 

Menapios. Illi, nulla mSnu coacta, 

the Menapii They. no force having been assembled. 

fretr pra'Sidio loci, confuf^iunt in silvas 
trusting to the protection of the place retreat to the woods 

que paludes, que conferunt eodem stia. 

and marshes and convey to the same place their property 

6. Caesar, copiis partitis cum C. Fabio, 

Ca?sar, the forces having been divided with C. Fabius. 

legato, et M. Crasso, quaestore, que pontibus 

the lieutenant, and M Crassus, the quaestor and bridges 

effectis celeriter, adiit tripartita ; 

having been constructed hastily. he invades in three divisions ; 

incendit aedificia c}ue vicos, potitur magno 

he burns the houses and villiages (and) gets posession of a great 

numero pec5ris, atque liominum. Coacti 

number of cattle and of men Having been forced 

quibus rebus, Menapii mittunt legates ad 

by which [these] things the Menapii send ambassadors to 

eum, causa petendae' pacis Ille, obsidibus, 

him. for the purpose of seeking peace He, the hostages. 

acceptis confirmat se habit- 

having been received declares (that he) himself about to 

urum numero hostium, si recepissent 

[would] hold (them) in the number of enemies if they received 

aut Ambiorigem, aut ejus legatos sins finibus. 
either Ambiorix. or his ambassadors in their territories 

His rebus confirmatis, relincjuit Commium, 
These things having been settled. he leaves Commius, 

Atrebatem, cum equitatu in Menapiis loco 
the Atrebatian. with the cavalry among the Menapii in place 

custodis ; ipse proficiscitur in Treviros. 

of a guard; he himself marches into the Treviri. 



308 



The Com77ientaries of CcBsar. BOOK VI 



7. Dum haec geruntur a Caesare, Treviri, 

Wlule these (things) are performed by Caesar the Trevin, 



magnis copiis peditatus, que equitatus 
a great force of foot soldiers, and of cavalry 



coac- 

having been 



tis, 

assembled. 



parabant 

were preparing 



adoriri Labienum 
to attack Labienus 



cum 

with 



legione, quae hiemaverat in eorum finibus. 



legion, which had wintered 

aberant ab 

they were distant from 

bidui, 



jam 
already 



60 

him 



their 

non 
not 



territories. 

longius 
farther 



Via 

a journey 

legiones 

legions 

Castris 
Their camp 

passuum 
(of) paces 

Germanorum 
of the Germans. 



of two days. 



quum 
when 



cognoscunt 

they learn 



(that) 



una 
one 

Que 

And 

(than) 
du9S 

two 



venisse missu Caesaris. 

had arrived by the sending [dispatched] of (by] Caesar. 

positis a quindecim millibus 

having been pitched by fifteen thousand 

constituunt expectare auxilia(pl.) 
they determine to wait for the aid [auxiliaries] 

Labienus, consilio hostium 
Labienus the plan of the enemy 



COg- 
having 



nito 

been learned 



(and) 



sperans 
hoping 



(that) 



tore 



temeritate 
by the rashness 



eorum 
of them 

aliquam 

some 



[by their rashness] to be about to [there would] be 

facultatem dimicandi, praesidio quinque cohortium 
opportunity of fighting. a guard of five cohorts 

relicto impedimentis, proficiscitur contra hostem 

having been left for the baggage, he marches against the enemy 

cum viginti qumque cohortibus, que magno 
with twenty five cohorts. and a great [much] 

equitatu, et communit castra, spatio mille 

cavalry, and he fortifies (his) camp, an interval of a thousand 



passuum 
paces 



intermisso. 

having intervened. 



Erat, 

There was, 



inter Labienus 

between Labienus 



atque hostem, flumen 
and the enemy, a river 

praeruptis ripis. Neque 
with steep banks. Neither 



difficili 
with a difficult 



transtitu, que 
crossing and 



ipse habebat in animo 

he himself had in mind 



BOOK VI On the Gallic War. 309 

transire hoc, neque existimabat liostes 

to cross this. nor was he thinking (that) the enemy 

transituros. Spes auxiliorum augebatur quotidie. 
would cross. The hope ofauxiharies was increased daily. 

Loquitur palam in concilio, quoniam Gfrmani 
It was said openly in council, "because the Germans 

dicuntur appropinquare sese nou 

are said to be approaching (that ho) himself (would) not 

devocaturum in dubium suas que fortunas 

(about to) call into doubt [hazard] his own and the fortunes 

exercitus, et moturum castra 

of the army. and (that he) about to [would] move the camp 

prima luce^^ postero die." Haec deferuntur 

at early dawn on the next day." These (words) are carried 

celeriter ad hostes, ut ex magno numero 

quickly to the enemy as from [of] the great number 

equitatus Gallorum, natura cogebat nonnullos 
of cavalry of the Gauls, nature was forcing some 

favere Galhcis rebus. Noctu Labienus, tribunis 
to favor the Gallic affairs At night Labienus, the tribunes 

militurn que primis ordinibus coac- 

of the soldiers and the fust orders (of centurions) having been 

tis, proponit quid sit sui 

assembled, propounds [proposes] what may be (of) his 

consilii ; et quo facilius det hostibus 

plan, and that the more easily he may give to the enemy 

suspicionem timoris, jubet castra moveri 

a suspicion of fear he orders the camp to be moved 

majore strepitu et tumultu, quam fert consuetudo 
with greater noise and confusion. than was the custom 

Romani populi. His rebus efficit profectionem 
of the Roman people. By these things he makes the departure 

similem fugae. Haec quoque deferuntur ad 

like to a flight. These (things) also are announced to 

hostes per exploratores ante lucem, in 

the enemy through spies before light, in 

tanta propinquitate castrorum. 

so great [such] nearness of the camps. 



310 The Commentaries of CcEsar. BOOK vi 

8. Vix novissium agmen processerat extra 

Scarcely the rear marchmg-Iine had proceeded beyond 

munitiones, cum Galli cohortati inter se^ 

the fortifications, when the Gauls haviiifj^ encouraged one another 

ne dimittgrent speratam praedam ex 

(that) they should not lose the hope for booty from 

manibus; esse longum expectare 

(their) hands, (that) it would be long [tedious] to wait for 

auxilium Germanorum, Romanis perterritis; 

the assistance of the Germans, the Romans having been terrified . 

neque suam dignitatem pati ut noii 

(that) neither their dignity suffers that they should not 

audeant adoru-i tantis copiis, tarn exiguam 

dare to attack with so great forces, so small 

manum, praesertim fugientem atque impeditam ; 
a band, especially fleeing and encumbered , 

non dubitant transu-e flumen et committere 
they do not hesitate to cross the river and to join 

proelium iniquo loco. Quae Labienus 

battle in an unfavorable place. Which Labienus 

suspicatus f6re, ut elicgret 

having suspected to be about to [would] be, that he would lure 

omnes citra flumen, progrediebatur placide 

all to this side the river, he was marching on quietly 

usus eadem simulatione (abl.) itineris. Turn, 

having used the same pretence [of a march. Then, 

impedimentis praemissis paulum, atque 

the baggage having been sent forward a little. and 

collocatis quodam tumulo; habetis, inquit, 

having been placed on a certain eminence . "you have " says he. 

milites, facultatem quam petistis; tenetis 

"soldiers. the opportunity which you have sought ; you hold 

hostem mipedito atque iniquo l6co; 

the enemy in an encumbered and unfavorable place . 

praestate eandem virtutem nobis ducibus, cjuam 

exhibit the same courage to us (your) generals which 

saepenumero praestitistis imperatori : existmiate 

so often you have displayed to your commander; suppose 



BOOK VI On the Gallic War. 311 

6um adesse, et cernere haec 

liim to be present. and to observe these (deeds as if) 

coram. Simul jubet signa con- 

in his presence " At the same time he orders the standards to be 

verti ad hostem, que aciem dirigi; et 

turned to the enemy. and the battle line to be formed . and 

paucis turmis dimissis praesidio ad 

a few troops of horsemen having been sent for [as] a guard to 

impedimenta, disponit reliquos equites ad latera. 
the baggage. he stations the remaining cavalry on the wings. 

Nostri, clamore sublato, celeriter jaciunt 

Our men, a shout having been raised. quickly throw 

pila m hostes. Illi, ubi, praeter 

(their) weapons at tlie enemy. They, when, contrary 

spem, viderunt quos credebant fugSre 

to expectation. they saw those whom they believed to flee 

ire ad se infestis signis, non ferre 

come at them with hostile standards, (to) [could] not sustain 

impetum nostrorum; ac primo concursu, 

the attack of our (men); and on the iirst encounter. 

conjecti in ffigam, petiverunt proximas 

having been thrown into flight, they sought the nearest 

silvas ; quos Labienus consectatus equitatu 

woods; whom Labienus liaving followed with (his) cavalry 

majjno numero interfecto, compluribus 

(and) a great number having been slain. and very many 

captis, recepit civitatem, paucis 

having been captured he received the state (in submission), a few 

diebus post. Nam Germani, qui veniebant 
days afterwards For the Germans who were coming 

auxibo, fuga Trevirorum percepta 

for [as] aid. the flight of the Treviri having been known 

contulerunt sese domum Cum iis propinqui 
betook themselves home With them the relations 

Indutiomari, qui fu^rant auctores defectionis 
of Indutioraaris, who had been the authors of the revolt 

comitati 60s excessere ex civitate. 

having accompanied them departed from the state. 



312 The Commentaries of CcBsar. BOOK VI 

Principatus atque imperium traditum est Cingetongi, 
The leadership and command was assigned toCingelonx. 

quern demonstravimus permansisse in 

whom [who] we have shown to have (had) remained in 

officio ab initio 

allegiance from the beginning 

9. Caesar, postquam venit ex Menapiis in 

Caesar after he came from the Menapii into 

Treviros constituit de duabus causis transire Rhenum ; 

the rrevin resolved for two reasons to cross the Rhine . 

altera quarum 6rat, quod (Germani) misgrant 
the one of which was, because (the Germans) had sent 

auxilia Treviris contra se , alceia 

auxiliaries to the Treviri against himself the other (that) 

Ambiorix ne haberet receptum ad 60s, His 
Ambionx might not have a refuge among them. These 

rebus constitutis, instituit facere pontcm 

things having been determined he resolved to make a bridge 

paulum supra eum locum, quo antea trans- 
a little above this place. at which before he had 

dux^rat exercitum Ratione nota atque 

transported the army The plan having been known and 

instituta, opus efficitur, paucis diebus, magno 
adopted the work is completed, in a few days by the great 

studio militum Firmo praesidio relicto ad 

zeal of the soldiers A strong guard having been left at 

pontem in Treviris, ne quis motus oriretur 
the bridge among the Treviri lest any commotion might arise 

subito ab iis. transducit reliquas copias que 
suddenly among them, he leads across the remaining forces and 

equitatum Ubii, qui ante dederant obsides, 

the cavalry The Ubii who before had given hostages. 

atque venerant in deditionem, mittunt legatos ad 
and had come to a surrender send ambassadors to 

6um causa purgandi sui, qui doceant, 

him for the purpose of clearing themselves who may show 

neque auxilia missa in Treviros ex 

(that) neither auxiliaries had been sent to the Treviri from 



BOOK VI On the Gallic War. 313 

sua civitate, neque fidem laesam ab se ; 

their state, nor failh (had been) violated by them. 

petunt atque orant ut parcat sibi, ne 

they beff and pray that he may spare them, lest 

communi odio Germanorum innocentes pendant 
in (.his) common hatred of the Germans the innocent pay 

poenas pro nocentibus , si vebt amphus obsidum, 
the penalties for the guilty, if he desires more hostages. 

polhcentur dare Causa cognita, 

they promise to give (them) The case having been investigated. 

Caesar reperit auxilia missa esse ab 

Caesar finds the auxiliaries to have [had] been sent by 

Suevis; accepit satisfactionem Ubiorum, 
the Suevi he accepts the excuses oftheL'bii and 

perquirit aditus que vias in Suevos. 

carefully seeks out the approaches and roads into the Suevi. 

10. Interim fit certior * ab Ubiis, paucis 

In the meanwhile he is informed by the Ubii. a few 

diebus post, Suevos coggre omnes 

days after (that) the Suevi to collect [were collecting] all 

copias in uiuini locum, atque denuntiare 

(their) forces into one place, and also to warn [were 

lis nationibus quae sunt sub eorum imperio, 

warning] these nations who are under their commaiui. 

ut mittant auxilia peditatiis cjue equitatQs 

that they should send auxiliaries of foot [infantry) and of cavalry 

His rebus cognitis providet rem frumentaria, 

These things having been known he provides a corn supply. 

deligit idoneum locum castris; imperat 

he selects a suitable place for the camp , he commands 

Ubns, ut deducant pec6ra, que conferant 

the Ubii that they drive away the cattle, and collect 

omnia sua ex agris in oppida ; sperans 

ail their (property) from the fields into the towns . hoping 

barbaros atque imperitos homines adductos 
(that) the barbarous and ignorant men led 

inopia cibariorum posse deduci ad 

by the want of food to be able [might] (to) be brought into 



314 



The Commentaries of Ccesar BOOK VI 



iniquam conditionem pugnandi Mandat 
an unfavorable condition of fighting. He orders (the Ubii) 

ut mittant crebros exploratores in Suevos, 

that they send frequent scouts among the Suevi 

cognoscant quaeque gerantur (pi ) apud $os 
that they may learn whatever is carried on among them. 

Illi faciunt imperata, et, paucis diebus intermissis, 
They execute the orders and a few days having passed, 



referunt 
report: 



omnes 
"all 



Suevos, posteaquam 
the Suevi after (that) 



nuncii 

messengers [news] 

Romanorum, 
of the Romans 



venerant 
had come 



de 

concerning 



recepisse sese penitus 

to have [had] betaken themselves quite 



certiores 
more certain 

exercitu 

the army 

ad 
to 



extremos fines cum omnibus suis copiis que 

the extreme boundaries with all their forces and (those) 



sociorum, 

of (their) allies. 



quas coegissent 

which they had collected 



Esse 

To be 1 There is] 



silvam 
a forest 



ibi 

there 



infinitae 
of boundless 



appellatur Bacenis, banc 

is called Bacenis. this 



magnitudinis, quae 

extent, which 

pertinere longe 
to extend [extends] far 



introrsus, et objectam pro nativo muro, 
into the interior and is opposed for [as] a natural wall (defence] 

prohibgre injuriis que incursionibus Cheruscos 

to check [it checks] from injuries and incursions the Cherusci 



a Suevis, que 
from the Suevi and 

constituisse 
to have [had] resolved 

ad initium ejus 

at the entrance of this 

11 Quoniam 
Because 



Suevos a Cheruscis ; Suevos 
the Suevi from the Cherusci the Suevi 

exspectare adventum Romanorum, 
to await the arrival of the Romans 



silvae 
forest 



perventum est 
it has come 



ad 
to 



hunc 

this 



l6cum, 
place 



videtur non esse 

it seems not to be 



alienum 



proponere 



foreign [improper] to present (an account^ 



de 
of 



moribus 
the manners 



Galhae 
of Gaul 



que 
and 



Germaniae, 
of Germany 



et 

and 



BOOK VI On the Gallic War. 315 

quo hae nationes differant inter 

in what (respects) these nations may differ among 

sese. "* In Gallia sunt factiones, 

themselves In Gaul (there) are factions. 



non solum in omnibus civitatibus atque 
not only in all the states and 

pagis que partibus, sed etiam paene in singulis 
cantons and parts but also almost in the several 

domibus ; que principes earum factionum sunt 
houses and the chiefs of those factions are (those) 

qui existimantur habere, judicio eorum 

who are considered to have. in the judgement of them [their 

summam auctoritatem ; ad arbitrium que 
judgement) the highest authority to the will and 

judicium quorum, summa omnium rerum que 

judgement of whom. the management of all affairs and 

consiliorum redeat. Que id videtur 

counsels may return. And this seems (to have been) 

institutum (esse) antiquitus causa ejus rei, 

instituted anciently for the sake of this thing, 

ne quis ex plebe eg^ret auxilii(gen.) 

(that) no one from [of] the people should want assistance 

contra potentiorem, enim quisque non patitur 
against the more powerful. for each one does not suffer 

suos opprimi que circumveniri ; neque si faciat 

his own to be oppressed and overreached. nor if he do 

aliter habeat ullam auctoritatem inter suos. 
otherwise has he any authority among his (people). 

Haec Sadem ratio est in summa 

This same plan [system] is in the management [authority] 

totius Galli£e. Namque omnes civitates divsae sunt 
of all Gaul For indeed all the states are divided 

in duas partes, 
into two parties. 

12 Quum Caesar venit in Galliam, ^dui grant 
When Caesar came into Gaul. the iEdui were 

principes alterius factionis, Sequani alterius Hi, 
the chiefs of one faction. the Sequani of the other Ihese 



o 



16 The Commentaries of Ccssar. BOOK Vl 



quum valerent minus per se, 
(The latter] as they prevailed less by themselves. 

(quod summa auctoritas 6rat in ^"Eduis 

(because the supreme authority was among the vEdui 

antiquitus, que magnae erant eorum 

anciently [ofoldl. and great (states) were their 

clientelae), adjunxerant Germanos atque 

tributaries). they Ithe Sequani] had united the Germans and 

Ariovistum sibi, que perdux6rant eos ad 

Ariovistus to themselves. and had brought them over to 

se magnis jacturis que pollicitationibus. Vero 

themselves by great sacrifices and promises. Indeed 

compluribus secundis proeliis factis, atque 

very many successful battles having been fought, and 

omni mobilitate /Eduorum interfecta, 

all the nobility oftheiEdui having been slain, 

antecesserant tantum potentia, ut 

they [the Sequanil had surpassed so much in power that 

transducerent ad se magnam partem clientium 

they brought over to themselves a great part of the clients 

ab ^duis, que acciperent ab iis 
Itributaries] from the .'Edui, and received from these 

filios principum obsides, et cog§rent jurare 

the sons of the chiefs as hostages, and forced (them) to swear 

publice, se inituros ^ nihil consilii 

publicly, (that) they would enter (into) nothing of [no] design 

contra Sequanos ; et possiderent partem 

against the Sequani , and they kept a part 

finitimi agri occupatam per vim, que 

of the neighboring territories seized by force, and 

obtinerent principatum totius Galliae Divitiacus 
obtained the sovereignty of all Gaul. Divitiacus 

adductus qua necessitate, profectus Romam 

led by which [this) necessity, having proceeded to Rome 

ad senatum causa petendi auxilia, re 

to the senate for the purpose of asking aid. the thing 

infecta redierat. Adventu 

[purpose] having been accomplished had returned By the arrival 



BOOK VI On the Gallic War. 317 

Caesaris, coramutatione rerum facta, 

If Caesar, a change of affairs having been eflfected, 

obsidibus redditis i^duis, veteribus 

tlie hostages having been returned to the yKdui. old 

clientelis restitutis, n6vis comparatis 

tributaries having been restored, (and) new having been acquired 

per Caesarem, ((juod li, qui anrjrreffaverant 
through Ciesar. (because these. who had united 

se ad eorum amicitiani, videbant se 

themselves to their friendship. were seeing (that) they 

uti ^ mehore conditione atque aequiore 

to use (possessed] a better condition and more equitable 

imperio) rehquis rebus eorum gratia 

government) (their) other affairs. their authority 

que dignitate anipbficata, Sequani 

and dignity [influence] having been enlarged. the Sequani 

dimisserant principatuin, Renii successerant 

had lost the sovereignty. the Kemi succeeded 

in eorum locum ; quos '^ (juod 

in their place. whom [who] as 

iiitelligebatur ada?(juare gratia apud 

it was perceived equaled (the il^dui) in favor with 

Caesarem, li, (jui propter veteres inimicitias 

Caesar. these. who on ac-comit of old hostilities 

poterant nullo modo conjungi cum /Eduis, 
could in no manner be united with the /Kdui, 

dicabant se in clientelam Remis. 

were declaring themselves under the protection of the Kemi. 

ilh tuebantur lios diligenter; et ita tenebant 
They were protecting them carefully. and so they held 

nOvam et repente collectam auctoritatem. Res 
a new and suddenly acquired influence. Affairs 

erat tum §o statu, ut yEdui haberentur 
were then in this state. that the i^dui were lield 

longe principes, Remi obtinerent secundum 

by far as the principal (people) the Remi obtained the second 

l6cum dignitatis. 

place of dignity [influence]. 



318 The Commentaries of CcBsar. BOOK VI 

13 In omni Gallia eorum hominum, qui sunt 
In all Gaul of these men who are 

aliquo numero atque honore, sunt duo jrenera. 
of any account and honor. there are two classes. 

Nam plebs habetur paene loco servorum, 

For the common people are held almost in place of slaves. 

quae audet nihil per se, et adhibetur nulli 

who dare nothing by themselves, and are admitted to no 

concilio. Plenque quum premuntur aut aere alieno, 
council. Many, when they are oppressed either by debt. 

aut magnitudine tributorum, aut injuria 

or by the greatness of the tributes, or by the injury [violence] 

potentiorum, dicant sese in servitutem 

of the more powerful. declare themselves in servitude 

nobilibus ; omnia eadem jura sunt in hos, quae 
to the nobles . all the same rights are over these, which 

dominis in servos Sed de his duobus 

[as] to masters over slaves. But of these two 

generibus, alterum est Druidum, alterum 

classes, the one is (that) of the Druida. the other (that) 

Equitum. Illi intersunt divinis rebus, 

of the knights. They (the Druids) are occupied with sacred things, 

procurant publica ac privata sacrificia, inter- 

they have charge of public and private sacrifices, (and) inter- 

pretantur religiones Magnus numerus adolescentium 
pret religion A great number of youths 

concurrit ad hos causa disciplinae, que ii, 

resort to these for the purpose of training, and they 

sunt magno honore apud Sos Nam 
(the Druids) are in great honor among them For 

constituunt de fere omnibus controversiis 

they decide concerning almost all controversies (both) 

publicis que privatis ; et si quod facinus est 

public and private, and if any crime had been 

admissum, si caedes facta, si est 

committed. if (any) murder had been done if (there) is 

controversia de haereditate, si de finibus, lidem 
a dispute about inheritance, if about boundaries the same 



BOOK VI On the Gallic War. 319 

decernunt ; que constituunt praemia que poenas 
decide (it), and determine the recompenses and punishments. 

Si quis, aut privatus aut publicus, non 

If any (person), either a private or public. should not 

stetent eorum decreto, interdicunt sacrificns. 

, submit to their decree, they forbid (him) the sacrifices. 

Haec est gravissima poena apud Sos. Hi 

This IS a very great punishment amoni? them. These 

quibus^^ est. ita interdictum, habentur numero 
who are thus interdicted. are held in number 

impiorum ac sceleratorum ; omnes decedunt ns, 
of the impious and wicked. all avoid them, 

que defuffiunt eorum aditum que sermonem ; ne 
and flee from their approach and conversation, lest 

accipiant quid (neut.) incommodi ex 

they might receive some (of) evil from (their) 

contagione ; neque jus redditur eis 

contagion , neither (is) justice administered to them 

petentibus neque ullus h6nos communicatur. Autem 
petitioning nor any honor is attributed. But 

omnibus his Druidibus unus praeest, qui habet 
over all these Druids one presides, who has 

summam auctoritatem inter eos. Hoc mortuo, 

supreme authority among them. This (chief) being dead, 

SI quis ex reliquis excellit dignitate succedit. 

if any one from [of] the others excels in dignity he succeeds. 

At si plures sunt pares deligitur suffragio 

But if many are equal he is elected by the suffrage 

Druidum ; etiam nonnunquam contendunt armis 
of the Druids. also sometimes the> contend with arms 

de principatu. Hi considunt in consecrato 

for the chieftainship. These (Druids) assemble in a consecrated 

loco, certo tempore anni in finibus 

place. at a certain time of the year in the territories 

Carnutum, quae reglo habetur media totius Galliae. 
of the Carnutes which region is held as the center of all Gaul. 

Hue omnes undique, qui habent controversias, 
Here all from all sides. who have disputes. 



320 The Cojfuneniaries of Ccesar. BOOK VI 

conveniunt, que parent eorum judiciis que decretis. 
assemble, and submit to their judf^mewt and decrees 

Disciplina existimatur reperta in Britannia, 

(This) institution Icu'tl is supposed (to have) originated in Britain 

atque mde (esse) translata in Galliam Et 

and from thence (to have been) transferred into Gaul And 

nunc, qui volunt diligentius cognoscere Cam 

now those who wsh more perfectly to know this 

rem, plerumque proficiscuntur illo causa 

thing [sect] often go tliere for the purpose 

discendi. 
of learning (it) 

14. Druides consueverunt abesse a bello, neque 
The Druids are accustomed to be absent from war nor 

pendunt tributa una cum reliquis ; (habent vaca- 
do they pay tribute together \\\\.\\ the rest (they have an exemp- 

tionem mihtiae, que immunitatem omnium 

tion from military service and immunity of [in] all 

rerum. ) Excitati tantis praemiis, et multi sua 
things) Excited by such advantages and many of their 

sponte conveniunt in disciplinam, et mittuntur a 
own accord assemble for instruction. and they are sent by 

parentibus que propinquis Dicuntur ediscere 

parents and relations They are said to learn by heart 

magnum numerum versuum ibi Itaque nonnulli 

a great number of verses there Therefore many 

permanent vicenos annos in disciphna; neque 

remain twenty years under instruction nor 

existimant esse las mandare S,a 

do they consider (it) to be lawful to commit these (things) 

litteris, quum utantur Graecis litteris, in fere 
to writing although they use the Greek letters in nearly 

reliquis rebus, pubbcis que privatis rationibus 
(all) other affairs, in public and in private transactions 

Id videtur mihi instituisse de duabus causis ; 

This seems tome to have been established for two reasons 

quod neque velmt disciplinam efferi in 

because they neither wish their discipline to be divulged to 



BOOK VI On the Gallic War. 321 

volgos, neque &os qui discunt, confisos 

the common people nor (that) those who learn relying 

littens, studere memoriae minus 

on writing sliould cultivate (tlieir) memory the less (too little). 

Quod fere accidit plerisque, ut praesidio 

Which ordinarily happens to the most so that by the aid 

litterarum remittant diliffentiam in perdiscendo, 

of writing they relax Itheir) ajDplualion m thoroughly learning. 

ac memoriam In pnmis volunt persuadere 

and (their) memory In particular they uish to inculcate 

hoc animas non intenre, sed ])ost mortem 

this (that) souls [dol not (to) die but after death 

transire ab aliis ad alios, atque putant 

(to) pass from one (body) to another and tliej- tliink 

hoc maxime exicitari • ad Mrtutem, 

(that) by this (men) greatly to be larel excited to courage. 

metu mortis neglecto Praeterea disputant, 

the fear of death having l)een disregarded Moreover they discuss. 

et tradiint juventuti, multa. de sideribus, 

and impart to the youths many things concerning the stars. 

atcjue eorum motu, de ma<rnitudine mundi 

and their motion concerning the size of the world 

ac terrarum, '^e natura rerum, de 

and the earth concerning the nature of things concerning 

vi ac potestate immortahum deorum 

the power and majesty of the 'mniortal gods 

15 Alterum genus est ecjuitum Hi, quum 

The other class >s the knights These when there 

est usus, at(iue alicpiod bellum incidit, (quod ante 
is need and any war occurs (which before 

adventum Caesaris solebat accidere fere quotannis. 

the arrival of Caesar was wont to happen nearly every year 

uti aut ipsi inferrent injurias, aut 

as either they themselves mflicted injuries or 

propulsarent illatas) omnes versantur in 

repelled 'them) inflicted) all are employed in 

hello, atque ut quisque eorum est amplissimus 
"»var and as anyone of them is most noble 



322 The Commentaries of Ccesai'. BOOK VI 

genere que copiis, ita habet plurimos ambactos 
by family and resources so lie has very many vassals 

que clientes circum se Noverunt banc 

and clients about himself Ihim] They have known this 

gratiam que potentiam unam. 
authority and power only 

16. Omnis natio Gallorum est admodum dedita 
The whole nation of the Gauls is very much given 

religionibus, atque ob 6am causam, 

to religion (superstitions] and for this reason (those) 

qui sunt affecti gravionbus morbis, que qui 

who are afflicted with very severe diseases and (those) who 

versantur in proehis que pencuhs, aut immolant 
are engaged in war and dangers either sacrifice 

homines pro victimis, aut vovent se 

men for [as] victims or they vow (that they) themselves 

immolaturos ,'^ que utuntur Druidibus 

to be about to [will] sacrifice (them) and they use the Druids 

(abl.) admmistris ad (^a sacrificia ; quod aibitrantur, 
as performers of these sacrifices, because they think. 

nisi vita hominis reddatur pro vita 
(that) unless the life of a man be rendered for the life 

hominis, numen immortabum deorum 

of a man. the divine will [divinity] of the immortal gods 

non posse aliter placari, que babent sacrificia 
could not be otherwise appeased and they have sacrifices 

ejusdem generis instituta pubbce Abi habent 
of the same kind performed publicly Others have 

simulacra mimani magnitudine, membra quorum 
images with [of] vast size the limbs of which 

contexta viminibus complent vivis hominibus, 
woven with twigs they fill with living men 

quibus succensis homines exanimantur 

which having been set on fire the men are put to death 

circumventi flamma Arbitrantur suppbcia 

by the surrounding flame. They thmk (that) the sacrifices 

eorum, qui sint comprehensi in f'urto aut in 
of those, who maybe taken in theft or "n 



BOOK VI On the Gallic War. 323 

latrocinia. aut aliqua noxa esse gratiora 

robbery or in any culpable act to be [are] more acceptable 

immortalibus diis. sed quum copia ejus 

to the immortal gods but when a supply of this 

generis deficit, etiam descendant ad supplicia 
kind IS wanting also they descend to the sacrifice 

innocentium 
of the innocent 

17 Maxime colunt deum Mercurium ' sunt 
They principally worship the god Mercury there are 

plurima simulacra hujus, ferunt hunc inventorem 
many images of him they regard him (as) the inventor 

omnium artium , hunc ducem viarum 

of all arts (they consider^ him the guide of their journeys 

atque itm&rum ; arbitrantur hunc liabere maximam 
and marches they believe .' im to have very great 

vim ad quaestus pecuniae que mercaturas (pi ). 
power for the acquisition of money and (for) trade 

Post hunc Apollinem et Martem, et 

After him (they worship) Apollo and Mars and 

Jovem, et Mmervam De his hahent fere 
Jupiter and Minerva About these they have nearly 

tandem opinionem, quam reliquae gentes ; 

the same opinion which las) other nations (that) 

Apolhnem depell^re morbos , Minervam tradCre 

Apollo drives away diseases (that) Minerva imparts 

initia operum atque artificiorum; Jovem 

the principles of crafts and of arts (that) Jupiter 

tenere imperium coelestium, Martem reg6re 

holds the empire of the celestials (that) Mars rules 

bella Huic, quum constituerunt dimicare proelTo, 
wars To him when they have resolved to engage in battle. 

plerumque devovent, ^a quae ceperint 

they often vow these (thaigs) which they may take 

bello ; animalia quae superaverint, capta 

in war the animals which may have survived (when) captured 

immolant, conferunt reliquas res in 

they sacrifice. they bring together the remaining things into 



824 The Com?ne7itaries of Ccssar. BOOK vi 

unuin locum In multis civitatibus licet conspicari 
one place. In many states there may be seen 

tumulos exstructos harum reruni, consecratis locis. 
piles built of these things. in consecrated places. 

Neque saepe accidit, ut qiiiscjiam, religione 

Nor does it often liappen. that any one. religion 

neglecta, auderet aut occultare capta, 

being disregarded, should dare either to conceal the things captured. 

apud se, aut tollere posita, que 

at his home. or to take away the things deposited, and 

gravissimum supplicium cum cruciatu constitutum est 
the most grevious punishment with torture has been ordained 

ei rei. 

for this thing. 

18. Omnes Galli praedicant se prognatos 

All the Gauls assert (that) they are descended 

ab Dite patre, que dicunt id 

from Dis [Pluto] as progenitor and they say (that) this 

proditum ab Druidibus Ob earn causam 

has been handed down by the Druids. For this reason 

finiunt spatia (pi ) omiiis temp5ris non 

they determine the duration of all time not 

numero dierum, sed noctium r et sic observant 
by the number of days. but of nights and so observe 

natales dies, et initia (pi.) mensium et 

birth days. and the commencement of the month and 

annorum, ut dies subsequatur noctem. In 

of years. so that the day may follow the night. In 

reliquis institutis vitae differunt hoc ab fere 
other usages of life they differ in this from nearly all 

reliquis, quod non patiantur suos liberos adire 
others. that they do not suffer their children to approach 

se palam, nisi quum adoleverint, ut 

them publicly. unless when they may have grown up. so that 

possint sustinere munus mihtiae; que 

they may be able to bear the duly of military service . and 

ducunt turpe filium in puerili aetate 

they consider (it) shameful (for) a son in boyish age 



BOOK VI On the Gallic War. 325 

assist6re in conspectu patris, in publico, 

to attend in the presence of his father. in public. 

19 Quantas pecunTas viri accei)erunt ab 

As much money (as) the husbands may receive from 

uxoribus, nomine, dotis, tantas, aestimatione 

wives, in tlie name. of dower. so much. an estimate 

facta, communicant cum dotibus ex suis 
having been made, they join with tlie dower from their own 

bonis. Omnis hujus pecuniae ratio conjunctim 

goods. Of all this money an account in common 

habetur, que fructus servantur; uter ^orum 
IS kept, and the profits are reserved . whoever of them 

superarit vita, pars utriusque cum fructibus 
may have survived in life, the part of botli with the profits 

superiorum tempCrum (pi.) pervenit ad $um. Viri 
to the previous time reverts to him. Husbands 

habent potestatem vitae que n^cis in uxores, 

have the power of life and death against (over] the wives, 

sicuti in lib^ros Et quum pater- 

as well as against (overl the children. And when the father 

familias natus illustriore l5co decessit, 

of a family born in a more illustrious place [rank] has died, 

ejus propinqui conveniunt, et si res venit 

his relations assemble, and if the event has come 

in suspicionem, habent de morte quaestionem 
into suspicion. they hold about liis death an examination 

de uxoribus in servilem modum, et si est 
of his wives after the slave manner and if it is 

compertum interficiunt excruciatas igni atque 

discovered they kill (them) tortuied by fire and 

omnibus tormentis. Funera, pro cultu 

all torments. The funerals. for the civilization 

Gallorum, sunt magnifica et sumptuosa, que omnia, 
of the Gauls, are magnificent and costly. and all, 

quae arbitrantur fuisse cordi^"^ vivis, inferunt 
which they judge to have been dear to the living, they cast 

in ignem, etiam animalia ; ac paulo supra banc 
into the fire, even animals , and a little before this 



326 The Commerttaries of Caesar. BOOK vi 

raemoriam, servi et clientes, quos constabat 
memory [time], slaves and clients. whom it was understood 

dilectos esse ab iis, cremabantur una, 

to have Ihadl been beloved by them, were burnt together 

justis funeribus confectis. 

(with them), the proper funeral rites having been performed. 

20. Quae civitates existimantur administrare 
Those states (which) are believed to administer 

suam rem pubhcam (sing.) commodius, habent 

their public affairs more advantageously, have 

sanctum legibus si quis acceperit 

established by law (that) if any one shall have heard 

quid a finitimis de re publica rumore aut 

any thing from neighbors about the state by rumor or 

fama, uti deferat ad magistratum, neve 

by report, that he should bring (it) to the magistrate. nor 

comraunicet cum quo aho ; quod cognitum est 
communicate with any other. because it has been known 

saepe temerarios atque imperitos hommes 
(that) often rash and inexperienced men 

terreri falsis rumoribus, et impelh 

to be [are] terrified by false rumors, and to be [arej impelled 

ad facinus, et cap^re consilium de summis 

to crime. and to form plans about the most important 

rebus. Magistratus occultant quae visa sunt que 
things. The magistrates conceal what seem best and 

produnt multitudini, quae judicav^rint esse ex usu 
disclose to the people. w hat they judge to be of use. 

Non conceditur loqui de re publica nisi 

It is not allowed to speak concerning a public matter unless 

per concilium, 
in the council. 

21. Germani differunt multum ab hac consue- 
The Germans differ much from these cus- 

tudine; nam habent neque Druides, qui praesint 
toms. for they have neither Druids. who preside over 

divinis rebus; neque student sacrificTis Ducunt 
sacred things ; nor do they regard sacrifices. They hold 



BOOK VI 071 the Gallic War. 327 

60s solos numero deorum, quos cernunt, 

those only in the number of the gods. whom they perceive, 

et quorum opibus (pi ) juvantur aperte, 

and by wliose assistance they are benefitted obviously. 

Solem, et Vulcanum, et Lunam ; acceperunt 

as the Sun. and Vulcan, (fire) and the Moon ; they are heard 

reliquos ne fama quidem Omnis vita 

(of) the others not by report even. All (their) life 

consistit in venationibus (pi.) atque in studlis 
is employed in hunting and in the pursuits 

militans rei (sing ) ; ab parvulis student 

of military affairs , from children they accustom themselves 

labori ac duritiae. Qui permanserunt diutissime 
to labor and hardships. Those who have remained the longest 

impuberes, ferunt maximam laudem inter suos. 

chaste, obtain the gieatest praise among their (people). 

Putant hoc staturam ali, 

(They) believe (that) by this the statue to be lisj increa.sed, 

hoc vires ali, que nervos 

by this the strength to be [is] increased. and the nerves 

confirmari. Vero habuisse notitiam 

to be [are] strengthened Indeed to have had the knowledge 

feminae intra vicesimum annum habent in 

of a woman within [under] the twentieth 

turpissimis rebus; cujus 

the most shameful things . of this 

occultatio, et quod perluuntur promiscue in 
concealment, both because they bathe promiscuously in 

fluminibus, et utuntur pellibus, aut parvis tegimentis 
the nveis, and use skins, or small coverings 

(abl ) renonum, magna parte corporis nuda. 

of deer hides, a great part of the body being naked. 

22. Non student agri culturae; que major 

They do not attend to agriculture , and the greater 

pars §orum victus consistit in lacte et cas6o 

part of their food consists in [of] milk and cheese 

et carne Neque habet quisquam certum modum 
and meat. Nor has any one a fixed portion 



year 


they hold 


among 


r?i 


est 


nulla 


thing 


there is 


no 



328 The Commentaries of Ccesar. BOOK vi 

aorn, aut proprios fines; sed magistratus ac 
of land, or proper boundaries. but the magistrates and 

principes, in singulos annos, attribCiunt quantum 
chiefs, in each year, assign as much 

agri, et quo loco visum est, gentibus que 
(of) land, and in what place it seems best, to the tribes and 

cognationibus hominum, qui coierunt una, 

to the families of men. who may have united together, 

atque anno post cogunt transire alio 

and the year after they compel (.them) to go somewhere else. 

Adferunt multas causas ejus rei (gen ), ne capti 
They offer many reasons for this thing, lest captivated 

assidua consuetudine commutent studium 

by continued custom they may change (their) zeal 

gerendi belli agricultura; ne student 

of [for] waging war for agriculture . lest they may be eager 

parare latos fines, que potentiores expellant 
to acquire extensive estates, and the more powerful may expel 

humiliores possessionibus ; ne aedificent 

the more humble from possessions . lest they may build 

accuratius ad vitandos frigora atque aestus ; ne qua 
with more care for avoiding cold and heat, lest any 

cupiditas pecuniae oriatur, ex qua re factiones 
desire of money may arise, from which thing factions 

que dissensiones nascuntur; ut contineant 

and dissensions originate. that they may keep 

plebem aequitate animi, quum quisque 

the common people in peace of mind, since each one 

videat siias opes aequari cum 

may see (that) his own means to be [are] equaled with 

potentissimis. 

the most powerful. 



23. Est maxima laus civitatibus. 
It IS the greatest praise to the states, 




habere 

to have 


solitudines quam latissimas ^ circum 
deserts as (most) wide (as possible) about 


se, 
themsehes. 


finibus vastatis. Existimant 
their frontiers having been laid waste. They consider 


hoc 

this 



BOOK VI On the Gallic War. 329 

propnum virtutis, finitimos expulsos 

a peculiar (evidence) of valor, (thai) their neighbors expelled 

agns cedOre, neque quemquam 

from (their) lands (to) abandon (theni). nor (that) any 

(sing ) audere consist6re se prope. 

(to) dare (to) settle themselves near 

Siniul * arbitrantur se 

At the same time they think (that) they themselves 

fore tutiores hoc, timore repentinae 

to be about to Iwill] be more safe by this. the fear of sudden 

incursioiiis sublato. Quum civitas aut 

raids having been removed. When the stale either 

def'endit helium illatum, aut iiifert; 

repels war waged against it, or wages war. 

magistratus deliguntur, qui praesint ^i hello, 

magistrates are chosen, who preside over this war, 

ut liaheant potestatem vitae que n^cis. 

so that they may have the power of life and death. 

In pace est nullus communis magistratus, sed 
In peace there is no general magistrate. but 

principes regionum atcpie pagorum dicunt 
the chiefs of the provinces and cantons say [administer) 

jus mter siios, que minuunt controversias. 

justice among their (people), and settle disputes 

Hahent latrocmia nullam infamiam, qua^ fiunt 

They hold robberies as no disgrace which arecommilled 

extra fines cu.jus(}ue civitatis; atque praedicant 

beyond the boundaries of any state. and they assert 

6a fieri causa exercendae 

(that) this to be [is| done for the purpose of exercising 

juventutis, ac muiuendie desidiae Atque uhi 
the youth . and of preventing sloth And when 

quis ex prnicipihus dixit in concillo, se 

any one from lof] the chiefs has said in council 

fore ducem, ut qui velint 

"he to be about to [will] be the leader, that those who may wish 

sequi profiteantur; li qui probant et 

to follow let them volunteer," those who approve both 



330 The Commentaries of Ccrsar, BOOK vi 

causam et hominem consurgunt, que pollicentur 
the cause and the man rise up, and promise 

suum auxilium, atque collaudantur ab multitudine 
their aid. and are applauded by tlie multitude 



Qui ex lis, non secuti sunt, 
Those of them. (who) have not followed. 


ducuntur 

are reckoned 


in numfero desertorum ac proditoium; que 
in the number of deserters and of traitors. and 


post^a fides abrogatur iis 
afterwards credit is taken away from them 


omnium 
in all 


rerum (gen,) Putant non fas 
things They consider it not lawful 


violare 

to injure 



hospites ; qui venerunt ad $os de quacpie 

their guests , those who have come to them for any 

causa, prohibent ab injuria, que habent 

reason. they defend from harm, and they hold (them) 

sanctos; domus omnium patent lis, que 

i'.iviolable , the houses of all are open to them, and 

victus communicatur 
food is shared (with them). 

24. Ac ant^a fuit tempus, quum Galli 

And formerly (there) was a time, when the Gauls 

superarent Germanos virtute, et ultro 

excelled the Germans in bravery, and of their own accord 

inferrent (imp. subj.) bella ac propter 

were waging war and on account of 

multitudinem hominum, que inopTam agri 

the multitude of men, and the scarcity of land 

mittSrent (imp. subj.) colonias trans Rhenum. 
they were sending colonies across the Rhine 

Itaque Volcae Tectosages occuparunt ^a loca 
Therefore the Volcae Tectosages occupied those places 

Germanise, quae sunt fertilissima, atque consederunt 
of Germany, which are the most fruitful. and settled 

ibi, circum Hercyniam silvam, (quam video 
there about the Hercynian forest, (which I perceive 

esse notam Eratostheni et quibusdam 

to have been Iwasl known to Eratosthenes and some other 



BOOK VI On the Gallic War. 331 

Gra?cis fama; quam illi appellant Orcjniam;. 
Greeks by report . winch they call Orcyiua) 

Quae gens continet se lis sedibus 

Which [This] nation maintains itself in these settlements 

ad hoc tempus, que habet summam opinionem 
to this time. and has the hifjhest reputation 

.iustitiae et bellicae laudis; que nunc 

of [fori justice and (of) warlike praise. and now 

permanent in eadem inopia, efjestate, 

they remain in the same privation (want) poverty [need], 

patientia, qua Germani; utuntur 

(and) patience. in which [as] the Germans , they use 

Modern victu et cultu corporis Propinquitas 
the same food and care of the body. The pro.ximity 

provinciae Gallis, et notitia transmarinarum 

of (our) province to the Gauls, and the knowledge of transmarine 

rerum largitur (sing ) multa ad copiam 

things provides many (things) for supply [weaitli] 

atque usus. Paulatim assuefacti superari, que 
and use By degrees accustomed to be overcome, and 

victi multis proelTis ipsi ne se 

conquered in many battles they do not themselves 

quidem ' comparant virtute cum illis 
indeed compare in valor with them [the Germans]. 

25. Latitudo hujus Hercyniae silvae, quae 
The breadth of this Ilercynian forest, which 

demonstrata est supra, patet iter novem dierum 
has been mentioned above, extends a journey of nine days 

expedito Enim potest non finiri aliter, 

to an active (man) For it can not be bounded otherwise, 

neque noverunt mensuras itinerum. Oritur 

nor do they know measures of roads It begins 

ab finibus Helvetiorum, et Nemetum, et 

at the frontiers of the Helvetii, and of the Nemetes, and 

Rauracorum, que recta regione fluminis 

of the Rauraci. and in a straight direction (along) the river 

Danuvi, pertinet ad fines Dacorum et 

Danube, it extends to the territories of the Daci and 



332 The Commentaries of Ccssar. BOOK vi 

Anartium ; hinc flectit se sinistrorsus diversis 
of the Anartes ; thence it bends itsjlf to the left indifferent 

regionibus a fluniTne, que attinj^it fines 

directions from the river. and it touches the boundaries 

multarum gentium propter niagnitudinem. Neque 
of many nations on account of the great extent. Nor 

est quisquam hujus Germaniae, qui dicat 

IS (there) anyone of this (part) of Germany. who may say 

(aut audisse) aut adisse 

(that) (either to have [he had] heard) or to have [had] gone 

ad initium ejus silvae, quum processerit 

to the beginning of this forest, though he may liave proceeded 

iter sexaginta dierum; aut accepent ex quo 
a journey of sixty days, or may liave heard from what 

loco oriatur. Constat multa genera 

place it may take its origin It is certain (that) many kinds 

ferarum nasci in ea, quae sint non visa in 

of wild beasts are born in it, which are not seen in 

reliquis locis; ex quibus quae maxime diflPerant 

other places from which (those) that greatly differ 

ab caeteris, et videantur prodenda 

from others, and may seem worthy to be handed down 

memoriae, sunt haec. 
to memory, are these 

26. Est bos fiourii cervi, a media 

There is an ox [animal] in tlie shape ofa stag, from the mid 

fronte cujus, inter aures, unum coriui existit 
forehead of which. between the ears. a Iiorn grows 

excelsius, que magis directum his cornibus, 

higher. and more straight (than) these horns, 

quae sunt nota nobis. Ab summo ejus rami 
which are known to us. From the top of this branches 

diffunduntur late sicut palmae. Natura 

are spread out broadly like palm (leaves) 'Hie nature 

feminae que maris est eSdem, eftdcm forma 
of the female and male is the same, the same form 

que magnitudo cornuum. 
and size of the horns. 



BOOK VI On the Gallic War. 333 

27, Sunt item, quae appellantur alces. 
There are also (animals). which are called elks. 

Figura harum, et van^tas pellium est 

The shape of these. and the variety of the skins is 

consimilis capris, sed raagnitudine antecedunt 
very like to goats. but in size they surpass 

paulo ; que sunt multilae cornibus, et habent 

a little . and they are devoid of horns. and (they) have 

crura sine nodis que articulis; neque 

legs without articulations and joints. neither 

procumbunt causa quietis, neque si afflictae 

do they lie down for the purpose of rest. nor, if afflicted 

quo casu concidSrint, possunt eriggre 

by any accident they may fall down, can they raise 

sese aut sublevare, Arbores sunt his pro 
themselves or get up. The trees are to them for [as] 

cubilibus; apphcant se ad 6as, atque 

beds . they support themselves against these, and 

ita rechnatae modo paulum capiunt quietem ; 
so reclined merely a little they take rest, 

quum ex vestigiis quarum animadversum est 

when from the footsteps of which [these] it has been discovered 

a venatoribus, quo consuevSrint recipgre 

by the hunters. where they have been accustomed to betake 

se, aut subruunt omnes go 

themselves, either they undermine all (the trees) in that 

l6co, a radicibus, aut accidunt arbores tantum ut 
place, at the roots, or they cut the trees so that 

summa species earum stantium relinquatur. 

the total [mere] appearance of them standing may be left. 

Hue quum ex consuetudine reclinaverint se, 
Here when by custom they have reclined themselves. 

affligunt infirraas arbores pondgre, atque ipsae 
they overturn the weak trees by (their) weight, and they 

concidunt una. 

fall down together (with them) 

28. Est tertium genus eorum, qui 
There IS a third kind of these (animals). which 



334 



The Commentaries of CcEsar. BOOK VI 



appellantur uri. Hi sunt magnitudine paulo 

are called the wild ox. These are in size a little 



infra elephantos, 
below the elephant, 



specie et colore et 

with the appearance and color and 



figura tauri. Forum vis est magna, et 
form of the bull. Their strength is great. and (their) 

velocitas magna ; parcunt neque homini neque ferae 
speed great: they spare neither man nor beast 



quam conspex&rint ; 
that they may have seen 



studiose 
with much zeal 



foveis. 
in pits. 



hoc labore ; atque 
by this task , and 



hos interficiunt 
these they kill 

Adolescentes durant 
The youths liarden 

exercent hoc 

they exercise by this 



captos 
captured 

se 
themselves 

gengre 
kind 



venationis ; 
of hunting; 



et 
and 



(those) 



qui interfecerunt plurimos 
who have killed the most 



ex 

from [of] 



his, 
these, 



ferunt magnam Jaudera, cornibus 
obtain great praise. the horns 



relatis 
having been brought 



in publicum quae sint 
into public which may be 



(as) 



testimonio. Sed ne parvuli quidem excepti 

evidence. But not the young even (when) taken 

possunt assuescgre ad homines, et 
[captured] can be accustomed to men. and 

mansuefieri. Amplitude et figura et species 

tamed. The size and shape and appearance 

corniium differt multum a cornibus nostrorum 
of (their) horns differs much from the horns of our 

boum. Haec studiose conquisita, 

oxen. These having been carefully sought, 

circumcludunt ab labris argento, atque 

they enclose (them) from [on] the brims with silver, and 

utuntur in amplissimis epulis pro 

use (them) in (their) most splendid feasts for 

pociilis. 

cups. 

29. Caesar postquam comp^rit per Ubios 

Caesar after he discovered through the Ubiau 



BOOK VI 



On the Gallic War. 



335 



exploratores, Suevos recepisse sese in 

scouts, (tliat) the Suevi liacl uitlidrawn themselves into 

silvas, verltus inopTani frumenti, (quod, ut 
the forests. fearing a scarcity of corn. (because. as 

demonstravimus supra, omnes Gerrnani student 
we have shown above, all the Germans attend 

minime agri culturae), constituit non progredi 
very httle to agriculture). he resolved not to proceed 

longius ; sed ne tolleret omnino metum 

further. but that lie might not take away altogether the fear 



sui reditus barbS-ris, atque ut 

of his return from the barbarians and that 

eorum auxilia, reducto exercitu, 

their auxiliaries, having led back the army 



ultimam 
the farthest 



partem 

part 



pontis, 

of the bridge 



quae 

which 



tardaret 
he might retard 

rescindit 
he breaks down 

contingebat 

was touching 



ripas Ubiorum, 

the shores of the L'bii. 



in lonoitudinera ducentorum 
to tlie length of two liundrcd 



pedum, atque in 
feet. and on 



ponte (abl,) 

(of the) bridge 



extreme 
the extreme [end] 

constituit turrim quatuor tabulatorum, que point 
he constructs a tower of four stories. and places 

praesidium duodecim cohortium causa tuendi 

a guard of twelve cohorts for the purpose of defending 



pontis, 

the bridge 



que 

and 



munitionibus. 

fortifications 



firmat 

strengthens 

Praefecit 

He placed over 



6um locum 

this place 



matrnis 
with great 



ei loco que praesidio, 
this place and garrison 



C. Volcatium TuUum, adolescentem; ipse, quum 
C. Volcatius Tullus. a young man he himself, when 



frumenta incip&rent maturesc6re, 
the corn began to ripen. 



profectus ad 

having set out to 



bellum 
the war 

silvam, 
forest. 

pertinet 
extends 



Ambiorigis, 
of [with] Ambionx. 



per Arduennam 

through the Arduennian [Ardennesj 



quae est maxima totius Galliae, atque 
which \s the largest of all Gaul, and 



ab 
from 



ripis 
the shores 



Rheni 
of the Rhine 



que 
and 



finibus 
the territories 



386 Tlic Comynentaries of Ccesar. BOOK VI 

Trevirorum ad Nervios, que patet amplius 

of llie Treviri to the Nervii. and reaches more than 

quingentis millibus m loiij^itudinem ; prsemittit 

live hundred miles in len,^th. he sends forward 

L. Minucium Basiliuni, cum ornni etjuitatu, si 

L. Minucius Basihus. with all thecavahy, if 

possit profic^re (luid celeiitate itineris, 

he may be able to gain anything by quickness of march, 

atqae opportunitate tenipons; monet ut 

and by the favorablene.ss of the time. lie warns that 

prohibeat ignes fieri in castns (pi.), ne 
he should prohibit fires to be made in the camp, lest 

qua significatio fiat ])r6cul ejus 

any intimation Isign] might be made at a distance of his 

adventus; dicit sese subsecjui confestim. 

coming. he says that he himself to [would) follow speedily. 

30. Basilius facit ut imperat_:m est ; itmere 
Basilius does as he was commanded , the march 

confecto celeriter, que contra opinionem 

having been performed quickly. and contrary to the opinion 

omnium, deprehendit raultos inopinantes in agris ; 
of all, he captures many unaware in the fields. 

eorum indicio contendit ad Ambiorigem ipsum, 
by their information he marches to Ambiorix himself, 

in loco quo dicebatur esse cum paucis 

in the place in which he was said to be with a few 

equitibus. Fortuna potest multum, quum in 
horsemen Fortune can do much, not only in 

omnibus rebus, turn in militari re (sing. ). 

all things, but also in military afifairs. 

Nam sicut accidit magno casu, ut incideret 
For as it happened by great chance. that he fell 

in ipsum incautum atque imparatum, que ejus 
on him ofl" his guard and unprepared. and his 

adventus videretur ab liominibus priiis quam 
arrival was seen by the men before (that) 

afferretur fama ac nuncTis ; sic fuit 

it was brought by report and messengers, so it was 



BOOK VI On the Gallic War. 337 

magnae fortunae, omni militari instrumento, quod 
(of) great fortune, all the military implements, that 

habebat circura se erepto, rhedis 

he was having about him having been seized, his chariots 

que equis compiehensis, ipsum 

and horses having been captured, (that) he himself 

effug(3re mortem. Sed hoc factum est eo 

should escape death. But this was effected in this 

quod a^dificio circumdato silva 

(manner) for the house (having been) surrounded by a wood 

ut domicilia Gallorum fere sunt, qui causa 
as the dwellings of the Gauls generally are, who for the sake 

vitandi aestus, plerumque petunt propmquitates 

of avoiding the heat, often seek the vicinity 

silvarum ac fluminum, ejus comites que famihares 
of woods anil rivers, his attendants and friends 

sustmuerunt paulisper vim nostrorum equitum 

sustained for a little while the force of our cavalry 

in angusto loco. His pugnantibus (abl. 

in a narrow place. (While) these (are) fighting, 

abs.), quidam ex suis intulit ilium in 

some one from (of] his (men) placed him on 

equum; silvae texerunt fugientem ; sic fortuna 

ahorse; the woods covered (him) fleeing; thus fortune 

valuit multum, et ad subeundum periciilum, et 

availed much, botn for encountering danger. and 

ad vitandum. 
for avoiding (it). 

31. Ne Ambiorix non conduxSrit stias copTas 
Whether Anibiorix did not assemble his forces 

judicio, quod existimav&rit non dimicandum 

on purpose, because he thought (it) not to Imust not] be engaged 

proelio; an exclusus tempore, et prohibitus 

»n battle, or he had been cut off by time. and had been 

fuerit repentino adventu equitum, quum 

prevented by the sudden arrival of the cavalry. when 

crederet reliquum exercitum subsequi, 

he believed (that) the remainder of the army was following. 



338 The Commentaries of Ccssar. BOOK VI 

est dubium, seci certe nuncTis diraissis 

IS doubtful, but certainly messengers having been sent 



clam 




per 


agros 




jussit 


secretly 




through 


the fields 1 


[country] 


i^e ordered 


quemque 




consuls 


re sibi ; 


quorum pars 


that each one 


should take care of himse 


If, of whom a Fiart 


prof u git 




in 


Arduennam 




silvam, 


fled 




into 


the Arduennan 


[Ardunes] 


forest, 


pars 


in 


continentes pa 


iludes. 


Qui 


a part 


into the continuous marshes 


(Those) who 


fuerunt 




proximi 


Occanum, 


hi oc' 


cultaverunt 


were 




nearest 


the Ocean, 


these 


hid 


sese 




in 


insulis, 


quas 


aestus 


themselves 




in 


the islands, 


which 


the tides 



consuerunt efficSre. Multi egressi ex suis 

are accustomed to form Many having emigrated from their 

finibus crediderunt se que omnia 

territories confided [consigned] themselves and all 

sua alienissimis. Catuvolcus rex dimidiae 

their (property) to entire strangers Catuvolcus king of the half 

partis Eburonum qui inierat consilium 

part of the Eburones who had entered into counsel 

una cum Ambiorige, jam confectiis aetate, 

together with Ambionx, now worn out with age, 

quum posset non ferre laborem aut belli aut 
since he could not bear llie fatigue either of war or 

fugae, detestatus Ambiorigem omnibus 
of flight, having cursed Ambionx with all (kinds of) 

precibus qui fuisset auctor ejus consilTi, 
lUiprecautions who was the author of this plan [design], 

exanimavit se taxo, (cujus est 

Killed himself by yew (leaves). (of which (tree) there is 

magna copTa in Gallia que Germania). 
a great abundance in Gaul and in Germany) 

32. Segni que Condrusi, ex gente et 

The Segni and Condrusi. from (ofj the nation and 

num6ro Germanorum, qui sunt inter Rburones 
the number of the Germans, who are between the Eburones 



BOOK VI On the Gallic War. 339 

que Tieviios, miserunt legates ad Caesarem, 

and Trevirj, sent ambassadors to CcEsar. 

oratum ne ducSret se in num6ro 

to pray "that he would not place them in the number 

hostium, neve judicaret causam omnium 

of enemies, nor should he judge (that) the cause of all 

Germanorum, qui essent citra Rhenum esse 

the Germans. who might be on this side oftheUhme to be 

unam ; se cogitasse nihil 

|was] one [the same] , (that) they to have [had] thought nothing 

de bello, misisse nulla auxilia 

about war. (that) they to have [had] sent no auxiliaries 

Ambiorigi. Caesar, re explorata 

to Ambiorix. " Caesar, the thing [matter] having been investigated 

quaestione captivorum, imperavit si qui 

by the questioning of the prisoners, commanded (that) if any 

Eburones convenissent ad 60s ex fuga ut 
Eburones had come to them from flight that 

reducerentur ad se. Si fecissent ita, 

they should be brought back to him. If they did so. 

negavit se violaturum eorum 

he disavowed (that) himself [he] about to [would] harm their 

fines. Tum copTis distributis in 

territories. Then (his) forces having been distributed into 

tres partes, contulit impedimenta omnium legionum 
three parts. he removed the baggage of all the legions 

Aduatucam. Id est nomen castelli. Hoc est 
to Aduatuca. This is the name of a fortress. This is 

fere in mediis finibus Eburonum, ubi 

nearly in the middle (of the) territories of the Eburones, where 

Titurius atque Aurunculeius consederunt causa 

Titunus and Aurunculeius had encamped for the purpose 

hiemandi. Caesar probat hunc l5cum quum 
of wintering. Caesar approves this place riot only 

reliquis rebus, tum quod munitiones 

for other things. but also because the fortifications 

superioris anni manebant integrae, ut 

of the preceding year were remaining entire, (so) that 



340 The Commentaries of CcBsar. BOOK vi 

sublevaret laborem militum: reliquit quatuor- 
lie iniffht relieve the labor of the soldiers; he left the 

(lecTmam legionem praesidlo impedimentis unam 
fourteenth legion for [as] a guard to the baggage one 

ex lis tribus, quas proxime conscriptas, 

of those three. which lately (having been) enrolled, 

transduxerat ex Italia. Praefecit 6i legioni 

he had brought over from Italy. He appointed over this legion 

que castris, Q. Tullium Ciceronem, que attribuit 
and the camp, Q. Tullius Cicero. and assigned 

ducentos equites. 
(him) two hundred horsemen. 

33. Exercitu partito, jubet T. Labienum 

The army having been divided, he orders T. Labienus 

proficisci cum tribus legionibus ad versus 

to march with three legions in the direction 

Oceanum, in 6as partes quae attingunt Menapios. 
of the Ocean, into these parts which touch on the Menapii. 

Mittit C. Trebonium cum pari num^ro legionum 
He sends C. Trebonius with alike number of legions 

ad depopulandum earn regionem, "^ quae adjacet 
for to be laid [laying] waste this district. which borders on 

Aduatucis. Ipse cum tribus reliquis 

the Aduatuci. (He) himself with the three remaining (legions) 

constituit ire ad flumen Scaldim, quod 

resolves to go to the river Scaldis [Scheldt], which 

inflluit in Mosam, que extremas partes 

flows into the Mosa [Meuse], and (to) the extreme parts 

Arduennae, quo audiebat 

of the Arduennian [Ardennes] (forest), whither he heard 

Ambiorigem profectum cum paucis equitibus. 
Ambiorix had gone with a few horsemen. 

Discedens confirmat sese reversurum 

On departing he promises (that) (he) himself about to [would] return 

post septimum diem ; ad quam diem sciebat 

after the seventh day; on which day he was knowing 

frumentum deberi 6i legioni, (piae 

(that) corn to be [was] due to this legion, which 



BOOK VI O71 the Gallic War, 341 

relinquebatur in praesidio. Horatur Labienum que 
was left in garrison. He exhorts Labienus and 

Treboniuni revertantur ad 6am diem, si 

Trebonius that they should return on this day, if 

possint fac6re commodo rei publicae, ut, 

they could do (it) to the advantage of the republic, that, 

concilTo communicato rursus, que rationibus 

counsel having been communicated mutually, and the plans 

hostium exploratis, possint capgre 

of the enemy having been ascertained, they might take [adopt] 

aliud initium belli. 

another start [beginning] of [in] the war. 

34. Erat, ut demonstravimus supra, nulla certa 
There was, as we have shown above, no lixed 

mS.nus, non j)raesidTum, non oppidum, quod 
body of men, not a garrison, not a town, that 

defendSret se armis, sed multitude dispersa in 
could defend itself by arms, but a multitude scattered in 

omnes partes. Ubi cuiciue aut abdita vallis, aut 
all parts Where to any one either a hidden valley, or 

silvestris locus, aut impedita p3.1us, offerebat 
a woody place, or a difficult swamp, was offering 

aliquam spem pra'sidii aut salutis, consed^rat. 
some hope of protection or of safety. he had settled. 

Haec loca 6rant nota vicinitatibus, que res 
These places were known to the neighbors, and the thing 

requirebat ma<?nam diligentiam, non in 
[condition] was requiring great care, not in 

tuenda summa (abl.) exercitus (enim nullum 
protecting the total of the army (for *o 

periculum, universis, potgrat accid^re ab 

danger, to the whole, could happen from (them) 

perterritis ac dispersis), sed in conservandis singulis 
terrified and dispersed), but in preserving individual 

militibus ; quae res tamen ex parte pertinebat 

soldiers, which thing however in part was appertaining 

ad salutem exercitiis. Nam et cupiditas praedae 
to the safety of the army. For both the desire of booty 



342 The Commentaries of Caesar. BOOK Vl 

evoc^ibat multos loiifrius, ac silvae incertis 

was enticing many too far and the woods by their uncertain 

que occultis itineribus prohihebant coiifertos 

and hidden paths were preventing (llieni) collected 

adire. Si vellet confici negotTum, que 

to advance. If he wished to finish the business, and 

interfici stirpem sceleratorum bominum, 

to exterminate a race of infamous men, 

plures mSnus dimittendae, que milTtes 

a great many bands to [must] be sent out. and the soldiers 

diducendi ^rant ; si vellet continere manipulos 
to [must] be detached ; if he desired to keep the companies 

ad signa, ut instituta ratio et consuetudo 
to the ensigns, as the constituted order and custom 

Romani exercitus postulabat, l(5cus ipse ?rat 
of the Roman army was demanding, the place itself was 

praesidio barbaris ; neque deerat 

(for) a protection to the barbarians; neither was there wanting 

audacia singulis insidiandi ex occulto, et 

the daring to individuals of ambushing in secret, and 

circumveniendi disperses. At in difficultatibus 

of surrounding dispersed (soldiers). But in difficulties 

ejusmodi quantum diligentia poterat provideri 
of this nature whatever by diligence could be provided 

providebatur ; ut potius aliquid omitteretur 

was provided : so that rather something might be omitted 

in nocendo, etsi animi omnium 

in injuring (the enemy), although the minds of all 

ardebant ad ulciscendum, quam nocere- 

were burning to be avenged than that (the enemy) might 

tur cum aliquo detrimento militum. 

be injured with any loss of soldiers. 

Caesar dimittit nimcTos ad finitinias civitates; 
Caesar sends off messenger;^ to the neighboring states , 

evocat omnes ad se, spe prsedae. ad 

he invites all to himself. by the hope of plunder for 

diripiendos Eburones; ut potius vita Gallorum 
••avaging the Eburones ; that rather the life of the Gaul& 



BOOK VI On the Gallic War, 343 

periclitetur in silvis, quam Icgionariorum ; 

might be liazarded in the woods than (that) of the legionary 

sTmul, ut magna multitudine 

(soldiers); at the same time that a great multitude 

circumfusfi, stirps ac nomen civitatis 

having been sent abroad. the race and name of the state 

tollatur pro tali facinore. Magnus num^rus 

might be destroyed for such a crime. A great number 

celeriter convenit undTque. 
quickly assembled from all places. 

35. Haec gerebatur in omnibus partibus 

These (things) were earned on in all parts 

Eburonum, que septimus dies appetebat, 

of the Eburones, and the seventh day was approaching. 

ad quem diem Caesar constituerat reverti ad 
on which day Caesar had resolved to return to 

impedimenta que legionem. Hie potuit cognosci, 
the baggage and the legion Here it might be learned, 

quantum fortuna possit in bello, et quantos 
how much fortune can do in war. and how &reat 

casus aff^rat. Hostibus dissipatis 

mischances it may bring. The enemy having been dispersed 

ac perterrTtis, ut demonstravimus, 6rat nulla 
and terrified, as we have shown, there was no 

manus, quae afferet modo parvam causam 

body of men. wliich might create only a slight cause 

timoris. Fama pervenit trans Rhenum ad 

of fear. The report spread beyond the Rhine to 

Germanos, Eburones diripi, atque 

the Germans, (that) the Eburones to be [were] pillaged, and 

omnes evocari ultro ad praedam. 

(that) all to be [were] invited freely to the booty 

Sugambri cogunt duo millia equitum, 
[plunder]. The Sugambri collect two thousand horse, 

qui sunt proximi Rheno, a quibus Tencteros 
they are the nearest to the Rhine. by whom the Teucteri 

atque Usipetes receptos ex ftiga, 

and Usipetes were received in (their) flight, (as) 



3-44 The Commentaries of CcEsar. BOOK vi 

supra docuimus; transeuntes Rlienuni iiaMbus 

we have above shown. crossing the Rhine m ships 

que ratibus trij^inta nullibus passuum infra eum 
and boats thirty tliousand paces bclosv tins 

I6cum ubi pons Srat perfectus, que prspsidium 
place where the bridge was made and the garrison 

relictum ab Caesare, adeunt primos fines 

left by Caesar they enter the lirst Inearest] territories 

Eburonum; excipiunt multos disperses ex fuga; 
of the Eburones : they surprise many dispersed in flight: 

potiuntur magno numero pecoris, cujus 

they obtain possesion of a great number of cattle. of \\ hich 

barbari sunt cupidissimi. Invitati praeda 

the barbarians are very covetous. Enticed by booty 

procedunt longius. Non palus, non silvae, 

they proceed farther. Neither swamps. nor woods. 

morantur hos natos in bello, que latrocinis. 

impede these men born in war and plundering. 

Quaerunt ex captivis in quibus locis Caesar 
They inquire .of theprisoners in what place Caesar 

sit; reperiunt profectum longius, cjue 

may be they find (that) he has gone further, and 

cognoscunt omnem exercitum discessisse. 

learn (that) all the army to have [has] departed. 

Atque unus ex captivis inquit, quid vos 

Moreover one from [of] the captives said "why do you 

sectamrini banc miseram et teniiem pricdam, quibus 
follow these wretched and trifling spoils to whom 

jam beet esse fortunatissimis? Tribus boris 

it is now allowed to be most fortunate? In three hours 

potestis venire Aduatucam, buc exercitus Romanorum 
you can come to Aduatuca. there the army of the Romans 

contiiHt omnes suas fortunas ; est tantum 
has collected all its property . there is so little 

praesidii, ut ne murus quidem possit cingi, 
(of a) garrison, that not the wall even could be manned. 

neque aud§at quisquam egredi extra munitiones. 
nor dares any one go beyond the fortificatiors '' 



BOOK VI 



On the Gallic War. 



345 



(Hac) spe oblata, 

(This) hope having been ottered. 



German! relinquunt 
the Germans leave 



in 
in 

ipsi 
they 



praedam 
the booty 



occulto 

hiding 

contendunt 
proceed to 

duce cujus 

(person) as guide by whose 

haec. 

these things 

36. Cic6ro, (qui 

Cicero. (who 



quam 
which 



Aduatucam, 
Aduatuca, 

indicTo 

information 



nacti grant ; 
they had obtained ; 

usi eodem 

using the same 

cognov^rant 
they had learned 



per omnes superiores dies, 

through all the former days. 



praeceptis Caesaris continuisset milites in 
according to the orders of Caesar had kept the soldiers in 

castris summa diligentia, ac passus est ne 

camp with the greatest diligence. and allowed not 

calonem quidem egredi extra 

camp follower even to go beyond 

septimo die diffidens Caesarem 

on the seventh day distrusting (that) Caesar 

fidem de num^ro dierum, 

faith about the number of days, 



quemquam 
any 

munitionem); 
the fortification) 



servaturum 
about to [would] keep 

quod audiebat 

because he was hearing (that) 

neque ulla fama de 
nor was any report of 

simul permotus 

at the same time moved 



eum progressum longius, 
he had proceeded further, 

ejus reditu afferebatur, 
h!s return brought. 



vocibus 

by the voices 



eorum, 
of those. 



qui 

who 



appellabant illius patientiam paene 



were calling 

quidem 
indeed 



his 

non 

it was not 



endurance 

licgret 
allowed 



nearly 

egredi 
to go out 



obsessionem si 
a siege if 



ex 

from 



castris ; 
camp; 



expectans nullum 
expecting no 

posset ofFendi, 
he could be injured. 

n6vem legionibus 
nine legions 



casum hujusmodi 
event of such kind 



quo 

by wliich [that] 



in tribus milibus, 

within three miles (of the camp) 

oppositis, que maximo 

having been opposed and a numerous 



846 The Commentaries of Ccnsar. BOOK VI 

equitatu, hostibus, dispersis ac paene 

cavalry. the enemy. having been dispersed and ahnost 

deletis, misit quinque cohortes fiumentatum in 
annihilated. he sent five cohorts to forage in 

proximas segftes, inter quas et castra 

the neigliboring corn-fields between wliicli and tlie camp 

unus collis omnino intererat. Complures ex 

one hill in all [alone] intervened. Many from 

legionibus §rant relicti apgri in castris; ex quibus, 
the legions had been left sick in the camp; of whom 

qui, hoc spalTo dierum, convaliierant, 
(those) who. in this period of time. had recovered. 

circiter trecenti, mittuntur sub vexillo una; 
about three hundred are sent under a standard together* 

praeter§a magna multitude calonum magna 

besides a great multitude of camp followers (and) a great 

vis jumentorum, quae subsederat in castris, 
force of beasts of burden. that remained in the camp, 

sequitur, potestate facta, 

followed (them). permission having been given. 

37. Hoc ipso tempore et casu Germani 

At this very time and by chance the German 

equites intervemunt, que protiniis eodem illo 

horsemen arrived. and immediately with that same 

cursu, quo vengrant, conantur irrump^re in 

speed, with which they had come. try to break into 

castra ab decumana porta; nee sunt visi, 

the camp at the decuman gate . nor were they seen. 

silvis objectis ab ea parte, prius 

a wood being interposed at [onl this part [side]. before 

quam appropinquarent castris, usque eo, ut 
(that) they had approached the camp. even so. that 

mercatores, qui tend&rent sub vallo, 

the merchants (sutlers). who encamped under the rampart. 

hab^rent facultatem recipiendi stii. 

had not an opportunity of taking themselves away. 

Nostri inopinantes perturbantur nova 

Our (men) taken unawares are confused with this new 



BOOK VI Oil the Gallic War. . 347 

re, ac cohors in statione vix sustinet 

condition, and the cohort on guard scarcely sustains 

primum imp6tum; hostes circumfunduntur ex 
the first attack : tlie enemy are spread out on 

reliquis partibus, si possent reperire quern aditum ; 
the other sides, if they could find some approach; 

nostri aegre tuentur portas; locus 

our (men) with difficulty defend the gates. the place 

ipse per se que munitto deff^ndit 

itself through itself and by the fortification defends 

reliquos aditus, totis castris trepidatur, atque 
the other approaches, in all the camp there is alarm. and 

alius quaerit ex alio causam tumultiis ; neque 
one inquires of another the cause of the confusion ; neither 

provident quo sif>na ferantur, neque in 

do they provide where the ensigns may be carried. nor into 

quam partem quisque conveniat. Alius pronunciat 
what part each one may assemble. One declares 

castra jam capta, alius contendit, 

(Ihat) the camp to be [is] already taken, another affirms (thai), 

exercitu atque imperatore delecto, 

the army and the commander having been destroyed, 

victores barbaros venisse ; plerique fingunt 

the victorious barbarians (to) have come • the greater part form 

novas religiones sibi ex loco. Que 

strange superstitions for themselves from the place. And 

ponunt ante oculos calamitatem Cottae et 

they put before (their) eyes the calamity of Cottae and 

Titurii, qui occiderint in eodem castello. Omnibus 
Tilurius, who had fallen in the same fortress. All 

perterritis tali timore, opinio 

(having been) alarmed by such fear, the opinion 

confirmatur barbaris, ut audierant ex 

is confirmed to [amongl the barbarians, as they had heard from 

captivo nullum prsesidTum esse intiis; 

the captive (that) no garrison to be [was] within; 

nituntur perrumpgre, que ipsi adhortantur 

they endeavor to force an entrance. and they exhort 



348 The Commentaries of CcBsar. BOOK VI 

se, ne dimittant tantam Ibrtunam ex 

one another, lest they may let go so great a prize from 

ma 11 i bus. 

tlieir hands. 

38. P. Sextius Baculus, qui dux6rat primum 

r. Sextius Baculus, wlio led the first 

pilum apud Caesarem cujus fecimus mentionem 
company under Caesar of whom we have made mcnlion 

superioribus proeliis, ^rat relictus a^ger in praesidTo, 
informer battles, was left sick in the garrison, 

ac caruerat cibo jam quintum diem. Hie, 

and had been without food now the fifth day. He, 

diffisus suae saluti ac omnium, inermis 

mistrusting his safety and (that) ofall, unarmed 

prodit ex tabernaculo, videt hostes 

goes out from the tent, he sees (that) the enemy 

imminere, at(}ue rem esse in 

to be [were] pressing on, and that the affair to be [was] in 

summo discrimine; capit arma a proximis, 
the greatest danger. he seizes arms from the nearest, 

atque consistit in portri. Centuriones ejus 
and places himself in the gate. The centurions of this 

cohortis quae erat in statione sequuntur hunc; 
cohort which was on guard follow him, 

paulisper sustinent proelium una; animus 
for a little while they sustain the battle together ; the mind 

relinquit Sextium gravis vulneribus acceptis ; 

leaves Sextius severe wounds having been received ; 

tractus per manus (pi.) score servatur. 

drawn away by hand with difficully he is saved. 

Hoc spatio interposito, reliqui confirmant 

This period having been interposed. the others encourage 

sese tantum, ut audeant consist^re 

one another so much, that they dare take stand 

in munitionibus, que praeb^ant speciem 

on the fortifications, and show the appearance 

defensorum. 
of defenders. 



BOOK VI 



Oil the Gallic War. 



349 



39. Interim friimentatioiie confecta, 

In the mean time the fora-^iiif; liavin^v ij.en (.-ompleted, 

nostri milites exaudlunt 



our soldiers 

praecurrunt 
hasten on before, 



res 
the matter 



sit. 

is. 



liear 

cognoscunt 

they ascertain 

Ver6 hie 
But here 



('laiiioi'CMii, 
the sliout, 

in quanto 

in wiiat 



est 
there is 



nulla 
no 



equites 
the horsemen 

periculo 

great danger 

munitio, 
fortification, 



qu£e reeipiat 



perterritos. 



which may receive (those) affrighted. 



Modo conscripti 
(Those) lately enrolled 



atque imperiti militaris 
and unskilled in military 



usus convertunt ora 



turn 



faces 



ad 

to 



tribunum 

the tribunes 



militum 
of the soldiers 



que 
and 



expectant 
they await 



quid 
what 



praecipiatur 
may be commanded 



est 

is 



tarn 

so 



practice 

centuriones ; 
centurions; 

ah his. Nemo 
by them. No one 

fortis, quin perturb^tur novitate r?i. 

brave, but (that) he is disconcerted by the novelty of the affair 

Barbilii, conspicati signa procul, 

[condition]. The barbarians, having seen tlie standard at a distance, 

ab oppugnatione; prim6 credunt 

from the attack ; at first they believe (that) 



d sistunt 

desist 



legiones 
the legions 

captivis 
the captives 



redisse, 

had returned. 



quas 
which 



cognovSrant ex 

they had learned from 



discessisse 
had gone 



longius; 
further ; 

facTunt 
they make 



postga, 
afterwards, 

imp^tum, 
an attack, 



paucitate 

the fewness 

ex 

from [on] 



despecta, 

having been perceived, 

omnibus partibus. 

all parts [sides]. 

40. Calones procurrunt in proxTmum tumtilum 

The camp followers run to the nearest eminence 

celeriter dejecti hinc, conjiciunt se 

having been quickly driven thence, ihey throw themselves 

in signa que manipiilos ; 65 magis 

among the standards and companies; so much the more 

perterrent timidos milites. Alii censent 

they alarm the affrighted soldiers. Some are of the opinion 



850 



The Commentaries of Caesar, BOOK VI 



(that) 



cun^o facto 

a wedgre having been formed 



they may 



celeriter 
quickly 



perrunipant, quoniam castra sint tarn propinqua, 
break through, and as the camp is so near, 



etsi 
although 

at 

still 



aliqua 
some 

confidunt 

they trust 



pars circumventa 

part having been surrounded 



(that) 



reliquos 
the remainder 



ceciderit, 

might fall, 

posse 

to be able [can] 



servari. 
(to) be saved. 



Alii 

Others (advise) 



ut 

that 



consistant 
they take stand 



in 

on 



jigo, atque omnes ferant eundem casum. 

the hill-top. and (that) all undergo the same fate. 



V^eteres 

The veteran 



milites, 

soldiers. 



quos 

whom [who] 



perfectos una sub 

(to have) marched out together under 



documus 
we have mentioned 

vexillo non 

a standard do not 



Itaque cohortati inter se, 

Therefore having encouraged one another, 



probant hoc 

approve this 

C. Trebonio, Romano equite, qui erat praepositus 
C Trebonius. a Roman knight, who had been placed over 

eis, duce, perrumpunt per niedios^ 

them, being their commander, they break through the middle 

hostes que omnes ad unum 
[central] enemies and all to one [a man 

incolumnes in castra (ace.) 
in the camp 

subsecuti hos 
having followed these 



perveniunt 

arrive 



safe 

equites 

the horsemen 



que 

and 



Calones 

The camp followers 

eodem impetu, 

with the same dash, 

servantur virtute militum. At ii, qui 

are saved by the bravery of the soldiers. But those, who 

in .lUfjo, etiam nunc nullo 

on the hill-top. even now no 

usu militaris rei (sing.) 

experience of military affairs 



constiterant 
had taken stand 



percepto, 
having been acquired. 



neque permanere in eo consilio, quod proba- 
neither persisted in this design, which they have 



verant, ut defenderent se 

approved, that they should defend themselves 



superiore 
in the higher 



BOOK VI 



On the Gallic War. 



351 



l5co, 

position, 

celeritatem, 

speed, 

aliis ; 
the others 

castra 
the camp 



quam 
which 



profuisse 

to have [!iad] availed 



neque potuerunt imitari 6am vim que 
nor were able to imitate this vigor and 

vid6rant 
they had seen 

sed conati 

but having attempted 

demiserant in 
they descended into 



recipere 
to betake 



se 
themselves 



in 

into 



miquum 
a disadvantageous 



l5cum. 
place. 



Centuriones, nonnulli quorum transducti erant 

The centurions, some of whom had been transferred 

ex inferioribus ordinibus reliquarum legionum, 
from the lower ranks of the other legions, 

causa virtutis, in superiores ordines hujus 
by reason of bravery, into the higher ranks of this 

amittgrent laudem 

they might lose renown 



ne 

lest 



legionis, 
legion, 

r6i (sing.) partam 

affairs acquired 

fortissime. Pars 

most valiantly. A part 



ante 
before. 



militaris 

in military 

conciderunt pugnantes 
fell fighting 



militum, 
of (these) soldiers. 



summotis 
having been removed 



virtute 

by the bravery 



hostibus 
the enemy 

horum, 

of these [by their bravery], 



pervenit in castra inoolumis, pra}ter spem, 
arrived in the camp safe, beyond expectation. 



pars circumventa 
a part surrounded 

41. German!, 

The Germans, 



a 

by 



barbaris 
the barbarians 



periit. 
perished. 



expugnatione 
the storming 



castrorum 
of the camp 



perata, quod 

been despaired of, because 



videbant 
they saw 



(that) 



des- 

having 

nostros 
our men 



jam 
had now 

sese 

themselves 

deposuerant 
they had deposited 



constitisse 
taken stand 



in 

on 



munitionibus 
the forlificalions 



receperunt 

betook 



cum 

with 



ea 

this 



terror, 
the alarm, 



trans Rhenum, 
beyond the Rhine, 

in silvis. Ac 

in the woods. And 

etiam post discessum 
even after the departure 



praeda 
booty 

tantus 

so great 

hostium, 
of the enemy. 



quam 

^vhich 

fuit 
was 

Ut 
that 



352 The Commentaries of CcEsar. BOOK vi 

M nocte, quum C. Voliisenus venisset ad 
tliis night, when C, Volusenus had come to 

castra, missus cum equitatu, non 

the camp, having been sent with the cavalry. he could not 

facSret fidem Caesarem adesse cum 

make [create] confidence (that) Caesar was near with 

exercitu incolumi. Timor prseoccupav^rat animos 
the army safe Fear had preoccupied the souls 

omnium sic, ut mente paene alienata, 

of all so, that with a mind almost unbalanced. 

dicerent, equitatum tantum recepisse se 

they were saying, (that) the cavalry only to have Ihad] returned 

ex fuffa, omnibus copiis deletis, 

from the flight, all the forces having been destroyed. 

que contend6rent Germanos ne fuisse 

and they asserted (that) the Germans not to have been 

32 

oppugnaturos castra exercitu 

about to assault [had not assaulted] the camp (if) the army 

incoliimi ; quem timorem Caesaris adventus 

being [was] safe ; which fear C?esar"s arrival 

sustulit. 
removed. 

42. Ille reversus, non ignarus eventus 

He [Caesar] having returned, not ignorant of the casualty 

belli, questus unum quod cohortes essent 

of war, complained (of) one (thing) that the cohorts had been 

emissae ex statione et praesidio; indicavit 

sent from the post and from the garrison : he pointed out 

locum ne minimum quidem debuisse 
(that) the place not the least even ought 

relinqui casui, fortuna potuisse 

to be left to chance fortune might have been able [done] 

multum in repentino advetu hostium ; etiam nnilto 
much by the sudden arival of the enemy , also much 

amplius, quod 
more, because 

vallo ipso 

tlie rampart itself 



avertisset barbSros ab 
she had turned away the barbarians from 


que 
and 


portis 
the gates 


castrorum. 
of the camp 


Omnium 

Of all 



rursus 
having again 


piofectus ad 
departed to 


vexandos^^ 

harass 


magno 
a great 


numero 
number 


1 coacto 

having been assembled 


ex 

from 



BOOK VI On the Gallic War. 358 

quarum rerum videbatur maxime admirandum, 
which things it seemed most to be wondered at, 

qu6d Germani, qui transierant Rhenum 60 

that the Germans. who had crossed the Rhine with this 

consilio, ut depopularentur fines Ambiorigis, 

design that they might lay waste the territories of Ambiorix. 

delati ad castra Romanorum, obtulerunt 

having been led to the camp of the Romans brought 

Ambiorigi optatissimum beneficium, 
to Ambionx a most desirable benefit 

43 Caesar 
Caesar 

hostes ; 
the enemy 

finitimis civitatibus dimittit in omnes 

the neighboring states he sends (them) into all 

partes Omnes vici atque omnia aedificia, 

parts All the villages and all the buildings 

quae quisque conspexSrat, incendebantur ; praeda 
which anyone might see were set on fire spoils 

agebatur ex omnibus locis ; frumenta non 

were driven off from all places the corn not 

solum consumebantur (pi ) a tanta multitudine 
only was consumed by such a multitude 

jumentorum atque hominum; sed etiam procubu?rant 
of cattle and men. but also had fallen down 

tempore anni atque imbribus ; ut si qui 

by the time of year and the rains so that if any 

etiam in praesentia occultassent se, tamen 

even in [fori the present had concealed themselves yet 

videretur his perendum ^ inopia omnium 

it would seem (that) they must perish through want of all 

rerum exercitu deducto Ac saepe 

things the army having been withdrawn And often 

ventum est in eum locum, equitatu diviso 

it came to this pass. the cavalry having been divided 



tanto 


in 


omnes 


partes, 


ut 


captivl 


so much 


into [in] 


all 


directions. 


that 


the prisoners 



354 



The Commentaries of CcEsar. BOOK VI 



contenderunt Ambiorigem 

declared (that) Anibionx 

ab se in Aiffa, sed etiam 
by them in flight, but also 

plane ex conspectu ; ut 

clearly out of sight; (so) that 

illata, atque 

(him) having been raised, and 



non 

was not 



(that) 

spe 

the hope 



modo visum 
only seen 

nec abisse 
he had not gone 

consequendi 
of overtaking 



suscepto, 
having been undertaken. 



ituros 
would obtain 



summam 
the highest 



qui 

those who 

gratiam 
favor 



infinite 
an immense 

putarent 

thought 



(that) 



labore 
labor 

se 

they 



a Csesare, paene 
from Caesar, nearly 



vincgrent naturam studio, 

conquered nature by (their) efforts, 

videretur defuisse ad summam 

seemed to be wanting to complete 



que semper paulum 
and always a little 



atque ille eripgret se latebris 

but he rescued himself by hiding places 



felicitatem ; 

success ; 

silvis 
woods 



ac 

and 



aut saltibus. 
or forests, 

regiones, 

regions, 



et occultatus noctu peteret alias 
and concealed by night he sought other 



que 

and 



partes, 
places. 



equitum quam quatuor, 
of horsemen than four, 

committere suam vitam. 
to commit his life. 



non 

with no 

quibus 
to whom 



majore praesidio 
greater guard 



solis 
alone 



audebat 
he was daring 



44. Regionibus vastatis tali modo, 

The country having been laid waste in such manner. 

Caesar reducit exercitum damno duarum 

Caesar marches back the army with the loss of tvvo 

cohortium Durocortorum Rhemorum; que concilio 

cohorts to Durocortorum oftheRhemi; and a council 



indicto 
having been convoked 



in 6um l6cum Galliae, instituit 
in this part of Gaul, he resolved 

habere quaestionem de conjuratione Senonum 
to have an investigation about the conspiracy of the Senones 

et Carnutum ; et graviore sententia pronun- 

and Carnules; and a very severe sentence having been 



BOOK VI On the Gallic War. 355 

ciata de Accone, qui fiierat j)rinceps 

pronounced on Acco, who had been the chief 

ejus consilii, sumpsit supplicium, more 

cf this counsel, he took [inflicted] punishment, after the custom 

majorurn. ^ Nonnulli veriti judicium profugerunt, 
of our ancestors Some afraid of atrial fled. 

quum interdixisset aqua atque igni quibus, 

when he had interdicted water and lire to them, 

collocavit in hibernis diias lei^iones ad fines 
he stationed in winter quarters two legions on the frontiers 

Trevirorum, duas in Lingonibus, reliquas 

of the Treviri, two among the Lingones. the remaining 

sex Agendici in finibus Senonum, (jue 

SIX at Agendicum in the territories of the Senones and 

frumento proviso exercitiii, ut 

corn having been provided for the army as 

institu&rat, profectus est in Italiam ad agendos 
he had resolved he departed for Italy to hold 

conventus. 
the assemblies. 



356 



The Commentaries of CcEsar. BOOK VII 



SEVENTH BOOK 



The seventh book opens with a statement of the rising of the Gauls 
upon knowledge of civil disturbances in Rome which might detain 
Caesar in the city. Caesar at length sets out for his province and unex- 
pectedly crosses the Alps with an army through deep snows. Meantime 
Vercingetorix, an Arvernian, had been chosen leader of the revolution. 
Caesar by rapid marches here and there holds the people in check. He 
captures Velaunodunum,Cenavum, Xoviodunum and x\varicum. Labie- 
nus goes on an expedition to the north as far as Lutetia. which the 
Gauls burn, and after defeating tne Gauls in battle he rejoins Caesar. In 
spile of Caesar's efforts the vEdni join the revolt. Caesar obtains cavalry 
from Germany and with their aid defeats Vercingetorix in several 
battles. He is forced to raise the seige of Gergovia on account of the 
increasing activity of the Gallic nations. Caesar concentrates his forces 
against Vercingetorix and drives him to Alesia. The investment of 
Alesia and a general upriring of all Gaul now follow. Caesar is attacked 
by an army of a quarter of a million from without and holds eighty 
thousand within the city. After having built extensive w^orks and con- 
quering in fierce contests, he defeats the outside forces, repulses the 
beseiged and compels the surrender of the city. Vercingetorix is sent 
to Rome in chains, and six years later takes part in Caesar's triumph, 
after which he is executed. The nations make peace with Caesar who 
quarters his troops in various places in Gaul. He himself winters at 
Bibracte. On receiving Caesar's letters the senate decrees a thanksgiving 
of twenty days. 



1. Gallia 
Gaul 



quieta, 
being at peace, 



proficiscitur in 

proceeded to 



II bi 
there 



Italiam 
Italy 

coirnoscit de 



Caesar ut constitu§iat 

Caesar as he had resolved 

agendos conventus ; 

hold the assemblies ; 



ad 
to 

caede 



P. Clodii, que 



he learned 



of 



the murder of P. Clodius, 



and 



factus certior 

having been made acquainted 



de 

with 



consulto 
the decree 



Senatus, 
of the Senate, 



BOOK vil On the Gallic War. 357 

ut omnes juniores Italia? conjurarent, 

that all the younjf men of Italy sliould take military oath, 

instituit habere delectum tota provincia. Eae 

he resolved to hold a levy in all the province. These 

res celeriter perferuntur in Transalpinam Galliam. 
things quickly are spread into Transalpine Gaul 

Galli ipsi addunt et affingunt rumoribus, 

The Gauls themselves add to and enlarge the rumors, 

(quod res videbatur posc6re,) Caesarem 

(what the case seemed to demand.) (that) Caesar 

retineri urbano motu (sing.)> neque posse 

was detained by the city commotions. nor could 

venire ad exercitum in tantis dissentionibus. Impulsi 
come to the army in sucli dissensions Incited 

hac occasione, qui jam ante dolgrent 

by this opportunity. those who even before lamented 

se subjectos imperio Romani populi, 

(that) they were subjected to the dominion of the Roman people, 

incipiunt inire consilTa de bello liberius 

begin to enter into plans concerning war more freely 

atque audacius. Principes Galliae, 

and more daringly The principal men of Gaul, 

concilTis indictis inter se silvestribus 

councils having been convoked among themselves in woody 

ac remotis l6cis, queruntur de morte 

and remote places, complain concerning the death 

Acconis ; demonstrant liunc casum posse 

ofAcco; they represent (that) this fate might 

recidere ad ipsos ; miserantur communem 

occur to themselves ; they bewail the common 

fortunam Galliae; deposcunt omnibus pollicitationibus 
lot of Gaul; they demand by all promises 

ac praemiis, qui faciant initium belli, 

and rewards. (that) some make a beginning of war, 

et vindicent Galliam in libertatem 

and defend Gaul into [for] (its) freedom 

pericido siii capitis. Dicunt in primis 

at the peril of their lives. They say especially 



358 



Tlie Coinmentaf'ies of CcEsar. BOOK VII 



ut 

that 



ejus, 

of [for] this, 



Ut 

that 



rationem habendam 

care was to [must] be had 

Caesar intercludatur ab exercTtu, priusquam ^orurn 
Caesar should be cut off from the army, before their 

clandestina consilTa efferantur. Id esse facile, 

secret designs are reported. (That) this was easy. 

imperatore absente, 

tlie commander being absent, 

audeant egredi ex hibernis, neque possit 

dare to come forth from winter quarters. nor could 



quod 
because 



neque 

neither 



legiones, 
the legions. 



imperator pervenire ad legiones sine 
the commander arrive at the legions without 



Postremo praestare 

Finally (that) it was better 



interfici 
to be killed 



in 

in the 



quam 
than 

belli 

of [in J war 



non 

not 

que 
and 



recuperare 

to recover 



(their) 



vetgrem 

ancient 



praesidio. 
a guard. 

acie, 
battle-line, 

gloriam 

glory 



libertatem quam accep^rint a 

the liberty which they have received from 



majoribus. 
the forefathers. 



2. His rebus agitatis, Carnutes profitentur 

These things having' been discussed, the Carnutes proclaim 



se recusare nullum periculum 

(that) tliey to [will] refuse no danger 



communis salutis; 
of the common safety ; 



pollicentur se 

they promise (that) they 



causa 
for the sake 

principes 
the first 



ex 

from [of] 

quoniam 

since 



omnibus 
all 



facturos bellum ; et 

about to [would] make war ; and 



in praesentia possent non 

at the present (time) they could not 



cavere 
give security 

efFeratur, 

be divulged, 



inter se obsidibus, ne res 

among themselves by hostages, lest the matter 

petunt ut sanciatur jurejurando ac fide, 

they request that it be ratified by oath and pledge, 

militaribus signis collatis, (quo 

the military standards having been stacked together, (by which 



more eorum gravissima caerimonia continetur 

usage their most solemn ceremony is guarded [confirmed] 



BOOK VII 



On the Gallic War. 



359 



ne initio belli 

lest the commencement of the war 



deserantur 
they might be deserted 

collaudatis, 
having been applauded, 



reliquis. 
the others. 



a 

by 

jurejurando 
the oath 



omnibus 
all 

r6i 
movement 

concilTo. 
the council. 

3. Ubi 

When 



qui 

who 



ad6rant, 
were present, 



(and) 



constituto, 
having been determined, 



facto, 
having been made, 

Tunc, Carnutibus 
Then. the Carnutes 

dato ab 

having been given by 

temp6re ejus 

the time of [for] this 

disceditur ab 

they departed from 



6a dies venit, Carnutes, 
this day came, the Carnutes. 

Conconnetodumno ducibus, 
Conconnetodumnus as leaders, 



Cotuato et 

Cotuatus and 

desperatis hominibus, 



concurrunt 
assembled hastily 

dato, 

having been given. 



desperate men, 

Cenabum, signo 

at Cenabum [Orleans], the signal 

que interficiunt Romanos cives, 

and kill the Roman citizens. 



qui constit6rant Tbi 
who had settled there 



causa negotiandi, in 

for the purpose of trading, among 



US 
them 

qui 
who 

que 

and 



C. Fufium Citam, honestum Romanum equitem, 

C. Fufius Cita, an honorable Roman knight, 

praeerat frumentariae rei, jussu Caesaris; 

presided over the grain supply, by order of Caesar; 

diripiunt eorum bona. Fama celeriter 

they plunder their property. The report quickly 



perfertur ad omnes civitates 
is spread to all the states 



major 
a greater 



atque 
and 



illustrior 
more notable 



res 
affair 



Galliae. 
of Gaul. 

incidit, 

occurs. 



Nam 

For 



ubi 

when 



significant 
they indicat«( 



per 
(it) through 

deinceps 
in succession 



agros 
the lands 



que 
and 



regiones 
territories 



clamore ; 
by a shout ; 



alii 

soma 



ut 
as 



tunc 
then 



excipiunt hunc 
receive this, 

accidit. Nam 

happened. For 



et tradunt proxTmis, 

and transmit (it) to the nearest 

quae gesta essent 

what (things) had been don^ 



360 



The Commentaries of Ccesar. book vil 



Cenabi sole 

at Cenabum (Orleans] at sun 

audita sunt in finibus 

are lieard in the territories 

vigiliani confectam, 

watch is completed, 



oriente (abl. abs.),^ 
rise, 



Arvernoruni 

of the Arverni 



primam 

the first 



quod 

which 



est 

is 



ante 

before 

spatium 
a space 



[distance] 

passtium. 

paces. 



circiter 
of about 



centum 
a hundred 



et 

and 



sexaginta millium 



sixty 



Ibi 

There 



filius 
the son 



simili ratione Vircingetorix 
in like manner Vircingetorix, 

adolescens 

a young man 



thousand 



Arvernus, 
an Arvernian, 



Celtilli, 

of Celtillus, 



summae 
of the highest 



potentiae, 
power, 

(cujus pater obtinuerat principatum totius Galliae, 
(whose father had held the foremost place of all Gaul, 



et 

and 



ob 

for 



gam 

this 



causam, 
reason, 



quod 

that 



appetebat 

he was seeking 



power 



interfectus erat 
was put to death 



civitate), 
the state), 



convocatis 
having been called together 



ab 

by 

facile incendit 
he easily inflamed 



regnum 

sovereign 

siiis clientibus 
his clients 



consilio 

design 

Prohibetur 
He was prevented 



cognito 
having been known 



concurritur 
they rush 



ab Gobannitione suo 
by Gobannitio his 



eos. 

them. 

ad 
to 

patruo, 

uncle, 



Ejus 

His 

arma. 
arms. 

que 

and 



reliqtiis principibus, qui non 
the other chiefs, who were not 



existimabant 

thinking (that) 



banc fortunam 
this fortune [hazard] 



ex 

from 



oppido 
the town 



temptandam, expf^llitur 

ought to be attempted, he is expelled 

Gergovia. Tamen non 

(of) Gergovia. However he does not 



desistit, atque in agris habet delectum 

desist, and in the fields [country] holds a levy 



egentium ac perditorum. 
of needy and desperate (men). 



to, 

been collected. 



quoscunque 
whomever 



ex 

of 



Hac 

This 

civitate 
the state 



manu 
band 



coac- 
having 



adit 
he approaches 



BOOK VII On the Gallie War. 361 

perducit in suam sententiam. Hortatur, ut 

he briiitfs over to his opinion. He exhorts^, that 

ca])iant arma causa communis libertatis; 

tliey take arms for the sake of the common libcrly; 

(lue magnis copiis coactis, expellit ex 

and great forces having been collected, he expels from 

civitate suos adversarios a quibus ejectus erat 
the state his adversaries by whom he had been evicted 

paulo ante. Appellatur rex ab siiis; 

a little before. He is called king by Ins (followers); 

dimittit legationes quoquoversus ; obtestatur ut 
he sends embassies in every direction ; lie implores that 

mangant in fide. Celeriter adjungit sibi 

they remain in faith. Speedily he attaches to himself 

Senones, Parisios, Pictones, Cadurcos, Turones, 
the Senones. the Tarisii, the Pictones, the Cadurci. the Turones, 

Aulercos, Lemovices, Andos, que omnes reliquos, 
the Aulerci. the Lemovici. the Andes. and all the rest, 

qui attingunt Oceanum. Imperium defertur 

who border on the Ocean. The chief command is conferred 

ad 6um consensu omnium. Qua potestate 

on him by the consent of all. Which [This] power 

oblata, imp^rat obsTdes omnibus lis 

having been obtained, he demands hostages from all these 

civitatibus : jubet certum num^rum militum 

states: he orders a fixed number of soldiers 

celeriter adduci ad se ; constituit quantum 
speedily brought to him, he decrees what number 

armorum quaeque civitas efficTat domi, que 

of arms each state should prepare at home, and 

ante quod tempus ; in primis studet equitatui . 
before what time; especially he attends to the cavalry. 

Summae dib'gentiae addit summam severitatem 
To the highest diligence he adds the highest severity 

imperii ; magnitudine suppbcTi cogit 

of command; by the greatness of punishment he forces 

dubitantes. Nam majore debcto commisso 

the hesitating. For, a greater crime having been committed. 



362 The Commentaries of CcEsar. BOOK VII 

necat igni atque omnibus tormentis; 

he puts to death by fire and all (kinds of) tortures; 

de leviore causa, auribus desectis, aut 

for a slighter cause, the ears Ijavinj^ been cut off, or 

singulis oculis effosis, remittit 

a single eye (having been) put out, he sends (them) 

domum ; ut sint docuniento reli(iuis, et 

home ; that they may be (for) an example to the rest, and 

perterrCant alios magnitudiue poense. 

may terrify others by the greatness of llie punishment. 

5. Exercitu coacto celeriter his 

An army having been assembled quickly by these 

supplicTis, mittit Lucterium Cadurcum hominem 
punishments, he sends Lucterius the Cadurcan a man 

summae audacTse cum parte copiarum in 

of the highest daring with apart of the forces to 

Rutenos ; ipse proficiscitur in Bituriges. 

the Ruteni ; he himself sets out into the Bituriges. 

Ejus adventu Bituriges mittunt legatos ad 
On his arrival the Bituriges send ambassadors to 

iEduos, (in quorum fide $rant,) rogatum 

the .Edui, (in whose alliance they were,) to ask for 

subsidium, quo possint facilius 

aid. by which [that] they may be able the more easily 

sustinere copias hostium. ^dui de consilio 

to resist the forces of the enemy. The ^Edui by the advice 

legatorum, quos Caesar reliquerat ad 

of the lieutenants, whom Caesar had left at [with] 

exercitum, mittunt copias equitatus que peditatGs 
the army, send forces of cavalry and foot 

Biturigibus ; qui qiium venissent ad flumen 
to the Bituriges ; who when they had arrived at the river 

Ligerim, quod dividit Bituriges ab v^duis, 
Loire, which divides the Bituriges from the ^dui, 

morati paucos dies Tbi, neque ausi 

having delayed a few days there, nor having dared 

transire flumen, revertunt domum; que renunciant 
to cross the river, they return home ; and they report 



BOOK VII On the Gallic War. 363 

nostris legatis se veiitos perfidiam 

to our lieutenants (that) they having feared the treachery 

Biturigum revertisse ; quibus cognoverint 

of the Bituriges to have [had] returned ; to whom tliey had ascertained 

id consilii fuisse, ut si transissent 

this plan to have [had] been, that if they crcGsed 

flumen, ex una parte ipsi, altera 

the river, on the one side they [the Bituriges] on the other 

Arverni circumsisterent se. Ne fecgrint 

Uie Arverni would surround them. Whether they did 

id de 6a causa, quam pronunciarunt 

this from [for] this reason, which they alleged 

legatis, an adducti perfidia, quod nihil 

to the lieutenants, or were induced by treachery, because nothing 

constat nobis, non videtur esse ponendum 

is evident to us, it does not seem (best) to be put down 

pro certo. Biturges 6orum discessu statim 
for certain. The Bituriges on their retreat immediately 

conjungunt se cum Arvernis. 

unite themselves with the Arverni. 

6. His rebus nunciatis Caesari, in Italiam, 

These things having been reported to Caesar, in Italy, 

quum jam ille intellig^ret urbanas res 

when already he understood (that) the city affairs 

pervenisse in commodiorem statum virtute^ 
[had come into a more satisfactory state by the conduct 

Cn. Pompeii, profectus est in Transalpinam Galliam. 
ofCn. Pompey, he set out for Transalpine Gaul. 

Quum venisset eo afficiebatur magna 

When he had arrived there he was affected with the great 

difficultate, qua ratione posset pervenire 

diflficulty, in [as to] what manner he might reach 

ad exercitum. Nam si arcess6ret legiones in 
the army. For if he should summon the legions into 

Provinciam, intelligebat dimicatura 

the province, he was understanding (that) they about to [must] fight 

prcelio in itinere, se absente ; si ipse 

in battle on the march. he being absent; if he himself 



364 



The Commentaries of Ccesar. BOOK VII 



contend?ret ad exercitum, videbat, suam 

should liaslcn to the army, it was seeming (that) his 



committi 

to [could] be committed 



ne 

not 



lis, 
to those, 



tempore viderentur 

time were appearing (to be) 



salutein recte 
safety propeily 

quidem qui 60 

even who at this 

pacati. 

peaceable. 

7. Interim Lucterius Cadurcus missus 

In the mean time Lucterius the Cadurcan having been sent 

in Rutenos conciliat earn civitatem Arvernis, 

to the Kuteni gains over this state to the Arverni. 

Progressus in Nitiobriges et Gabalos, accipit 
Having marched into the Nitiobriges and Gabali. he receives 

obsides ab utrisque ; et magna manu co- 

hostages from each one ; and a large band having been 

acta, contendit fac6re eruptionem in Provinciam 
collected, he hastens to make an invasion into the province 

versus Narbonem. 
toward Narbo. 



Caesar existimavit, 
Caesar thought. 



(other) 



consiliis, 

plans. 



Qua re nunciata, 

Which [This] thing having been reported^ 

antevertendum omnibus 
that (it) to [must] be preferred to all 

ut proficlsceretur Narbonem. 
that lie should set out to Narbo. 



Quum venisset eo, confirmat timentes, constituit 
When he had arrived there, he encourages the timid, he places 

praesidia in provincialibus Rutenis, Volcis 

garrisons among the provincial Kuteni, the Volci 

Arecomicis, Tolosatibus, que circum Narbonem, quae 
Arecomici, the Tolosates, and about Narbo, which 

loca grant finitima hostibus ; jubet partem copiarum 
places were near the enemy; he orders apart of the forces 

ex Provincia que supplementum, quod addux^rat 
from the province and the recruit&, which he had brouglit 

ex Italia convenire in Helvios qui contingunt 
from Italy to assemble among the Helvii who border on 



fines 
the territories 



Arvernorum. 
of the Arverni. 



BOOK VII On the Gallic War, 365 

8. His rebus comparatis, Lucterius jam 

These things having been arranged. Lucterius now 

represso et remoto, qu6d putabat 

having been checked and removed, because he thought (it) 

periculosum intrare intra praesidia, pro- 

dangerous to enter within [among] the garrison, he [Cyesar] 

ficiscitur in Helvios. Etsi mons Cebenna, 

marches into the Helvii Although mount Cevennes, 

qui discludit Arvernos ab Helviis impediebat 
which separates the Arverni from the Ilelvii was barring 

iter altissima nive durisstmo temp6re 

the road with very deep snow at the severest time Iseason) 

anni ; tamen nive sex p6duni in altitudinem 
of tlie year : however the snow six feet in height [depth] 

discussa, atque viis ita patefactis, 

having been removed, and tlip roads thus having been opened, 

pervenit ad fines Arvernorum sunamo 

he arrives at the territories of the Arverni by the utmost 

labore militum. Quibus oppressis, 

labor of his soldiers Who [They] (having been) astounded, 

inopinantibus, quod existimabant se 

taken unawares, because they were thinking (that they) themselves 

munitos Cebenna ut muro, ac 60 

(were) defended by the Cevennes as by a wall, and in this 

temp6re anni semitae unquam patufirant 

season of the year the paths never had lain open 

homini ne singulari quidem, imp^rat 

to a man (not) by himself even, he [Caesar] commands 

equitibus, ut vagentur quam latissime 

the cavalry. that they should roam as far 

possent, et inftrant quam maximum 

as they could, and should occasion the very greatest 

terrorem hostibus. Haec celeriter perferuntur 

fear to the enemy. These (things) are quickly announced 

ad Vercingetorigem fama ac nunciis ; quem 

to Vercingetorix by report and messengers; whom 

omnes Arverni perterriti circumsistunt atque 
all the Arverni alarmed beset and 



366 



The Commentaries of Ccesai-. BOOK vii 



obsecrant 
entreat 

patiatur 

suffer 



lit 

tliat 



consulat 

he look out 



SUIS 
for their 



fortunis, 



., neu 
property, nor 



se 

themselves 



(liripi 
to be plundered 



praesertim qfium \id6at 
especially when he sees (tliat) 



ab 

by 

omne bellum 



latum ad se. 

ferred to themselves. 



all 

Percibus 

By the entreaties 



the war 



liostibus, 
the enemy 

trans- 
was trans- 



quorum per- 

ol" whom having been 



motus ille 

stirred he 



movet 
moves 



(his) 



castra 
camp 



ex 

from. 



versus in 
towards 

9. At 

But 

quod 
because 



Arvernos. 
the Arverni. 



Caesar 

Caesar 



moratus 
having delayed 



biduum 

two days 



in 

in 



praeceperat 
he had anticipated 



opinione, 
in IthroughJ surmise, 



Biturigibus 
the Bituriges 



lis l6cis 

these places 

haec 

(that) these 



(things) 

discedit 
he departs 



Ventura usu de Vercingetorige, 

would come in use [fact] regarding Vercingetorix, 



ab 
from 



exercitu 

the army 



per 

(as) for 



supplement! 
recruits 

adolescentem, 
a young man. 



que 
and 



equitatus ; 
cavalry : 



causam 
the cause 

praefecit 
he placed 



cogendi 
of raising 

Brutum, 
Brutus. 



lis copiis ; monet hunc, ut 

over these forces ; he instructs him. that 



equites pervagentur quam latissime in 

the cavalry should range about as far a£ possible in 



omnes 

all 



partes, 
directions. 



se daturum 

(that) he about to [would] take 

absit ab castris ne longius 

(that) he may be absent from the camp no longer (than) 

tridiio. His rebus constitutis, 

three days. These things having been arranged. 



opgram 
care 



pervenit 

he arrived 



Viennam 

at Vienna [Vienne] 



maximis itineribus quam 
by as great marches as 



potest, 

he was able, 
recentum 

the fresh 



suis inopinantibus. Ibi nactus 

his (men) not expecting (him) There having'found 

equitatum, quem prapmiserat 66 multis 
[newly enrolled] cavalry, which he had sent there many 



BOOK VII On the Gallic War. 367 

diebus ante itingre intermisso neque 

days before the march havinjf been interrupted neither 

diurno neque nocturno contendit per fines 

by day nor by night he liastens through the territories 

^duorum in Linj^ones, ubi duae legiones 
ofthe^Edui into the Lingones, where two legions 

hiemabant, ut si etiam quid consilTi de 

were wintering, that if also any plan respecting 

sua salute iniretur ab ^duis praecurreret, 

his safety was entered into by the Jidui he might anticipate 

celeritate. Quum pervenisset e5 mittit 
(it), by (his) quickness. When he had arrived there he sends 

ad reliquas legiones, que cogit omnes in unum 
to the other legions, and gathers all into one 

l6cum, prius quam possit nunciari 

place, before (that) it vvas possible [could] (to) be announced 

Arvernis de ejus adventu. Hac re 

to the Arverni concerning his arrival. This thing 

cognita, Vercingetorix rursus reducit 

having been known. Vercingetorix again marches back (his) 

exercTtum in Bituriges, atque inde profectus 
army to the Bituriges. and thence having set out 

Gorgobinam, oppidum Boiorum, quos 
to Gorgobina, a town oftheBoii, whom (having been) 

victos Helvetico proeho, Caesar collocaverat 

conquered in the Helvetian battle, Caesar had placed 

ibi, que attribu6rat ^duis; instituit oppugnare. 
there, and had assigned tothe^dui; he resolved to assault (it), 

10. Haec res afFerebat magnam difficultatem 

This aifair was causing great perplexity 

Caesari ad capiendum consilium, si contin- 

to Caesar for taking [forming] apian, if he should 

6ret legiones in uno loco relupiam partem 

keep together the legions in one place the remaining part 

hiemis, ne, stipendiariis ^^dui expugnatis, 

of the winter, lest, the tributaries oflhe^Edui having been stormed, 

cuncta Gallia deficeret, quod videretur 

all Gaul might revolt, because it would seem (that) 



368 The Commentaries of CcEsar. BOOK Vll 

nullum praesidium positum esse in 60 

no protection about to [could) be placed in him 

amicis ; sin educ6ret maturius ex 

for (his) friends; but if he should lead too early from 

hibernis, ne laboraret ab re frumentaria, 

winter quarters, lest he be troubled by the grain supply, 

subvectionibus (pi.) duris. V^isum est pra?stare 

transportation (being) difficult. It seemed to be better 

tamen perpeti omnes difficultates, quam tanta 
however to endure all difficulties, than so great 

contumelia accepta, alienare voluntates 

an insult having been received, to alienate (the) good will 

omnium suorum. Itaque cohortatus ^duos 

of all his (allies). Therefore having exhorted the ^dui 

de supportando commeatu praemittit ad Boios, 
about transporting provisions he sends before to the Boii, 

qui doceant de stio adventu, que 

(those) who may inform (them) of his arrival, and 

hortentur ut maneant in fide, atque 

he exhorts (them) that they remain in alliance, and 

sustineant impgtum hostium magno animo. 

resist the attack of the enemy with great courage [spirit]. 

Diiabus legionibus, atque impedimentis totius 
Two legions, and the baggage of the entire 

exercitus relictis, Agendici, proficiscitur 

army having been left, at Agendicum [Sens], he marches 

ad Boios. 
to the Boii. 

11. Quum altero die venisset ad Vellaunodunum 

When on the next day he had come to Vellaunodunum 

oppidum Senonum, ne relinqueret quem 
[Beauns] a town of the Senones, lest he might leave any 

hostem post se, instituit oppugnare, 
enemy behind him, he resolved to attack (it), (and) 

quo uteretur expeditiore re frumentaria; que 
that he might use more easily the grain supply , and 

biduo circumvallavit id, tertio die legatis 
in two days he invested it, on the third day ambassadors 



BOOK VII On the Gallic War. 369 

missis ex oppTdo de deditione, 

having been sent from the town concerning' a suirendcr, 

jubet arma proferri, jumenta produci, 

he orders the arms to be brouglit out, the cattle to be produced, 

sexcentos obsides dari. Relinquit C. Trebonium, 
six hundred hostages to be given. He leaves C. Trebonius, 

legatum, qui conficeret 6a. Ipse 

(his) lieulenaut, who should execute these things. He himseif 

proficiscitur, ut fac6ret iter quam primuni 

sets out, that he may make the march as soon as possible 

Cenabum Carnutum ; qui, nuncio de 

to Cenabum of the Carnutes ; who, the information of 

oppugnatione Vellaunoduni turn primiim 

the siege of Vcllaunodun.mi then first (immediately) 

allato, coniparabant praesidTum causa 

having been brought, were preparing a garrison for the purpose 

tuendi Cenabi, quod mitterent eo qiium 

of defending Cenabum, which they might send there as 

existiniarent earn rem ire ductum 

they thought this affair was to be drawn out 

longiiis. Pervenit hue biduo. Castiis 

longer. He arrived there in three days . The camp 

positis ante oppidum, exclusus 

having been placed before the town, (being) prevented 

temp6re diei, difFert oppugnationem in 

by the time of day, he defers the at tack to 

postSrum ; imperat militibus quaeque 

the next (day); he demands from the soldiers whatever 

sint Usui ad eam rem ; et quod pons 

maybe of use for this affair; and as the bridge 

fluminis Liggris continebat oppidum Cenabum; 

of the river Loire was joining the town (of) Cenabum; 

veritus ne profuggrent ex oppido noctu, 
having feared lest they might flee from the town at night, 

jubet diias legiones excubare in armis. 

he orders two legions to keep watch under arms. 

Cenabenses egressi ex oppTdo silentio 

The people of Cenabum having departed from the town in silence 



370 The Commentaries of Ccesar. BOOK vii 

paulo ante mediam noctem cceperunt transire 
a little before mid night bef?an to cross 

flumen. Qua re nunciata per 

the river. Which [Tins] thiiifj having been announced by 

exploratores, Caesar, portis incensis 

the scouts, Caesar, the gates having been set afire 

intromittit lejjiones, quas juss^rat esse 

sends in the legions, which he had ordered to be 

expeditas, atqiie potitur oppido (abl.); perpaucis^^ 
ready. and seizes the town ; very few 

ex numero hostium desideratis quin 

from [of] the number of the enemy having escaped but that 

cuncti caperentur, quod angustiae (pi ) pontis 
the whole were taken, because the narrowness of the bridge 

atque itinerum intercluserant fufjam multitudinis. 
and of the roads had cut off the flight of the multitude. 

DirTpit atque incendit oppidum ; donat praedam 
He pillages and burns the town, he gives the booty 

militibus; transducit exercitum Ligerim, atque 

to the soldiers , he leads his army over the Loire, and 

pervenit in fines Biturio^ium. 

arrives in the territories of the Bituriges. 

12. Vercin«?etorix, iibi coofnovit de adventu 
Vercingetorix, when he learned of the arrival 

Caesaris, desistit oppuffnatione, atque proficiscitur 
of Caesar, desists from the siege, and marches 

obviam Caesari. lile institu^rat oppugnare 

to meet Caesar. He [Caesar] had begun to besiege 

Noviodunum, oppidum Bituriffum, positum 

Noviodunum [Saucerre] a town of the Bituriges, situated 

in viam. Ex quo oppido quum legati 

on the road. From which town when ambassadors 

venissent ad 6um oratum ut ifjnosceret sibi, 
had come to him to entreat tliat he would pardon them, 

que consuleret suae vitae (sing.)» ut conficSret 

and would spare their lives, that he might accomplish 

reliquas res celeritate, qua pleraque 

the remaining affairs with the speed, by which the most 



I 



BOOK VII On the Gallic War. 371 

§rat consecutus, jubet arma proferri 

had been effected, he orders the arms to be brought forth 

equos produci, obsides dari. Parte 

the horses to be produced, (and) hostages to be given. A part 

obsTdum jam transdita, quum reli- 

of the hostages now having been surrendered, while the other 

qua administrarentur, centurionibus et paucis 

things were being executed, the centurions and a few 

militum intromissis, qui conquirerent 

of the soldiers having been introduced, who should collect 

arma que jumenta, equitatus hostium est 

the arms and the horses, the cavalry of the enemy was 

visus procul, qui antecesserat agmen 

seen at a distance, which had proceded tlie army 

Vercingetorigis ; quem atque sTmul oppidani 

of Vercingetonx ; which as soon as the townsmen 

conspexerunt, atque venerunt in spem auxilTi 
had seen, and had come to the hope of aid, 

clamore sublato coeperunt cap^re arma, 

a shout having been raised they began to take arms, 

claudgre portas, complere murum. Centuriones 

to shut the gates, (and) to lill the walls. The Centurions 

in oppido, quum intellexissent ex significatione 
in the town. when they had understood from the signals 

Gallorum aliquid novi consilii iniri ab 

of the Gauls (that) some (of) new plans was formed by 

lis, gladiis districtis occupaverunt 

them, their swords having been drawn they took possession of 

portas, que receperunt omnes siios incoliimes. 

the gates, and received all their (men) safe. 

13. Caesar jubet equitatum educi ex castris, 
Caesar orders the cavalry to be led from the camp. 

que committit equestre proelium. Siiis jnm 

and joins in a cavalry battle. His (men) being now 

laborantibus submittit circiter quadringentos 

hard pressed he sends about four hundred 

Germanos equites, quos ab initio instit- 

German horsemen, whom from the beginning he had 



372 TJic ConrnoiijvLcS of Ctcsar. BOOK vil 

u6rat habere cum se. Galli potuerunt 

determined to keep with himself. The Gauls could 

non sustinere eorum impgtum; atque conjecti 

not sustain their attack . and having been thrown 

in fun^am, receperunt se ad agmen, multis 

into flight, betook themselves to the army. many 

amissis. Quibus profligatis, oppidani 

having been lost. Who [These] having been routed, the townsmen 

rursus perterriti, perduxerunt ad Caesarem eos 
again alarmed, led out to Caesar those 

comprehensos quorum opera existimabant 
(having been) arrested by whose means they were thinking 

plebem concitatam, que dediderunt sese 
(that) the people were incited, and surrendered themselves 

ei. Quibus rebus confectis, Caesar 

to him. Which things having been accomplished, Caesar 

profectus est ad oppidum AvarTcum, quod 

marched to the town (of) Avaricum [Bourges], which 

§rat maximum que munitissimum in finibus 

was the largest and best fortified in the territories 

Biturigum, atque fertillissima regione agri, 
of the Bituriges, and in a most fertile district of country, 

quod 60 oppido recepto, confidebat 

because this town having been taken, he was confident 

se redacturum civitatem Biturigum 

(that) he about to [would] reduce the state of the Bituriges 

in potestatem. 

into (his) power. 

14. Vercingetorix, tot continuis incommodis 

Vercingetorix. so many continual reverses 

Vellaunoduni, Cenabi, Novioduni, ac- 

at Vellaundunum, Cenabum, (and) Noviodumim, having been 

ceptis convocat suos ad concilium ; docet 

received calls his (followers) to a council; he shows 

' bellum gerendum esse longe alia 

(that) "the war to (must] be carried on with a far difTerent 

ratione, atque sit gestum antea, huic r?i 

plan, than it had been carried on before, to this thing 



\ 



BOOK YJI 0?i the Gallic War. 373 

studendum omnibus modis, ut Romani 

it must be attended by all means. tliat the Romans 

prohibeantur pabulatione, et commeatu : 

should be proliibited from fora^inj?, and from provisions (tliat) 

id esse facile, (luod ipsi abuiident e(iuitatii, 

this to be [was] easy. because they abound in cavalry, 

et quod subleventur temp6re anni ; 

and because they are assisted by the season of the year ; 

pabulum posse non secari ; hostes 

(that) foraere could not (to) be cut ; (that) the enemy 

dispersos necessario petere ex spdifieiis; 

dispersed (must) necessarily (to) seek (it) from the buildings; 

omnes hos posse quotidie deleri ab 

(that) all these could daily (to) be destroyed by 

equitibus. Praeter^a causa salutis commoda 

the horsemen. Moreover for the sake of safety the advantages 

familiaris r6i(sing.) negligenda ; 

of private affairs to [mustM)e disregarded ; (that) 

oportere vicos atque apdificia incen- 

to be (it was] necessary (for) the villages and houses to be 

di, hoc est, spatio a Boia quoquoversiis, 

burnt, that is, in a space from Boia in every direction 

qu5 videaiitur posse adire causa 

where (the Romans) might seem to be able to go for the purpose 

pabulandi. Harum rerum suppetere copiam 

of foraging. Of these things there is at hand an abundance 

ipsis, quod, in quorum finibus helium 

for themselves. because, in whose territories war 

geratur, eorum opibus subleventur; 

may be waged. by their means they would be assisted ; (that) 

Romanos aut non laturos inopiam, 

the Romans either not to be about to [would not) bear privation, 

aut ])rogressuros longiijs a 

or (that they) to be about to Iwould] proceed farther from 

castris cum magno periculo; neque 
the camp with great danger; nor 

esse, ne interficiant ipsos 

difference. if they kill them 





inter- 


to be f 


was it) any 


ne 


extiant 


or 


strip away 



374 The Commentaries of CcEsar. BOOK VII 

impedimentis, qiiibus amissis, helium possit 
(their) baggage, which having been k).st, war can 

non fferi. Praeter(\'i, oportere 

not (to) be waged. Moreover, (that it) to be [was] necessary 

oppida incendi, (juae sint non tuta ab 
(for) the towns to be burnt, wliich were not safe from 

omni pericillo munitione et natura loci; 

all danger by fortifications and by the nature of the place; 

neu sint suis receptacula ad 

that neither they may be for our (people) retreats for 

detrectandam militiam neu proposita Romanis 
evading military service nor offered to the Romans 

ad tollendam copTam commeatQs que praedam. 
for taking away an abundance of provisions and plunder. 

Si haec vldeantur gravTa aut aceiba, debere(inf.) 

If these (things) seemed severe or cruel they ought 

aestimare, ilia multo graviiis 

to consider, (that) those things (are) much more severe (that 

libros conjuges abstrahi in 

their) children (and) wives to [should) be dragged into 

servitutem, ipsos interfici ; quae 

slavery, (and they) themselves (to be) slain ; which 

sit necesse accid§re victis. 

would be certain to befall the conquered. 

15. Hac sententia probata consensu 

This opinion having been approved by the consent 

omnium, uno die amplius vitrinti urbes Biturigum 
of all, in one day more than twenty cities of the Bituriges 

incenduntur. Hoc idem fit in reliquis civitatibus. 
are burned. This same is done in the remaining states 

In omnibus partibus incendia conspiciuntur ; quae 
In all parts confl'^grations are seen ; which 

etsi omnes ferebant cum majjno dolore, tamen 
although all were bearing with great grief. yet 

proponebant sibi hoc solaci, 

they were placing before themselves this (as) a consolation, 

confidebant qu6d se, victoria prope 

they were trusting that they, the victory being nearly 



BOOK VII On the Gallic War. 375 

explorata, celeriter recuperaturos amissa. 

assured, (luickly about to [would] recover (their) losses. 

Deliberatur in communi concilio de Avarlco, 
It was deliberated in general council about Avaricum, 

placeat, incendi 

(whether) it was pleasing, (that it) (to) [should] be burnt 

an defend! . Bituriges procunibunt 

or (to) be defended. The Bituriges fell 

ad pedes omnibus Gallis, 

at the feet (of) all the Gauls, (that) 

ne cogerentur succendfire sfiis 

they should not be forced to set fire with their own 

manibus pulcherrimam urbem prope totius Gallise, 

liands (to) the most beautiful town nearly of all Gaul, 

quae sit et praesidio et ornamento civitati ; 

which was both (for) a protection and an ornament to the state; 

dicunt se defensuros facile 

they say (that) they about to [would] defend (it) easily 

natura loci, quod circumdata prope 

by the nature of the place, because (it was) surrounded almost 

ex omnibus partibus flumine et palude; habeat 

on all sides by the river and by a marsh ; (that) it h;ui 

unum et perangustum aditum. Venia 

one [a single] and very narrow entrance. Permission 

datur petentibus, Vercingetorige prim6 dissuadente, 

is given to those petitioning. Vercingetorix at first opposing, 

post concedente et ipsorum percibus et 

afterwards conceding both because of their entreaties and 

misericordia volgi. Idonei defensores 

because of compassion to [for] the multitude. Suitable defenders 

deliguntur oppido. 
are selected for the town. 

16. Vercingetorix subsequitur Caesarem minoribus 
Vercingetorix follows near Caesar by lesser 

itineribus, et deligit locum castris munitum 
marches. and selects a place for the camp defended 

paludibus que silvis, longe ab Avarico quindecim 
by marshes and woods, distant from Avaricum fifteen 



876 The Commentaries of Ccesar. BOOK vii 

millia passuum. Ibi cotrnoscebat per certos 
thousand paces There he was learning by faithful 

exploratores in singula temp5ra (pi.) di6i quae 

scouts at each time [hour] of the day what things 

agerentur (pi ) ad Avaricum ; et imperabat 

were done at Avaricum and he was commanding 

quid vellet fieri; observabat omnes nostras 

what lie wished to be done . he watched all our 

pabulationes que frumentationes, que quum 
foragings and corn-raids and when 

necessario procederent longius, adoriebatur 
they had necessarily proceeded rather far. he was attacking 

disperses, que afficiebat magno incommodo 
(them) dispersed and was inflicting great injury. 

(dat.); etsi occurrebatur ab nostris 

although (this) was obviated by our (men) 

quantum poterat provideri ratione, ;it 

as much as (it) could (to) be provided against by foresight tliat 

iretur (pass, sing.)^ incertis temporibus que 

they should go at uncertain times and 

diversis itineribus, 
bydiflfeient routes 

17. Castris positis ad earn partem 

The camp having been pitched at this part 

oppidi, quae intermissa a flumine et 

of the town. which having been left by the river and 

palude, ut diximus supra, habebat angustum 
marsh, as we have said above, was having a narrow 

aditum, Caesar coepit apparare aggerem, ag^re 
approach, Caesar began to prepare the mound. to move 

vingas, constitiiere duas turres ; nam 

the shelters (and) to construct two towers. for 

natura loci prohibebat circumvallara. 

the nature of the place was preventing to blockade [investment]. 

Non destitit adhortari Boios atque T^duos de 
He did not cease to exhort the Boii and iEdui about 

frumentaria re; alteri quorum, quod agebant 
the corn supply . the latter of whom, because they acted 



BOOK VII On the Gallic War. 877 

nullo studio, adjuvabant non multuni ; alteri non 

with no zeal, were assistirifr not niucli the others not 

magnis facultatibus, quod civitas 6rat exigua et 

with great means because the state was small and 

infirma, consumpserunt celerTter c}uod habuerunt. 

weak they consumed (luickly what they had. 

Exercitu affecto summa difficultate 

The army (having been) afflicted with the greatest want 

frumentarie rei, tenuitate Boiorum, indiligentia 
of provisions. by the poverty oftheBoii. by the negligence 

^duorum, incendiis aedificiorum, usque 

ofthe^dui, (and) by the burning of the buildings, even 

eo ut milites caruerint frumento 

to this [so] that the soldiers wanted corn (for) 

complures dies, et pecore adacto e 

many days, and cattle having been driven from 

longinquioribus vicis, sustentarent extremam 
the more distant villages. they satisfied the extreme 

famem ; tamen nulla vox audita est ab iis 

hunger , yet not a word was heard from them 

indigna majestate Romaiii populi et 

unworthy the majesty of the Roman people and (their) 

superioribus victoriis. Quin etiam quum Ctrsar 

former victories. Moreover also when C;esar 

appellaret singiilas legiones in op^re, et diceret 
addressed the several legions at work and said 

se dimissurum oppugnationem, si ferrent 
(that) he would abandon the siege, if they bore 

iopTam acerbius ; universi petebant ab 

the want too severely ; all to a man were begging from [of] 

^o ne fac&ret id ; se sic 

him that he would not do this: " they themselves so 

meruisse complures annos, illo imperante, 

to have [had] served very many years. he commanding, 

ut acciperent nullam ignominiam nunquam 

that they should sutler no dishonor never 

discederent, re infecta; se 

had they withdrawn, the thing (having been) unaccomplished; they 



378 



The Commentar^ies of Ccesar. BOOK vil 



laturos 
about to [would] bear 

relinquissent 
they should abandon 



hoc 

this (as) 



l6co 
an occasion 



iffnoniinia, 
of dishonor, 



SI 
if 



oppuffiiationem 

the sicire 



inceptam ; 

commenced . 



stare perferre omnes acerbitates, quam 

was) preferable to endure all hardships than 

non parentarent Romanis civibus, 
they should not avenge the Roman citizens 



interissent 
had perished 



perfidia 
by the perfidy 



Gallorum 
of the Gauls 



Cenabi, 
at Cenabum. 



prae- 

to be [it 

(that) 

qui 
who 

Haec 

These 



6adem 

same (things) 

tribunis, ut 
tribunes, that 



centurionibus 
to the centurions 



que 
and 



mandabant 
they were consigning 

per eos deferrentur 

through them they might be communicated 



ad 
to 



Caesarem. 

Caesar. 



18. Quum turres jam appropinquassent muro, 
When the towers had already approached the wall, 

Caesar cognovit ex captivis Vercingetorigem, 

Caesar ascertained from the prisoners (that) Vercingetorix, 



pabiilo consumpto, 

the forage having been consumed. 



movisse 
to have [had] moved 



castra propius AvarTcum, atque 
camp nearer to Avaricum, and (that) 



ipsum, 

he. 



(his) 

cum 
with 



equitatu 
the cavalry 



que 

and 



proeliari inter 
to fight among 

profectum 
to have [had] marched 



expeditis, qui 

the light armed, who 

equites, causa 

the horsemen, for the purpose 



consuessent 

were accustomed 

insidiarum 

of ambuscades 



eo, 

thither. 



quo 

where 



arbitrabatur 
he was thinking 



(that) 

nostros venturos pabulatum post6ro 

our (men) about to [would] come to forage on the following 

die. Quibus rebus cognitis profectus 

day. Which [These] things having been known having set out 

silentio media nocte perv6nit ad castra hostium 
in silence at mid night, he arrived at the camp of the enemy 

mane. Illi, adventu Caesaris celeriter 

early in the morning. They, the arrival of Caesar speedily 



I 



BOOK VII On the Gallic War. 879 

cognito per exploratores, abdiderunt 

having been learned tliiouj?li seouts, concealed 

carros (jue sua impedimenta in arctiores silvas, 
the wagons and their baggage in the thicker woods, 

instruxerunt omnes copias in edito 

(and) drew up all (their) forces on an elevated 

at que aperto loco. Qua re nuiiciata, 

and open place. Which thing having been announced, 

Caesar celeriter jussit sarcinas conferri, 

Caesar quickly ordered the packs to be collected together, 

arma expediri. 

(and) the arms to be got ready. 

19. Erat collis leniter acclivis ab infimo. 
There was a hill gently sloping from below. 

Difficilis atque impedita palus cingebat liunc 

A difficult and impassable swamp was surrounding this 

ex fere omnibus partibus, non latior 

on nearly all sides, not wider than 

quinquaginta pedibus. Hoc colle, pontibus 

fifty feet. On this hill, the bridges 

interruptis, Galli continebant se, 

having been broken down, the Gauls stationed themselves^ 

fiducia loci; que distributi generatim 

in confidence of the place . and, arranged in tribes 

in civitates, obtinebant omnia vada 

according to their states, they were holding all the shallow: 

ac saltus ejus paludis certis custodibus; sic 
and passes of this swamp by trusty guards ; thus 

parati animo, ut, si Romani conarentur 

prepared in mind, that, if the Romans should attempt 

perrumpere earn paludem, premerent, 
to break through this swamp, they would crush (them), 

ex . superiore loco, haesitantes ; ut 

from the higher station, while sticking fast : so that 

qui viderent propinquitatem loci, 

those who should see the nearness of the position, 

existimarent paratos ad dimicandum 

would think (that) they were prepared for fighting 



380 The Commentaries of CcBsar. BOOK vil 

prope aequo Marte ; qui perspicgrent 

almost on equal terms ; (but) those who perceived 

iniquitateni conditionis, cognoscerent 

the disadvantage of the condition [place], would understand (that) 

sese ostentare inani simulatione. Caesar 

they (to) make show with an empty pretense. Caesar 

edocet milites indi^nantes, quod hostes 

shows the soldiers indignant, because the enemy 

possent ferre suum conspectum, tantulo spatio 
could endure their sight, so small a space 

interjecto, et exposcentes signum 

(having been) interposed. and earnestly demanding the signal 

proelii, quanto detrimento, et morte 

of [for] battle, with how great loss, and with the death 



quot 


fortium 


virorum 


sit necesse 


of how many 


brave 


men 


it would be necessary 


constare 


victoriam ; 


quos ' 


quum videret sic 


to assure 


the victory ; 


whom 


since he saw so 



paratos animo, ut recusarent nullum periculum 
prepared in mind, that they refused no danger 

pro sua laude, se debere condemnari summse 
for his glory, he ought to be condemned for the greatest 

iniquitatis, nisi hab6at eorum vitam cariorem 
injustice, unless he holds their lives dearer 

sua salute. Consolatus milites sic, 

than his safety Having consoled the soldiers thus, 

reducit in castra eodem die ; instituit 

he returns to the camp on the same day ; he undertook 

administrare reliqua, quae pertinebant ad 

to perform the other things, which were belonging to 

oppugnationem oppidi. 

the siege of the town. 

20. Vercingetorix, quum redisset ad stios 

Vercingetorix, aa hen he had returned to his (men) 

insimulatus proditionis, quod movisset castra 

was accused of treason. because he had moved (his) camp 

propius Romanos, quod discessisset cum omni 
nearer to the Romans, because he had departed with all 



BOOK VII 



On the Gallic War. 



381 



equitatu ; (luod reliiuiuisset tantas copTas sine 

the cavalry; because lie had left such fjreat forces williout 

imperio ; quod ejus discessu Romani venissent 
a command ; because on his departure the Romans liad come 

taiita opportuiiitate, et celeritate ; omnia 

with so great timeliness, and celerity; (that) all 



haec potuisse non 

this could not 



accidere 
(to) happen 

18 



fortuito, 
accidentally, 



aut 
or 



sine consilTo; ilium malle habere regnum 

without desifjn; (that) lie to prefer to have the sovereignty 



Galliae concessu Caesaris, quam 

of Gaul with the permission ofCiesar, than 

beneficio Accusatus tali modo, 

favor. Having been accused in sucli manner, 

ad haec Quod movisset castra, 

to tliese (things) "That he had moved the camp, 



ipsorum 

by their 

respondit 
he replied 

factum 
it was done 



inopia pabuli, ipsis etiam hortantibus, quod 

by want of forage, they themselves even urging, that 



accessisset 

he had approached 



proj)ius 
nearer 



Ronianos, 
the Romans, 



persuasum 

he was induced 



opportunitate loci, 

by the advantage of the place. 



(lui defend^ret, se ipsum 
which would protect, its own self 



vero 
indeed 



ope ram 

the service 



munitione ; 

by the defence; (that) 

debuisse (inf.) neque desiderari in 
ought not to be wanted in 

fuisse utilem 



ecjuitum 

of the horsemen 

palustri loco, 
a marshy place. 



et 



and 



they to have been [were] 



useful 



is impelleretur ad dimicandum 
he might be driven to lighting 



quo 
where 



illic, 
there, 

profecti sint ; se consulto discedentem 

they had gone, (that) he on purpose (when) departing 

tradidisse summam imperii nulli, ne 

to have [had] conferred the chief command on no one, lest 

studio multi- 
by the zeal of the 

tudinis ; cui rgj, videret omnes studere, 

multitude; to which thing, it seemed all to be [was] eager, 

propter mollitiem animi, quod possent 

on account of (their) weakness of mind, because they could 



382 The Commentaries of Ccesar. BOOK "^. ii 

non diutius ferre laborem. Si Romani 

no longer endure labor. If the Romans 

intervenerint casu gratiam habendam 

had come up by c-liance, that, thanks must be given 

fortunae, si vocati indicio alicujus, huic,^^ 

to fortune, if invited by the information of any one to him, 

quod et potu6riiit cognoscere eorum paucitatem 
because they could both (to) perceive their small number 

ex superiore loco, et despicgre 

from the higher ground, and (could) (to) despise 

virtutem qui non ausi dimicare turpiter 

the courage (of those) who not having dared to fight basely 

receperint se in castra. Se desiderare (inf.) 

had betaken themselves into camp. He desires 

nullum imperium a Ciiesare per proditionem, 

no sovereign power from Caesar by treason, 

qu5d posset habere victoria, quae esset 

because he was able (to) have (it) by victory, which was 

jam explorata sibi ac omnibus Gallis ; quin 

now certain to himself and to all the Gauls ; but 

etiam remittere ipsis, si videantur tribuere 

even he to [would] resign to them. if they seemed to confer 

honorem sibi magis, quam accip^re (inf.) 

honor on him rather, than (that) they had received 



" T • . << 



salutem ab se. Inquit, ut intelligatis 

safety from himself." He said, "in order that you may know 

hapc pronunciari since:*e a me, audite 

these things to be [are] announced truly by me, hear 

Romanos milites. Prodiicit servos quos 

the Roman soldiers. " He brings forward slaves whom 

excepf'rat in pabulatione, paucis diebus ante, 

he had captured in foraging. a few days before, 

et excruciav^rat et fame que vinculis. 

and had tortured both by hunger and chains. 

Hi edocti jam ante, quae pronunciarent 

They having been taught already before, what they should declare 

interrooati, dicunt se esse legionarios, 

(when) interrogated, say that they were legionary soldiers 



BOOK VII On the Gallic War. 388 

adductos fame et inopia 

(and) (having been) led by hunger and want 

exisse clam ex castris si possent 

to have [had] gone out secretly from camp if they were able 

reperire quid frumenti aut pecoris in 

[could] (to) find any (of) corn or cattle in 

atrris ; omnem exercTtiim premi 

thelield.s ; (that) all the army to be [was] oppressed 

simili inopia; nee vires cujusquam jam 

by a like want: nor (does) the strength of any one now 

sufficere, nee posse ferre laborem 

(to) suffice. nor to be [are they) able to bear the labor 

opfris. Itaque unperatorem statu isse, si 

of the work. Therefore the commander to have [had] resolved, if 

profecissent nihil in oppuffnatione oppidi, 

he accomplished nothing in the siege of the town. 

deducere exercitum triduo Hacc beneficia, 

to withdraw (his) army in throe days "These benefits," 

inqiiit Vercingetorix, "habetis a me, quem 
said Vercingetorix. " you have from me. whom 

insimulatis proditionis, cu.jus op?ra videtis tantum 
you accuse of treason by whose means you see so great 

victorem exercitum paene consumptuin fame, 
a conquering army nearly destroyed by hunger, 

sine vestro sanguine; quem, turj)iter recipientem 
without your blood , which, disgracefully betaking 

se ex hac fufja, provisum est a me, ne 

itself on this flight it had been provided by me. not 

qua ci vitas recipTat sfiis finibus. 

any state shall receive in its territories." 

21. Omnis multitudo conclamat et concrepat 
All the multitude shout and rattle 

armis suo more, quod consueverunt 

with (their) arms in their manner. which they are accustomed 

fac6re in ?o cujus oration em approbant, 

to do for him whose speech they were approving. 

"Vercingetorigem esse summum ducem, nee 

"Vercingetorix to be [is] tlie greatest general, nor 



384 The Commeyitaries of Ccesar. BOOK v:i 

dubitandum de ejus fide, iiec 

must it be doubted concerning his faithluluess, nor 

posse belluin administraii luajore 

to be possible [could] the war (to) be earned on witli greater 

ratione. Statuunt ut decern millia homiuum 

judgement." Tliey decree that ten thousand men 

delecta ex omnibus copiis snbmittaiitur in 
selected from all the forces should be sent into 

oppidum ; nee censent communem salutein 
the town; nor do they think the general safety 

committendum Biturigibus soils, qu6d 

to [must] be committed to the Biluriges alone, because 

intelligebant summam victoriae 

they were understanding (that) the completeness of the victory 

constare paene in eo, si retinuissent 

would depend almost upon this, if they should hold 

oppidum. 
the town. 

22. Consilia cuj usque modi Gallorum occurrebant 
The plans of every kind of the Gauls were opposing 

singulari virtuti nostrorum militum, ut est (sing.) 
the uncommon bravery of our soldiers, as they are 

genus summae sollertiae, atriue aptissimum ad 

a nation of the greatest ingenuity, and very apt for [at] 

imitandi atque efficienda, quae traduntur 

imitating and making (things), which are imparted 

ab quoque. Nam avertebant falces laqueis, 
by any one. For they were turning the hooks with nooses, 

quos' quum destinaverant, reducebant introrsus 
which when they had caught, they were hauling within 

tormentis, et subtrahebant aggerem cuniculis, 
by engines, and they were undermining the mound by tunnels, 



eo scientius, 


quod 


apud 


eos 


sunt 


magnae 


he more skilfully. 


because 


among 


them 


are 


great 



ferrariae, atque omne genus cuniculorum est notum 
iron mines, and all kinds of tunnels are known 

atque usitatum. Autem con tabula verant totum 
and employed. Moreover they had fortified the entire 



BOOK VII 



On the Gallic War. 



385 



murum ex omiii parte turribus, 

wall on all parts with towers, 



atque iiitexerant 
and had covered 



has coriis : turn crebris diuriiis que nocturnis 

these wilh hides: also in (their) frequent daily and nightly 

eruptionibus, aut inferebant ignem aggeri, 

sallies, either they were setting fire to the mound, 

aut adoriebantur 
or were attacking 

altitudinem nostrarum turrium, 
the height of our towers, 

agger quotidianus express6rat has, 
daily raised them. 



niilites occupatos in opere ; et 
our soldiers occupied in the work , and 



adaequabant 
they were equaling 

quantum 
as much as 



the mound 

malis suarum turrium 
the masts of their towers 



commissis; et 

having been joined [spliced] ; and 



morabantur 

they were retarding 



(our) 



apertos cuniculos praiusta, et 



tunnels 



by burnt and 



praeacuta materia, et 
very sharp stakes, and 



maximi 

of very great 



et 

and 



saxis 
by stones 



que 
and 



prohibebant 

they were checking (us from) 



open 

fervefacta pice, 
by boiling pitch. 

ponderis, 

weight, 

appropinquare (inf, ) mcenibus, 
approaching the walls. 

23. Autem haec est fere forma omnibus Gallicis 

Moreover this is generally the form of all the Gallic 

Directae trabes perpetuae in longitudinem. 
Straight beams continuous in length. 



muris. 

walls. 



binos pedes distantes paribus intervallis inter 
two feet distant at equal intervals between 



se 

themselves 

introrsus, 
within, 

Autem 
But 



collocantur In solo. Hae 

are placed on the ground. These 



et 
and 



vestmntur 
are covered 



multo 
with much 



ea 
those 



intervalla, 

intervals. 



effarciuntur in fronte 
are filled up m front 

collocatis et 

having been placed and 



quae 

which 

grandibus 
with great 



revinciuntur 
are made fast 

aggere. 
mound-fllling, 

diximus 
we have mentioned, 

saxis, lis 

stones. These 



coagmentatis, 
united together. 



alius 
another 



ordo 
row 



386 The Commentaries of CcBsar. BOOK VII 

adjicitur insuper, ut illud idem intervallum 

is put above, so that, this same interval 

servetur, neque trabes contiiif^ant inter 

may be observed, nor the beams may touch among 

se,"^ sed intermissae paribus spatiis, singulae 

themselves, but are separated by equal spaces, each 

contineantur (pi.) arte sinj^ulis interjectis saxis: 
kept in place closely by the several interposed stones 

sic deinceps omne opus contexitur, dura 

so successively the whole work is bound together, till 

justa altitude muri expleatur. Quum hoc 

the proper height of the wall is completed. Not only this 

opus est non deforme in speciem que varietatem 
work is not unsightly in appearance and variety 

alternis trabibus ac saxis, quae servant suos 
by the alternate beams and stones, which preserve their 

ordines rectis lineis, turn habet ad utilitatem, 
order in straight lines, but also it has for utility, 

et defensionem urbiuni summam, opportunitatem, 
and defence of cities great advantage, 

quod et lapis defendit ab incendio, et 
because both the stone protects from fire, and 

materia ab ariete, quae 

the wood-work from the battering-ram, which (having been) 

l-evincta introrsiis trabibus plerumque perpetuis 
fastened internally by beams mostly continuous (for) 

quadragenos pedes, potest neque perrumpi, 

forty feet, can neither be broken through, 

neque distrahi. 
nor rent apart. 

24. Oppugnatione impedita tot lis 

The siege having been impeded by so many these 

rebus, quum milites tardarentur t5to 
[such] things, though the soldiers were retarded the whole 

tempore luto, frigore, et assiduis mibribus, tamen 
time by mud, cold, and continual -rams, yet 

superaverunt omnia haec continenti labore, 

they overcame all these (things) by Iheir continual labor. 



boo:: VII O.i the Gallic War. 387 

et viji^inti qr.i.iqiie (lie])us, extruxerunt aggerem 

and in twenty live (1<'».\ s, they constructed a mound 

trecentos ct; tngint.a pedes latum, octogirita 

three hundred and twenty feet wide, (and) eighty 

pedes altum. Quum is paene continue ret 

feet hig-li Wlien this Cmound) had nearly touched 

murum hostium, et Caesar excubaret ad opus 
the wall of the enemy, and Caisar kept watch at the work 

consuetudine, que exhortaretur milites, quod ne 
by his custom, and encouraged the soldiers, that no 

tempus omnino intermitteretur ab opere, paulo 
time at all should be lost from the work a little 

ante tertiam vigiliam, est animadversum 

before the third watch, it was observed (that) 

aggerem fumare (inf.), quern hostes succendgrant 
tlie mound (to) smoked, which the enemy had fired 

cuniculo; que eodem tempore clamore sublato 

by a mine ; and at tiie same time a shout having been raised 

toto muro, eruptio fiebat duabus portis ab 
on all the wall, a sally was made from two gates on 

utroque latere turrium. Alii eminus jaciebant 
each side of tlie towers Some from a distance were throwing 

faces atque aridam materiem de muro in 
torches and dry material from the wall on 

aggerem ; aln fundebant picem que reliquas res, 
tlie mound , others were pouring pitch and other things, 

quibus ignis potest incitari ; ut ratio posset 

by which the fire might be encouraged, so that apian could 

vix inn*i, quo prnnum occurreretur," aut 

scarcely be adopted, where first they should obstruct, or 

cui ret auxilium ferretur; 

to which affair [predicament] aid should be brought ; 

tamen quod, instituto Caesaris, duae legiones 

however as, by the arrangement of CiEsar, two legions 

semper excubabant ])ro castris, que plures partitis 

always were watching before the camp, and many at alloted 

temporibus erant in opere, celeriter factum est, ut 
times were at work, it was quickly managed, that 



388 The Commentaries of CcEsar. BOOK Vil 

alii resisterent eruptionibus, alii reducerent 

some should oppose tlie sallies, otliers should draw back 

turres (^ue interscind6rent an^jrerem ; vero 

the towers and cut otT the mound , and indeed 

omnis multitude concurrent ex castris ad 
(that) a whale multitude should run from the camp to 

restinn^uendum. 

extinguish (the fire). 

25. Quum pugnaretur "^ in omnibus locis, 
When it was fought in all places, 

reliqua parte noctis jam consumpta, que 
the remaining portion of the night now having been spent, and 

spes victoriae semper redrnte^i^raretur hostibus(dat.), 
the hope of victory continually was renewed in the enemy, 

magis eo quod videbant pluteos turrium 

the more so because they were seeing the coverings of the towers 

deustos, animadvertebant apertos nee 

burnt off, (and) were observing (that we) unprotected not 

facile adire ad auxiliandum, que ipsi 

easily to go [approached] for aiding, and they 

recentes semper succed6rent defessis (dat.), 

fresh all the time were succouring the wearied, 

que arbitrarentur omnem salutem Galliae 

and (they) were judging (that) all the safety of Gaul 

positam ^ in illo vestigio temporis, accidit 
(was) placed in that instant of time, there happened 

nobis inspectantibus quod visum dignum 

to us observing (that) which seemed (to be) worthy 

memoria existimavimus non praetermittendum. 
(of) memory we have thought to [it must] not be passed over. 

Quidam Galium ante portam oppidi, qui e 
A certain Gaul before the gate of the town, who from 

regione turris projiciebat glebas sevi ac 

the locality of the tower was throwing lumps of tallow and 

picis in ignem, transditas per manus (pi); 

pitch into the fire, passed along by hand , 

transjectus ab dextra latere scorpione, que 
having been pierced on the right side by the cross-bow, and 



BOOK VII On the Gallic War, 389 

exanimatus concidit ; unus ex proximis 

struck lifeless fell, one from [of] the nearest 

transgressus hunc jacentem fungebatur illo 
having stepped over him lying prostrate, was discharging that 

eodem manere; eadem ratione altero exani- 

same duty; in the same manner the other having been 

mate ictu scorpionis, tertius successit, 

killed by a stroke of the cross-bow, a third succeeded, 

et quartus tertio; nee ille locus relictus est 
and a fourth to the third ; nor that place was left 

vacuus a« propugnatoribus, prius quam aggere 
vacant by the defenders, before (that) the mound 

restincto atque hostibus submotis 

(having been) extinguished and the enemy having been repulsed 

omni parte, finis factus est pugnandi. 
on every side, an end was made of the fighting. 

26. Galli expert! omnia, quod nulla res 
The Gauls having tried all things, because no thing 

successerat, postero die ceperunt consilium profugere 
had succeeded, on the next day adopted the plan to flee 

ex oppido, Vercingetorige hortante et jubente. 

from the town, Vercingetorix advising and commanding. 

Sperabant, conati id silentio noctis 

They were hoping, having attempted it in the silence of the night 

sese effecturos non magna 

(that) they about to [would] accomplish (it) with no great 

jactura suorum, propterea quod castra 

loss of their (men), because (that) the camp 

Vercingetorigis aberant neque longe ab oppido, 
of Vercingetorix was distant not far from the town, 

et perpetua palus, quae intercedebat, tardabaf' 
and a continuous marsh, which was intervening, would retard 

Romanos ad insequendum. Que jam 

the Romans for [in] following. And already 

apparabant facere hoc noctu, quum matres 
they were preparing to do this by night, when the mothers 

familias rcpente procurrerunt in publicum, 

of families [matrons] suddenly ran out into public, 



390 The Commentaries of Ccssar. BOOK Vll 

que flentes projectae ad pedes suorum 

and weeping having thrown (themselves) at the feet of their 

petierunt omni})us precibus, lie 
(husbands) they begged with all entreaties, that they would ik t 

dederent se et communes Jiberos hostibus 

give up themselves and (their) common children to the enemy 

ad supplicium, quos natura, et infirmitas 

for punishment, whom nature, and the weakness 

virium (pi.) impediret ad capiendam fugam. 

of (their) strength prevented for [from] taking flight. 

Ubi viderunt eos perstare (inf.)» in 

When they saw (that) they persisted in (their) 

sententia, quod plerumque in summo periculo 
design, because generally in the greatest danger 

timor recipit non misericordiam, casperunt conclamare, 
fear admits not mercy, they began to cry out, 

et significare de fuga Romanis ; 

and to give warning concerning the flight to the Romans, 

quo timore Galli perterriti, ne viae 

by which fear the Gauls having been alarmed, lest the roads 

praeoccuparentur ab equitatu Romanorum destiterunt 
should be preoccupied by the cavalry of the Romans they desisted 

consilio, 
from Uheir) design. 

27. Caesar, postgro die turri pro- 

Caesar, on the next day the tower having been 

mota, que operibus directis, quae 

moved forward, and the works having been arranged, which 

instituerat facere, magno imbri coorto, 

he had determined to make, a great storm having arisen. 

arbitratus est banc tempestatem non inutilem ad 
thought this time not unsuited for 

capiendum consihum, quod videbat custodias 

carrying out the plan, because he was seeing the guards 

in muro dispositas paulo incautius; que 

on the wall arranged a little more carelessly ; and 

jussit suos versari in opere langui- 

he ordered his (men) to be occupied m the work rather 



BOOK VII 



0)1 the Gallic War. 



391 



dius, 

sluggishly, 



et 
and 



ostendit quid vellet figri. 

showed what he wished to be done. 

Cohortatus le^iones expeditas in occulto 

Having exhorted the legions prepared in a concealed place 

intra vineas, ut alicjuando percipSrent fructum 
within the sheds, that at length they would receive the fruit 

tantis laboribus, proposuit praemia 

such great labors, he offers rewards 



victoriae 
of victory 



pro 
for 



lis, qui primi ascendissent murum, que dedit 

to those, who first should scale the wall, and gave 



signum 
the signal 



militibus. Illi subito evolaverunt ex 
to the soldiers. They suddenly flew out from 

omnibus partibus, que celeriter complerunt murum. 
all sides, and quickly tilled the wall. 

28. Hostes perterriti nova 

The enemy having been alarmed by the sudden 



re, 

affair 



dejecti muro 

[action], (having been) driven from the wall 



que turribus, 
and towers, 

constiterunt cuneatim foro ac patentioribus 

they drew up as a wedge in the square and more open 

locis, hoc animo, ut si ex qua parte venire- 

places, with this idea, that if on any side (any one) should 

tur" contra obviam depu«2^nareut acie 

come against they might fight with a line of battle 

instructa. Ubi viderunt 

drawn up. When they saw 



neminem demittere 

(that) no one lowered 



sese in aequum locum, sed undique 
himself into the level place, but on every side 

fundi toto muro, veriti ne 

spread around on the whole wall, having feared lest 



spes 
the hope 



fuo^ae 
of flight 



abjectis 
having been thrown away 



tolleretur, 
might be taken aw'ay, 

petiverunt 

they sought 



(their) 
ultimas 

the farthest 



oppidi continenti impetu ; que Tbi 

of the town with a continuous rush ; and there 

quum ipsi premerent se ancrusto 

as they crowded themselves in the narrow 



circum- 

they were 

omnino 
altogether 

armis 

arms 

partes 

parts 

pars, 
a part, 

exitu 
passage 



392 The Commentaries of CcEsar. BOOK VII 

portarum, interfecta est a militibus, pars 

of the gates, was killed by the soldiers, (and) apart 

jam ei^ressa portis, ab equitibus; nee 

already havin- passed the gates, by the horsemen ; nor 

fuit quisquam qui studeret praedae. 

was there anyone who was attending to plunder. (Having 

Incitati sic et cirde Cenabensi, 

been) excited so much bolh by the slaughter at Cenabum, 

et labore oik lis perpecerunt non 

and by the labor of the work they spared neither (those) 

confectis aetate, iioii midieribus non infantibun. 
worn out with age, nor women nor children. 

Denique ex onini eo numero, i\w\ fuit circiter 
Finally out of ail this number, which was about 

quadraginta millium, vix octingenti, qui primo 
forty thousand, scarcely eight hundred, who. the first 

clamore audi to, ejeceraiit se ex 

shout having been heard, had thrown themselves from 

oppido, perveneruiit incolumes ad Vercingetorigem ; 
the town, came safe to Vercingetorix ; 

quos ille, nocte jam multa, excepit 

whom he, the night (being) now much [late], received 

sic ex fuga silentio (veritus ne qua seditio 
thus from the flight in silence (having feared lest some sedition 

oreretur in castris ex eorum concursu, et 
might arise in the camp from their gathering, and 

misericordia volgi) ut suis familiaribus, que 

from the compassion of the throng) that his friends, and 

principibus civitatum, dispositis procul 

the chiefs of the states, having been located at a distance 

in via curaret disparandos que 

on the road he took care (that) they should be seperated and 

deducendos ad suos, quae pars castris 

be conducted to their (own people), which part of the camp 

obvenerat cuique civitati ab initio, 

had fallen to each state from the beginning. 

29. Postero die concilio convocato, 

On the following day a council having been calledi 



BOOK VII On the Gallic War. 393 

consolatus que c;)]iortatus est ne 

he consoled and exlioiLed, " they should not be 

admodum dernittgrent se aniino, neve perturbarentur 
too much cast down in mind, nor trouljled 

incommodo : Romanos non vicisse virtute 

by (their) loss ; (that) the Romans had not coiuiuered by bravery 

neqiie in acie, sed quodain artificio et 

nor in a battle-line, but by a certain skill and 

scieiitia oppuj?nationis, cujus rei ipsi fuerint 
by the science of siege, of which thing they were 

imperiti ; errare, si qui expectent in bello 

unskilled; (those) err, if they expect in war 

omnes eventus rerum secundos ; nunquam 

all results of affairs (to be) prosperous; never 

placuisse sibi Avaricum defend!, 

had it pleased him (that) Avaricum to [should] be defended, 

ejus rei haberet ipsos testes; sed 

of which thing ho had themselves as witnesses ; but 

factum imprudentia Biturifrum et 

to have been (it was) done by the imprudence of the Bituriges and 

nimina obsecjuentia reliquorum, utl hoc 

by the too great compliance of the rest, that this 

incommodum acciperetur; tamen se sanaturum 

disaster was received , however lie would remedy 

id celeriter majoribus commodis. Nam civitates 

this quickly by greater advantages For the states 

quae dissentirent ab reliquis Gallis, has sua 
which dissented from the other Gauls, these by his 

dihgentia adjuncturum, atciue unum consiHum totius 
exertion would be united, and one counsel of all 

Galhae efFecturum, cujus consenui (dat.) orbis 
Gaul would be effected. whose union |;he whole 

terrarum quidem possit ne obsistere ; 

world indeed would be able [could] not (to) oppose , 

que se habere prope jam effectum id, 

and he to have [had] nearly already effected this 

Interna esse aequum impet- 

[n the mean time to be [it was] just (that) to [it should] 



394 



The Commentaries of Ccssar. BOOK vil 



rari ab !is causa communis salutis, 

beobtained from them for the sake of the general safety, 



possent 
they would be able [could] 

repentinos impetus 
the sudden attacks 



castra, 
their camp, 



(to) 



quo 

so that 

sustinere 

resist 



ut institu6rent munire 

that they should decree to fortify 

facilius 
the more easily 

hostium. 
of the enemy. " 

30. Hac oratio fuit non ingrata Gallis, qu6d 
This speech was not disagreeable to the Gauls, because 

non defec^rat animo, tanto incommodo 



ipse 
he himself had not 

accepto, 
having been received. 

neque fugerat 
nor fled 



failed 



in courage, so great 



a loss 



neque abdid^rat se in occultum, 

neither had he hid himself in secret. 



conspectum 
the sight 



existimabatur 
he was thought 



ammo 
in mind 

su6rat 
decided 



quod, 
because, 

primo 
first 



providere 
to foresee 

re 
the matter 



multitudinis : 
of the multitude : 

et praesentire, 
and to forecast, 

intesfra. 



(being) not begun, 

Avaricum 
Avaricum 



que 
and 

plus 

more 

con- 
he had 



incendendum, 
to [should] be burnt, 



(that) 

post deserendum 

afterwards (that) it to [should] be deserted 

res minuunt auctoritatem reliquorum imperatorum ; 
affairs diminish the authority of other commanders; 



Itaque ut adversae 
And so as adverse 



SIC 

so 



ex 

on 



contrario 
the contrary 



accepto, 
having been sustained. 



dignitas 
the authority 

augebatur 
was increased 



hujus 

of this one 



incommodo 

a loss 



(from day) 



in 

to 



dies : 

day 



spem, 

the hope 



ejus 

of his 



simul vinebant in, 

at the same time they were coming into. 

affirmatione, de adjungendis reliquis civitatibus ; que 

assertion, of uniting the other states, and 

primum Galli eo tempore instituerunt munire 

first the Gauls at this time undertook to fortify 

castra; et sic homines insueti laboris 

their camp ; and so men unaccustomed to labor 



BOOK VJI 



On the Gallic War. 



395 



confirmati sunt animo, ut existimarent omnia 

were encouraged in mind that they sought (that) all 

quae imperarentur patienda sibi. 

(things) which were commanded must be endured by them. 

31. Nec Vercingetorix laborabat minus animo 

Nor Vercingetorix was exerting himself less in mind 

quam pollicitus est, ut 
than he had promised. that 

civitates, atque alliciebat eorum principes 
states, and he was enticing their chiefs 



adjungeret 
he might attach 



reliquas 

the other 



que pollicitationibus. Deligebat idongos 
and promises He selected suitable 



donis 
by presents 

homines 
men 



rei, 
affair. 



huic 
for this 

quorum 
of whom 

Qui 

Those who 

curat 
he takes care 



aut 
either 



quisque 

each 



(chief) 
refug6rant 

had escaped, 

armandos 
should be armed 



subdola oratione aut amicitia 

by the wily speech or friendship 

posset facillime capi. 
might most easily be gained. 

Avarico expugnato, 

Avaricum having been stormed, 

que vestiendos. Simul 

and clothed At the same time 



ut 
that 



diminutae 
his diminished 



copiae redintegrarentur, imperat 
forces might be renewed. he orders 



certum 
a certain 



ante 

before 

que 

and 



numerum 
number 

quam diem, 
what day, 



militum 
of soldiers 

velit 
he wishes 



civitatibus, quem, 
from the states, whom. 

adduci in 
to be brought into 



et 

and 



jubet omnes sagittarios, quorum 
he orders all the archers, of whom 



castra ; 
the camp ; 

erat 
there was 



permagnus numerus in Gallia, conquiri, 
a very great number in Gaul. to be sought. 



et 

and 



mitti 
sent 



ad 
to 



se. 

him. 



Avarici 
at Avaricum 



His 

By these 
celeriter 

was speedily 



rebus, 
means, 



id 

this 

expletur 

replaced 



quod 
which 



deperierat 
he had lost 



Teutomatus, filius OUoviconis, rex 



Teutomatus, the son ofOllovicon. 



kinf 



Interim 
In the mean time 

Nitiobrigum, 
of the Nitiobriges, 



cujus pater appellatus erat amicus ab nostro Senatu, 
whose father had been called friend by our Senate, 



396 The Commentaries of Casa7\ book vii 

pervenit ad eum, cum inaj^no nuinero suorum eciuituin, 

came to hiin, with a y:icat number of his cavahy, 

et (luos coiiduxerat ex Aquitania. 

and 'those) that he liad hired from Aquitania. 

32. Caesar commoratus complures dies Avarici, 
Caesar having: delayed several days at Avaricum, 

que nactus ibi summam copiam frumenti et 

and having obtained there the greatest supply ofeorn and 

reliqui commeatus, refecit exercitum ex labore 
of other provisions, refreshed his army from labor 

atque inopia. Hieme jam prope confecta, 

and want. The winter having been now nearly ended, 

quum tempore ipso anni vacaretur ad 

when by the .season itself of the year he was at leisure for 

gerendum bellum, et constituisset proficisci 

earryin;? on war, and he had determined to march 

ad hostem, sive elicere eum ex paludibus 
against the enemy, either to entice him from the marshes 

que silvis, sive posset premere obsidioue, 

and woods. or that he might crush by a siege, 

legati principes ^duorum veniunt ad eum 

ambassadors chiefs of the iEdui come to lain 

oratum ut maxime necessario tempore 

to entreat that in an especially necessary [critical] time 

subveniat civitati ; rem esse i:i summo 

he should assist the state, " their affairs to be [are] in cxliome 

periculo ; ([uod ({uum singuli magistratus cre- 

danger; that whereas single magistrates had been 

ari antiquitiis, atque consuessent obtiuere 

appointed of old, and were accustomed to posse s-s 

regiam potestatem annum; duo geran<- magistral uni, 
a kingly power for one year , two hold the magislracj . 

et uterque eorum dicat se crealum es? e 

and rueh of them asserts (that) he was appouiUii 

legibus. Horuni alterum esse Convictio'.tavein 

XiY the laws. Of these the one was Convic li(.l,la\ .-■ 

florentem et illustrem adolescentem, alterum Cotuui 
a disfnguished and illustrious young man, the other Col us 



BOOK VII On the Gallic War, 397 

nutuiLi iiiitiquissima familia, atque ipsum homiiiem 

spruiif; from a most ancient family, and hmiself a man 

summa3 potentiae, et magnae cognationis, cujus 
of the highest power, and of great connections, whose 

frater Valetiacus gessent eundem magistratum 
brother Valetiacus had held the same magistracy 

proximo anno; omnem civitatem esse in armis; 
the last year; the whole state was in arms; 

senatum divisum, populum divisum, suas 

the senate was divided, the people divided, their 

clientelas cujusque eorum : quod si controversia 
partisans of each of them: that if the dispute 

alatur diutius, fore uti pars civitatis 

is formented longer, it would happen that apart of the state 

confligat cum parte ; id ne accidat 

would collide with apart; (that) this may not happen 

positum in ejus diligentia atque auctoritate. 

was placed [rested] in his exertion and authority. 

33. Caesar, etsi existimabat detrimentosum 

Caesar, although he thought it injurious 

descedere a bello atque hoste; tamen non 
to depart from the svar and the enemy ; yet not 

ignorans quanta incommoda consuessent oriri 
being ignorant how great wrongs were wont to arise 

ex dissensionibus ; ne tanta civitas et tam 
from dissensions ; lest so great a state and so 

conjuncta Romano populo, quam ipse semper 

connected with the Roman people, which he always 

aluisset, que ornasset omnibus rebus, descendgret 
had cherished, and honored in all things, should resort 

ad vim atque ad arma ; atque 6a pars quae 
to violence and to arms , and this part which 

confidgret minus sibi accerseret auxilia a 

might confide least in him should call for assistance from 

Vercingetorige; existimavit huie r6i prae" 

Vercingetorix ; he thought (that; this action ought 

vertendum; et quod legibus ^duorum, 

to be anticipated ; and because by the laws oftheilidui. 



398 



The Commentaries of Ccssar. BOOK VII 



IIS 

to these 



qui 

who 



non liceret 

it was not allowed 



obtin^rent 

possessed 

ex cede re 

to depart 

deminuisse 
to have curtailed 



summum 
the chief 



magistratum 
magisfracy 



ex finibus; 

from (their) territories , 



videretur 
he should seem 

aut legibus, ipse 
or laws, he himself 



quid 
any thing 



de 

respecting 



ne 

lest 

eorum 
their 



jure 

authority 



statuit proficisci in 
resolved to set out to 



^du03, 
the ^dui, 



que 

and 



intra 
among 



quos 
whom 



controversia 

the controversy 

Decetiam. Quum 

at Decetia [Decize], When 



evocavit omnem senatum, et 
he summoned all the senate, and (those) 

esset, ad se 

might be, to (meet) him 



prope 
nearly 



omnis 
the whole 



convenisset 
had assembled 



eo, 
there. 



que 

and 



doceretur 
he was informed 



civitas 
state 

fratrem 
a brother 



(that) 

renunciatum a fratre, paucis clam vocatis, 

had been proclaimed by a brother, a few having been secretly called^ 

alio tempore, atque 

at another time, than 



alio 
in another 



loco, 

place, (and) 

oportu^rit; quum leges non solum 
was proper , when the laws not only 

duos ex una familia, utroque vivo, 

twc of one family, both being alive, 

magistratus, sed etiam prohib^rent 
magistrates, but also were forbidding (them) 



vetarent 

were forbidding 

creari 
to be chosen 



esse 

to be 



in 

in 



senatu : coegit Cotum deponere magistratum ; 

the senate . he compelled Cotus to resign the magistracy 



jussit Convictolitavem, qui esset 
he ordered Convictolitavis, who had been 



creatus 
chosen 



per 
through 



sacerdotes 
the priests 

intermissis, 
having lapsed. 

34. Hoc 

This 



more 

after the custom 



civitatis, 
of the state, 



obtinere potestatem. 
to hold the power [office]. 

decreto interposito, 

decree having been delivered, 



magistratibus 
the magistracy 



cohortatus 
he exhorted 



-^duos ut obliviscerentur 
the iEdui that they should forget 



(their) 



controversiarum 
controversies 



BOOK VII 



On the Gallic War, 



399 



ac dissensionum, atque omnibus rebus omis- 

and dissensions, and all things having been 

sis, servirent huic bello, que exspectarent 

laid aside, they sliould attend to this war, and might expect 



6a praemia, quae 
those rewards, which 



meruissent, ab 

they should merit, from 



se, Gallia 
him, Gaul 



devicta, 
having been conquered. 



equitatum, 
the cavalry, 



et 

and 



que 
and 

decern 
ten 



mitterent omnem 
(that) they should send all 



millia peditum celerlter 
thousand footmen speedily 



sibi, 
to him. 



quae 
whom 



dispon6ret 
he might place 

; divisit 

he divided 



causa 
for the sake 



exercitum 
(his) army 



in 

into 



duas 
two 



in praesidiis 
in garrisons 

rei frumentariae : 
of the grain supply ; 

partes; dedit quatuor lefjiones Labieno ducendas 
parts ; he gave four legions to Labienus to be led 

in Senones que Parisios ; ipse duxit sex in 
into the Senones and Parisii; he himself led six into 

Arvernos ad oppidum Gergoviam secundum flumen 

the Arverni to the town (of) Gergovia down the river 



Elaver: attribuit partem equitatus 

Allier: he gave apart of the cavalry 

reliquit partem sibi. 
he left apart for himself. 

Vercingetorix, omnibus potibus 

Vercingetorix, all the bridges 



illi, 
to him (Labienus) 

Qua re cognita, 

Which thing having been known. 



fac(?re 
to make 



e.ius 

of this 

iter 
his march 



fluminis 

river 

ab 
on 



interruptis, coepit 

having been demolished, began 

altera parte fluminis. 
the other side of the river. 

85. Quum uterque exercitus exisset in conspectu 
When each army led out in view 



que 
and 



utrimque 

on each side 



regione 
against 



castris. 
a camp. 

necubi 
(so) that in no place 



ponebant 

they were pitching 

Exploratoribus 

Scouts 



castra 
a camp 



fere 

almost 



e 

over 



dispositis, 
having been stationed, 

Romani, transducerent copias, 
the Romans, could lead across the forces 



400 The Commentaries of CcEsar. BOOK VII 

ponte effecto ; res erat 

a bridge having been built ; (this) thing [condition] was 

Caesari in magnis difficultatibus, ne imped- 

to [placed] Caesar in great difficulties, lest he should 

iretur flumine, majorem partem aestatis, 

be hindered by the river, for the greater part of the summer, 

quod Elaver soleat non transiri vado 

because the Allier is wont not to be crossed by fording 

fere ante autumnum. Itaque ne id 
(till) nearly before autumn. Therefore lest this 

accidgret, castris positis silvestri loco 

might happen, the camp having been pitched in a woody place 

e regione unius eorum pontium, quos Vercin- 
opposite one of these bridges, which Vercin- 

getorix curaverat rescindendos, post5)'o die 

getorix had provided should be destroyed, on the next day 

restitit in occulto, cum duabus legionibus; 

he remained in a concealed place, with two legions; 

misit, ut consuev6rat reliquas copias 

he sent, as he had been accustomed the remaining forces 

cum omnibus impedimentis, quibusque quartis 
with all the baggage, each fourth 

cohortibus demptis, uti numgrus legionum' 

cohort having been removed, so that the number of the legions 

videretur constare, lis jussis progredi 

should seem to agree. These having been ordered to advance 

quam longissime possent, quum jam ex 

as far (as) they could, when at last from 

tempore diei caperet conjecturam per- 

the time of day he could make the conjecture (that) they 

ventum in castra, coepit reficere pontem 

had arrived to [in] camp, he began to rebuild the bridge 

iisdem sublicis inferior pars quarum remanebat 
on the same piles the lower part of which was remaining 

integra. Opere celeriter effecto, que 

entire. The work quickly having been completed and 

legionibus transductis, et idoneo loco 

the legions having been led over, and a suitable place 



BOOK VII On the Gallic War. 401 

castris delecto, revocavit relicjuas copias. 

for a camp havinjf been selected, lie recalled the remamiiijj foices. 

Vercinjjetorix, re cognita, ne 

Vercuigetorix, the tiling [event] liavinj,' been learned. lest 

cofjeretur diiiiicare contra suam voluntalem, 

he iniglil be forced to rif,'ht against his will, 

aiitecessit niagnis itmenbus 

preceded (him) by great Iforced] marches. 

36. Caesar pervenit Gerj^oviam, ex 60 l6co, 
Caesar reached Gergovia, from this place, 

quintis castris que levi e(juestri pra'lio 

onthelifth encampment and a slight cavalry battle 

facto 60 die, situ urbis 

having been fought on this day. the situation of the town 

pers[)ecto, i\\\'ai posita in 

having been reconnoitred, which (having been) placed on 

altissTino inonte, habebat omnes aditus 

a very high inoiintain, was having ail tiie approaches 

difficilcs, dcsj)cra\ it dc expu<rnati()ne ; constituit 

difticult, he despaired of an assault . he determined 

non a*xenduin' de obsessione 

(that) not to be [it must not be] acted respecting the siege 

prius (lUJim expedisset rem frumentariam At 

before (that) he had secured a grain supply. But 

Vercinjxetorix castris ])()sitis prope oppidum, 

Vercingeloii\ (his) camp having been placed near the town, 

in nioiite, collocaverat copias singularum 

on the inountain. had stationed the forces of each 

civitatum separatiin, circum se, mediocribus 

state separately around himself at moderate 

intervallis ; atc^ue omnibus collibus ejus jugi 
intervals, and all the lulls of this range 

occupatis qua poterat despici, 

having been occupied where it was possible to be viewed, 

praebebat horribilem speciem : cjue jubebat 
he was presenting a formidable appearance, and he was ordering 

principes earum civitatum ;, quos delegjerat 

the chiefs of these states whora he had selected 



402 The Commentaries of CcEsar. BOOK vii 

sibi ad capiendum consilium, convenire aJ 

for himself for taking counsel, to come to 

se quotidie prima luce seu quid 

him daily at first light learly dawn], whether aiiylhing 

videretur communicandum, seu quid minis- 

might seem best to be discussed, or anything (to) be 

trandum; neque intermittebat fere ullum diem, 
performed; nor was he omitting scarcely any day, 

quin periclitaretur quid animi ac virtutis 

but that he was trying what (of) spirit and (of) courage 

esset in quoque suorum equestri proelio, 
might be in each of his men by cavalry engagements, 

sagittariis interjectis, Erat coUis e 

the archers having been intermixed. There was a hill 

regione oppidi sub ipsis radicibus montis 

opposite the town at the very roots [foot] of the mountain 

egregie munitus, atque circumcisus ex omni parte 
excellently fortified, and precipitous on every side 

(quem si nostri tenerent, videbantur 
(which if our men could hold, they would seem (able) 

prohibituri hostes et - ex magna parte 

to prevent the en^my both m great part (from) 

aquae (gen.), et libera pabulatione); sed is 
water, apd from free foraging) , but this 

locus tenebatur ab iis praesidio non nimis 

place was held by them with a garrison not very 

firmo ; tamen, Caesar egressus ex castris 

strong , however, Caesar having marched out from the camp 

silento noctis, prius quam subsidium posset 

in the silence of the night, before (that) aid could 

venire ex oppido, praesidio dejecto, 

come from the town, the garrison having been dislodged, 

potitus loco, coUocavit duas legiones, ibi, 

having seized the place he stationed two legions there, 

que perduxit duplicem fossam duodenum pedum 

and led a double trench (of) twelve feet 

a majoribus castris ad minora, ut 

(wide) from the greater camp to the lesser, (so) that 



BOOK VII 071 the Gallic War. 403 

etTam s inguli posset commeare tuto ab 

even a single (soldier) could pass safely from [onj 

repentino incursu hostium. 
tbe sudden attack of the enemy 

37. Dum haec geruntur ad Gergoviam, 

While these things are passing at Gergovia, 

Convictolitais, ^duus, cui demonstravimus 

Convictolitais, the^duan, to whom we have shown 

magistratum abjudicatum a Caesare sollicitatus 
the magistracy was adjudged by Caesar having been solicited 

pecunia ab Arvernis colloquitur cum quibusdam 
with money by the Arverni confers with certain 

adolescentibus quorum Litavicus 6rat princeps, atque 
young men of whom Lilavjcus was the chief, and 

ejus fratres, adolescentes nati amplissima famiha, 
his brothers, young men born of most illustrious family, 

communicat prapmium cum lis, que hortatur 60s 
he shares the money with them, and exhorts them 

ut meminerint se liberos, et natos 

that they should remember (that) they (were) free, and born 

imperio: esse unam civitatem ^Eduorum quae 
for empire , "it was alone the slate oftheyEdui which 

distmeat certissimam victoriam Galliae; rehquas 
retards the most certain victory of the Gauls . the rest 

contineri ejus auctoritate, qua trans- 

were restrained by its authority which having been brought 

ducta, non f6re Idcum Romanis consistendi 

over there would not be a place for the Romans to stand on 

in Gallia, se esse affectum nonnullo beneficio 
m Gaul. he was affected by a considerable benefit 

obtinuerit justissimam 
he had obtained a most just 

tribuere (inf.) plus 

(he) assigns more 

communi' libertati. Enim cur ^^dui 

to (their) common liberty For why should the iEdui 

veniant ad Caesarem disceptatorem de suo jure 
come to Caesar as arbiter about their rights 



Caesar is 


tamen 


sic 


ut 


of Caesar 


however 


so 


that 


causam 


apud 


6um; 


se 


cause 


through 


him . 


bu 



404 The Commentaries of CcBsar. BOOK vil 

et de legibus potius quam Romani ad 

and about their laws rather than the Romans to 

^duos?" Adolescentibus deductis 

the iEdui?" The young men having been brought over 

celeriter, et oratione magistratus, et praemio, 
speedily, both by the speech of the magistrate, and the bribe, 

quum profiterentur, se vel fore principes 

when they promised, that they indeed would be leaders 

ejus consilii, ratio perficiendi quaerebatur, 

of this enterprise, a plan of executing (it) was inquired into, 

quod confidebant civitatem non posse 

because they were confident (that) the stale could not be 

adduci temere ad suscipiendum bellum. 

induced rashly for [to] undertaking the war. 

Placuit ut Litavicus praeficeretur illis 

it \/as resolved that Litavicus should be appointed to those 

decern miUibus quae mitterentur Caesari ad bellum, 
ten thousand that were to be sent to Caesar for the war, 

atque curarat ducenda ea, que ejus 

and should have charge of conducting them, and (that) liis 

fratres praecurrent ad Caesarem ; constituunt 

brothers should go before (him) to Caesar, they determine 

qua ratione placeat agi reliqua. 

in what manner it may be well to perform the rest. 

38, Litavicus, exercitu, accepto quum 

Litavicus, the army, having been received when 

abesset circiter triginta millia passuum ab 
he was distant about thirty thousand paces from 

Gergovia, subito convocatis militibus, 

Gergovia, having suddenly called together the soldiers, 

lacrymans iiiquit, Quo milites proficiscimurj? 

weeping he said, "Whither O soldiers are we going? 

omnis noster equitatus, omnis nobilitas interiit. 
all our knights, all the nobility have perished, 

Eporedorix et Viridomarus prmcipes civitatis 
Eporedonx and Viridomarus chiefs of the stale 

insimulati proditionis interfecti sunt ab 

having been accused of treason have been killed by 



BOOK VII 



On the Gallic War. 



405 



Romanis causa indicta 

the Romans the case not haviiif? been called. 



Cognoscite haec 

Know tliis 



ab lis, qui fugerunt ex ipsa caede. Nam 

from these, w)io have fled from the very massacre. For 

ego fiati'ibus atque omnibus meis propinquis 

I (my) brothers and all my relations 



interfeetis 
having been killed 

gesta sunt, 
has been done. " 



prohibeor dolore pronunciare quae 
am prevented by grief from announcing what 

li ])roducuntur, quos ille edocuerat, 
Those are produced, whom he had taught 



qua? vellet dici, atque 6adem, quae 
what he wished to be said, and the same, which 



pronunciavSrat, 
had announced, 



exponunt 

they explain 



multitudini : 
to the multitude ; 



Lita\ icus 
Litavicus 

omnes 

"all 



equites j?*lduorum interfectos, quod dicerentur 
the knights of the i-Edui were slain, because they were said 

collocuti cum Arvernis; ipsos occultasse se 
to have conspired with the Arverni , they had hid themselves 

inter multitudinem militum, atque profugisse ex 
among the multitude of soldiers, and had fled from 

media caede. i^.dui conclamant, 



the midst (of the) massacre." 
obsecrant Litavicum ut 



TheiEdui 



exclaim, 



et 
and 



consulat sibi, 

conjure Litavicus that he .should deliberate for themselves, 



Quasi vero, inquit 

" As if indeed," said 

consilii, ac 

of [for] a plan, and 



ille, >es sit 

" the thing were (a matter) 

nobis contendere 

for us to hasten 



he, 

non sit necesse 
it were not necessary 



Gergoviam 
to Gergovia 



et 

and 



conjungere 

to unite 



nosmet 
ourselves 



cum 
with 



An 

Or can 



dubitamus, 
we doubt. 



admisso, 
having been committed, 



quin, 
but that, 

Romani 

the Romans 



nefario 
so nefarious 



jam 

now 



concurrant 
gather 



Arvernis ? 
the Arverni? 

facin5re 

a crime 

ad 

for 



interficiendos nos ? 
slaying us? 

in nobis persequamur 



Proinde 
Therefore 



Sl 

if 



est 

there is 



in 



us 



let us follow [avenge] 



6orum 
their 



quid 
any 

mortem, 
death. 



anmu 

spirit 

qui 
who 



406 



The Commentaries of Ccesar. BOOK "^ II 



interierunt indigfnissime, atque interficiamus hos 
have perished most ignobly, and let us slay these 



Ostendit 
He shows 



Romanos 
the Roman 



cives, 
citizens, 



qui 
who 



&rant 
were 



fiducia ejus praesidii, Continuo diripit 

in the confidence of his protection. He forthwith seizes 

frumenti que commeatus ; 
of corn and provisions ; 

crudelTter excruciates ; 
them (the Romans) having cruelly tortured (them) i 

nuncios tota civitate iEduorum ; permovet 
messengers in all the state ofthe^Edui, he excites 

eodem mendacio de 

with the same falsehood about 



numgrum 
quantity 

ipsos 



latrones. 
robbers. " 

una 

with them 

magnum 
a great 

Interficit 
he kills 

dimittit 
he sends 

(them) 

equitum 

of knights 

ratione, 
manner, 

injurias. 
injuries 

39. Eporedorix adolescens natus summo l6co, 
Eporedonx a young man born in the highest rank, 

et summae potentise domi, et una Viridomarus, 
and of the highest power at home, and also Viridomarus, 

aetate et gratia, sed dispari gen^re, 
age and influence, but of unequal lineage, 



et principum; 
and chiefs , 



atque 
as 



ipse 
he 



hortatur 
he exhorts (them) 

fecerit, 
had done, 



caede 
the massacre 

simili 

in like 



ut 

that 



persequantur suas 
they should avenge their 



pan 

of equal 



quem 
whom 

ex 

from 



Caesar perduxgrat ad 
Caesar had elevated to 



summam dignitatem 
the highest dignity 



humili loco, traditum sibi 

an humble station, he having been recommended to him 



ab Divitiaco, convenSrant in numero equitum, 

by Divitiacus, had come in the number of the horsemen, 

evocati nominatim ab 60. Erat 

(having been) called byname by him (Caesar). There was 

contentio his inter se de 

a contest (with) these (two) among themselves concerning 

principatu ; et in ilia controversia 
rank ; and in that dispute 



inngistratum 
of the magistrates 



BOOK VII 



On the Gallic War. 



407 



alter pugnaverat pro Convictolitae alter pro 

the one had contended for Convictrolitais the other for 

Goto summis opibus. Ex Tis Eporedorix, 

Cotus with (tlieir; giealest resource^. Of these Eporedorix, 

consilio LHavici cofrnito defert rem 

the designs of Litavicus havin;,' been learned announced the thing 



ad 
to 



Csesarem 

Caesar 



fere 

about 



media 

mid 



nocte ; 

night. 



ne patiatur 
he would not suffer 



civitatem 

the state 



pravis 
by the wicked 



orat 

he begs (that) 

consiliis 
counsels 



adolescentium deficere ab amicitia Romani 

of young men to fall from the friendship of the Roman 

populi, quod provideat futurum, si tot millia 

people, which he foresaw would be, if so many thousands 

hominum conjiinxerint se cum hostibus, 

of men should have united themselves with the enemy, 

quorum salutem neque propinqui 

whose safety neither (their) relations (could) 



neglif^r^re neque posset civitas aestimare 



levi 



neglect i 

momento. 
importance. 

40. Caesar 

C.xsar, 

hoc nuncio, 

by this intelligence, 

indulserat civitati 
favored the state 

interposita, 
having been interposed, 



could the state consider (it) of slight 



affectus 
(having been) affected 



magna 
with great 



quod 
because 



semper 
he had always 



iEduorum, nulla 
of the illdui, no 



sollicitudine 
anxiety 

praecipue 
particularly 

debitatione 
delay 



educit ex castris quatuor 

led forth from the camp four 



expeditas legiones, que omnem equitatum. 



light-armed legions, 

fuit spatium 

was there an interval 



and 

tali 
at such 



all 



the cavalry. 



Nec 

Nor 



castra, 
the camp, 



qu6d 
because 



in celeritate. 

on speed [dispatch]. 



temp5re ad contralienda 
a time for contracting 

videbatur posita 

seemed placed [depending! 

Relinquit C. Fabium legatum 

He leaves C. Fabius (his) lieutenant 



res 

the matter 



408 The Commentaries of Ccssar. BOOK ^ n 

cum duabus legionibus praesidio castris ; 

with two legions for [as] a garrison to Uie camp ; 

quum jussisset fratres Litavici compiehendi, 

when he had ordered the brothers of Litavicus to be arrested, 

reperit profugisse paulo ante ad hostes. 

he finds (that) they had fled a hltle before to the enemy. 

Adhortatus milites, ne permoveantur 

Having encouraged (his) soldiers, (that) they should not be troubled 

labore itingris necessario tempore, omnibus 

by the labor of the march at (so) necessary a time, all 

cupidissimis, progressus viginti quinque 

(being) • most eager, having proceeded twenty five 

millia passiium, conspicatus agmen ^duorum, 

thousand paces [miles], having seen the army of the .-Edui 

equitatu immisso, moratur atque 

the cavalry having been sent against (them). he retards and 

impedit eorum iter; que interdicit omnibus, 
impedes their march : and he forbade all, 

ne interficiant quemquam. Jubet Eporedorigem 

that they should not kill any one. He orders Eporedorix 

et Viridomarus, quos ille existimabant interfectos, 

and Viridomarus, whom they were thinking had been killed, 

versari inter equites, que appellare suos. 

to mingle among the horsemen, and to address their 

lis cognitis, et fraude 

(countrymen). These having been recognized, and the fraud 

Litavici perspecta, ^Edui incipiunt 

of Litavicus having been perceived. the yEdui began 

tendere manus et significare deditionem, et 

to extend (their) hands and to signify submission, and 

projectis armis deprecari mortem. 

having thrown away (their) arms to beg off death. 

Litavicus profugit Gergoviam, cum siiis clientibus, 
Litavicus fled to Gergovia. with his clients, 

quibus est nefas^ more Gallorum, deserere 

with whom it is a crime, by the custom of the Gauls, to desert 

patronos, etiam in extrema fortuna. 

(their) patrons, even in extreme [bad] fortune. 



BOOK VII On the Gallic War. 409 

41. Caesar, nunciis missis ad civitatem 

Caisar, messenffcrs having' been sent to the slate 

iEduorum, qui docgrent conservatos suo 

of the /Edui, wlio should show (that they) had been saved by liis 

beneficio, (luos potuisset interficCre jure belli, 

favor, wliom lie could have killed by the right of war, 

que tribus horis noctis datis exercitui 

and three hours of the night having been given to the army 

ad (luietem, movit castra ad Ger«jjo\ iam. 

for rest, he moves the camp toward Gergovia. 

Fere medio itinSre ecjuites, missi a Fabio, 

About the middle (of the) march horsemen sent by Kabius, 

exponunt in qii-nito periculo res fuerit; 

reveal in how ^rreat danger the affair shall have been 

denionstraiit castra oppuj^nata summis 

[was]; they explain (that) the camp was attacked by very great 

copiis, quum intejjri crebro succederunt 

forces, as fresh (men) frequently succeeded 

defessis, (lue defatitrarent nostros assiduo 

the tired, and exhausled our (men) by the continual 

Jab6re, quibus (dat.)^"^ propter mafjnitudinem 

lal)or. by whom on account of the size 

castroruni perpetuo permanenduni esset 

of the camp it must continually be remained [stationed] 

vallo iisdem, multos vulneratos 

on the rampart (by) the same (that) many were wounded 

multitudine sagittarum, atcjue omnis generis 
by the niullilude of arrows. and of every kind 

telorum ; ad sustinenda hiec tormenta 

of weapons , for lesisting these the hurling engines 

fuisse magno usui, Fabium eorum dicessu, 

were (of) great use, (that) Fabius on their departure, 

duabus portis relictis obstruere 

two gates having been left (open) was blocking up 

caeteras, que addere pluteos vallo, et se 

the rest, and adding breastworks to the wall, and (that) he 

parare ad similem casum in posterum diem, 

was preparing for a like fate on the next day. 



410 



The Commentaries of Cccsar. BOOK VII 



lis 

These 



rebus 

things 



cognitis, 

having been learned. 



Caesar 

Caesar 



pervenit 

arrived 



m 

at 



castra 
the camp 

militum. 
of the soldiers. 

42. Dum 

While 



ante 
before 



ortum 
the rising 



solis 
of the sun 



summo 
by the highest 



studio 
exertion 



haec 

these things 



geruntur 
are going on 



ad 
at 



Gergoviam, 
Gergovia, 



^dui, primis nunciis a Litavico accep- 

the jEdui, the first messages from Litavicus having been 

tis, relinquunt sibi nullum spatium ad 

received, leave to themselves no time for 



cognoscendum. 
ascertaining. 

et 

and 



impellit 
impels 



Avaritia 
Avarice 

temeritas alios, quae 

rashness others, which (last) 

illi gen&ri hominum, 
to that kind of men, (so) 



alios iracundia 
some, passion 

est maxime innata 
is especially natural 

ut habgant 
that they hold 



auditionem pro re comperta. Deripiunt 
hearsay for a thing assured, They plunder 



Romanorum civium. 



levem 

a slight 

bona 
the goods 

abstra- 



of Roman 

hunt 
away 



in 

into 



citizens, 
servitutem 

slavery. 



proclinatam 

the ruined 

furorem, 
madness, 

pudeat 
it may shame 

Educunt 
They drag out 

tribunum 
a tribute 

legionem, 

legion, 



rem, 

condition, 



faciunt caedes, 
they commit murder, they drag (them) 

Convictolitavis adjuvat 
Convictolitavis advances 

plebem ad 

drives the people to 



que impellit 



ut 
that 

(them) 

ex 

from 



and 

facinore 
an enormity 

reverti 

to return 



ad 
to 



admisso 
having been committed, 

sanitatem. 
soundness of mind. 



oppido Cobillono M. Aristium 

the town (of) Cobillonus M. Aristium 



militum facientem iter ad 

of the soldiers making (his) way to (his) 

fide data; cogunt eos 

a pledge having been given ; they force those 



fac6re idem, 
to do the same. 



qui 
who 



constiterant 
had sojourned 



ibi 

there 



causa 
for the purpose 



BOOK VII 0?i the Gallic War. 411 

nef^otiandi. Contiriuo adorti hos in 

of tnidiiif,'. Having continually attacked these on (tlieir) 

itinCne , exuunt omnibus inipedimentis ; 

journey, tliey strip (them) of all (their) baggage, 

ohsident repu«jriantes diem (jue noctes (pi.); 

they besiege (those) opposing day and niglit . 

midtos utrinuiue mtertectis, concitant majorem 
many on both sides having been slain they summon a greater 

midtitudinem ad arma. 
multitude to arms. 

43. Interim nimtiis allatis, omnes 

Meantime news having been brought, (that) all 

eorum milTtes teneri \n potestate Caesaris, 

of their soldiers to be [were] held in the power of Caesar, 

conctUTunt ad Aristiiim, demonstrant nihil 

they gather to Aristium they show (that) nothing 

factum i)ublK*() consilio; decernunt (juaestionem 

(was) done by public design; they decree an investigation 

de bonis dircptis; piiblicant bona 

concerning the goods plundcrcil , they confiscate the goods 

Litavici (lue fratrum ; mittinit Irnratos ad 

ofLitavicus and (his) brothers, tliey send ambassadors to 

Caesarem <>:ratia purfjandi sui , Hive, 

CiEsar for the sake of clearing themselves. These things, 

faeiunt frratia reeuperandoium suorum ; 

they do for the sake of recovering their (soldiers); 

sed contaminati facinore et ca])ti eompendio 
but implicated in the crime and taken by the income 

ex direptis bonis, quod ?a res pertinebat 
from the plundered goods, because this matter was relating 

ad multos et exterriti timbre poenae, 

to many and having been alarmed l)y the fear of punishment, 

incipiunt clam inire consilia de bello 

they begin secretly to entertain plans concerning war 

que solicitant leo^ationibus reliquas civitates. 

and incite with embassies the remaining states. 

Quae^^ tametsi Caesar intellegebat, tamen quam 

Which things although Caesar was knowing, yei; 5W. 



412 The Com?nentaries of CcBsar. BOOK vii 

mitissime potuit appellat lej^atos "Nihil 

mildly as he was able headdresses the ambassadors " In no wise 

se judicare gravius de ci\ itate propter 

he judges more severely concerning the state on account of 

inscientiam que levitatem volgi, neque 

the ignorance and fickleness of the common people. nor 

deminiiere de sua benevolentia in ^^duos." 

does he abate from his goodwill toward the/Edui." 

Ipse expectans mnjorem motum Galliae, 

He himself apprehending a greater commotion of Gaul, 

ne circumsisterelur ab omnibus civitatibus, 

lest he should be surrounded by all the states, 

inibat consiha, quemadmoduin discederet a 
was devising plans, as to wliat manner he might depart from 

Gergovia ac rursus contralieret omnem 

Gergovia and again might draw together all (his) 

exercitum, ne profectio nata a timore 

army, lest a departure arising from fear 

defectionis, videretur simibs fugae. 

of a revolt, might seem like (to) a flight. 

44 Facultas gerendae rei bene visa est 

An opportunity of executing the affair well seemed 

accidere cogitanti haec. Nam quum 

to occur (to him) meditating these (things). For when 

venisset in minora castra causa perspiciendi 

he had come to the smaller camp for the purpose of inspecting 

operis, animadvertit collem, qui tenebatur 

the work. he observed (that) the hill, which was held 

ab hostibus nudatum hominibus, qui superioribus 
by the enemy was bared of men. which on former 

diebus vix poterat cerni prae multitudine. 

days scarcely could be discerned for the multitude. 

Admiratus quaerit causam ex perfugis, quorum 
Surprised, he inquires the cause of the deserters. of whom 

magnus numSrus quotidie confluebat ad Sum. 
a great number daily were pouring in, to him. 

Constabat inter omnes, quod Caesar ipse 

It was agreed by all, which [as] Caesar himself 



BOOK VII 



On the Gallic War. 



413 



cognovgrat jam per exploratores, dorsum 

had known already through (his) scouts. (that) the back 

ejus jugi esse prope aequum, sed silvestre 

[summit] of this hill was nearly level, but woody 



et 

and 



annjustum, 

narrow 



qua 

where 



partem 
part 



op[)idi , 

of the town 



esset 

was 

illos 
they 



aditus 
a passage 

timere 

feared 



ad 
to 



altgram 
the other 



vehementer 
exceedingly 



(that) 

loco ; viderentur jam sentire nee aliter, 
place , they appeared now to feel not otherwise, 

ab Romanis, si 
by the Romans, if 

amisissent alterum, quin circumvallati 

they should lose the other, (but) that they would be surrounded 

paene, atque interclusi omni exitu et pabulatione ; 
nearly, and cut oflF from all egress and foraging, 



huic 
for this 

uno colle 
one hill 



occupato 
having been occupied 



omnes evocatos 
all were called out 

hunc locum, 
this place. 

45. Hac re 

This thing 

complures turmas 
several troops 



a Vercingetorige ad muniendum 
by Vercingetorix for fortifying 



cognita, Caesar 

having been learned. Caesar 



equitum 
of horsemen 



66 
thither 



de 

at 



mittit 
sends 

media 
mid 



nocte ; 
night. 



imperat 

he commands 



US, 
them, 



Ut 
that 



pervagentur 
they should range about 



in omnibus locis paulo tumultuosius. Prima 

in all places somewhat more tumultously [noisily] At the first 

luce jubet magnum numgrum 

light [early dawn] |he orders a great quantity 



[early dawn] 

impedimentorum 

of baggage 



produci ex castris, que 

to be brought forth from the camp. and 



mulorum, que stramenta detrain lis, que 

of mules, and the pack-saddles to be taken from them, and 



muliones 


cum 


cassidibus 


circumvehi 


coUibus 


the muleteers 


with 


helmets 


to go round 


the hills 


specie 


ac 


simulatione 


equitum. 


His 


in the appearance 


: and 


manner 


of horsemen. 


To these 



414 The Commentaries of CcEsar. BOOK VII 

addit paucos equites, qui vagarentur latius 
he adds a few horsemen, who might range more widely 

causa osteiitationis. Jubet omnes 

for the purpose of display. He orders (them) all 

petere Sasdem regiones longo circuitu. Haec 
to seek the same places by a long circuit. These 

videbatur procul ex oi)pido, ut crat 
things were seen at a distance from the town, as there was 

despectus a Gergovia in castia ; neque, tanto 
a view from Gergovia into the camp , nor, at such 

spatio, poterat explorari (juid certi 

a distance, could it be made out what of Uo a] certainty 

esset, Mittit unam legionem eodem jugo, et 

it might be. He sends one legion on the same hill. and 

constituit progressani paulu'n, inferiore 

he stations (it) (having been) advanced a litlle in a lower 

loco, que occultat silvis. Suspicio 

place, and hides (it) m the woods The suspicion (of) 

Galhs augetur, atque omnes copiae munitionum 
the Gauls is increased, and all the forces of the fortifications 

transducuntur illo. Caesar conspicatus 

are brought over thither Ctesar having perceived (that) 

castra hostium vacua, insignibus suorum 

the camp of the enemy was deserted. the insignias of his 

tectis, que mibtaribus signis 

(men) having been covered; and themir.ary ensigns 

occultatis, transducit mibtes ex 

having been concealed, he leads out (his) soldiers from 

majoribus castris in minora raros, ne animad- 
the larger camp into the smaller in squads, lest they should 

verterentur ex oppido ; que ostendit 

be observed from the town . and he shows [explains] 

legatis, quos praefecerat singubs legionibus, 
to the lieutenants whom he bad appointed to each legion. 

quid vellet fieri • in primis monet, ut 

what he wishes to be done, especially he admonishes that 

contineant mibtes, ne progrediantur 

Ihey should restrain the soldiers, lest they should proceed 



BOOK VII On the Gallic War. 415 

longius, studio puffnandi aut spe praedae. 

too far. by llie desire of lighting or by the liope of plunder^ 

Proponit quid incommodi iniciuitas 

He explains what (of) disadvantage the unfavorableness 

I6ci habeat hoc posse vitari 

of the place may have, (that) this could be avoided 

celerite una, rem occasionis, non 

by quickness [speed] alone, (that it is) a matter of opportunity, not 

proeli. His rebus expositis, dat signum, 

of battle These things having been stated, he gives the signal, 

et mittit i^duos, eodem tempore, ab dextra 
and sends the /Edui, at tlie same time, from the right 

parte alio adscensu. 

side [flank] by another ascent. 

46. Murus oppidi aberat mille et du- 

The wail oftiietown was distant a thousand and two 

centos [mcc] passus ab planitie, atque initio 
hundred paces from tlie plain, and from the beginning 

adscensus, recta regione, si nullus anfractus 

of the ascent, in a straight direction, if no bend 

intercederet. Quidquid accesserat huic 

should intervene. Whatever may have been added to this 

circuitus ad molliendum clivum, id aujyebat 

(of) circuit for easing the slope [ascent], tins increased 

spatium itineris. Galb praeduxerant murum 

the length of the route. The Gauls had extended a wall 

sex pedum ex grandibus saxis, fere a 

six feet (high) of great stones, nearly in 

medio colle in lonji^itudine ut 

the middle (of) the hill on tlie length [lengthwise], as 

natura montis ferebat, qui tardaret 

the nature of the mountain was allowing, winch might retard 

impetum nostrorum ; atque omni inferiore spatio 
the attack of our men, and all the lower space 

relicto vacuo, compleverant superiorem partem 

having been left vacant, they had filled the higher part 

colhs usque ad murum oppidi castris 

of the hill even to the wall of the town with campj 



416 The Commentaries of Ccesar. BOOK VII 

densissimis. Milites, signo dato, 

very close. The soldiers, the signal having been given, 

celenter perveniunt ad munitionem, que 

quickly arrived at (this) fortification, and 

transgress! 6am, potiuntur trinis 

having passed over it, take possession (of) three (separate) 

castris. Ac tanta fuit celeritas in capiendis 
camps. And so great was the speed in capturing 

castris, ut Teutomatus, rex Nitiobriguni, 

the camps, that Teutomatus, king of the Nitiobriges, 

oppressus subito in tabernaculo, ut 

having been surprised suddenly in (his) tent, as 

conquieverat meridie, vix erip6ret se 

he went to rest at noon. scarcely saved himself 

ex manibus praedantium militum, superiore 
from the hands of the plundering soldiers, the upper 

parte corporis nudata, equo 

part of (his) body (having been) naked, (and his) horse 

vulnerato. 
(having been) wounded, 

47. Caesar consecutus id quod proposu6rat 

Caesar having attained that which he had proposed 

animo, jussit receptui cani, que 

in mind, ordered the retreat to be sounded, and (the soldiers) 

decimae legionis, qua erat turn comitatus, 

of the tenth legion, by which he was then accompanied, 

consist6re signa. At milites reliquarum 

stood [halted] at the standards. But the soldiers of the other 

legionum, non exaudito sono tubae, quod 

legions, not having heard the sound of the trumpet, because 

vallis satis magna intercedebat, tamen 

a valley sufficiently [quite] large was intervening, however 

retinebantur a tribunis militum que 

were kept back by the tribunes of the soldiers and 

legatis, ut praeceptum erat a Caesar, 

by the lieutenants, as (it) had been commanded by Caesar. 

Sed elati spe celeris victoriae et fuga 

But elated by the hope of a speedy victory and by the flight 



BOOK VII On the Gallic War. 417 

hostium, que secundis proeliis superiorum 

of the enemy, and the favorable battles of former 

temporum existimabant nihil adeo arduum 

times they are thinking (that) nothing (was) so cliHicult 

sibi, (juod possent non consequi virtute; 
for them, wliich they could not accomplish by valor ; 

neque feceiuiit fiiiem sequendi, prius 

nor did they make an end of following, before 

quam appropinquarunt muro que poitis oppidi. 
(that) they had approached the wall and the gates of the town. 

Vero turn clamore orto ex omnibus partibus 

But then a shout having arisen from all parts 

urbis, qui aberant longiiis perterriti 

of the town. those who were distant farther frightened 

repentino tumultu, quum existimarent bostes 
by the sudden tumult. as they thought the enemy 

esse intra portas, jecerunt sese ex 

to be [were] within the gates, threw themselves from 

oppido. Matres familias jactabant 

the town. The mothers of families [raatronsl threw 

vestem que argentum de muro, et 

(their) clothes and silver Ifjin the wall, and 

prominentes nudo pect6re, passis manibus 

bending forward with naked breast, with outstretched hands 

obtestabantur Romanos, ut parc6rent sibi; neu 
they implored the Romans, that they should spare them ; nor 

sicut fecissent Avarici, abstinergrent ne 

as they had done at Avaricum, abstain from [spare] rot 

mulieribus quidem atque infantibus. Nonnullae 
the women even and children. Some 

demissae de muris per manus, 

having let themselves down from the wall by their hands 

transdebant sese militibus. L. Fabius 

were delivering themselves to the soldiers. L. Fabius 

centurio octavae legionis, quem, constabat 

a centurion of the eighth legion, whom [who], it appeared 

dixisse eo die inter suos, se 

to have [had] said this day among his (men, that) he 



418 The Commentaries of CcEsar. BOOK VII 

excitari Avaricensibus pra?miis, neque commissurum, 
was excited by tlie Avarican rewards, nor would he allow, 

ut qiiisquam adscenderet miirum prius, 
that any one sliould mount the wall before (himself), 



nactus tres 


SO OS 


manipulares 


atque 


havinjr taken three (of) 


his 


company 


and 


sul;l:natus ah 


iis 


adscendit 


murum ; 


having been raised up by 


them 


he mounted 


the wall ; 


ipse lursus exceptans 


extulit 


eos in 


murum, 


he in turn taking up 


drew 


them onto 


the wall. 



singulos. 
one at a time. 

48. Interim Ti, qui conven6rant ad alteram 

In the meantime those, who had assembled at the other 

partem oppidi, ut demonstravimus supra causa 
part of the town, as we have shown above for the purpose 

munitionis, primo clamorc exaudito, inde 

of fortifying, tlie lust shout having been heard, afterward 

etiam inci^^ati crebris nunciis, oppidum 

also incited by frequent reports, (that) the town 

teneri .'ib Romanis, praemissis equitibus, 

was h -kl by the Romans, having sent forward the horsemen, 

I'onteiideru it eo magno concursu. Ut quisque 

they ha.-tened there in a great throng. As each 

eoruTTi primus venerat consistebat sub muro, 

of them fust came he was halting under the wall, 

que augebat numerum suorum pugnantium. 

and was increasing the numljer of their (men) fighting. 

Quum magna multitude quorum convenisset, 
When a great multitude of these had assembled, 

matres famihas ' quae paulo ante 

the mothers of families [matrons] who a little before 

tendebant manus de muro Romanis, 

were holding (their) hands from the wall to the Romans, 

coeperunt obtestari suos et Galhco more 

began to beseeth their (people) and in the Gallic manner 

ostentare passum capillum, que proferre 

to show dishevelled hair, and Ij bring forth 



BOOK VII 



On the Gallic War. 



419 



liberos in conspectum. Contentio 6rat aequa 

the children into view. The contest was equal 

Romanis nee loco nee num6ro(sing.) ;simul 

for the Romans neitlier in place nor in numbers ; at the same time 



defatigati et 
fatigued both 



cursu et spatio piignae, 

by running: and by the duration of the fight, 



non facile sustinebat reeentes atque integros. 

they were not easily withstanding (those) fresh and vigorous. 

49. Caesar cum videret 

Caesar when he saw 

iniquo loco, que 

in a disadvantageous place, and 



(it) 



puf]fnan 
to be [was] fought 



copias 

the forces 



augeri, praemetuens suis 

to be [were] increased, being anxious for his (men) 



hostium 
of the enemy 

mittit ad 
he sends to 



T. Sextum legatum, quern reliquerat pracsidio 

T. Sextius (his) lieutenant, whom he had left for [as] a guard 



minoribus 
to the smaller 



castris, 
camp, 



et 

and 

ab 
on 



cohortes ex castris, 
the cohorts from the camp, 

infimo colle 

the lowest (part of) the hill 

ut si vidisset nostros 
that if he should see our (men) 

terreret hostes 

he might alarm the enemy 

libere. Ipse 

freely. He himself 

loco cum legione, ubi 
place with the legion, where 



ut celeriter educeret 

that he should quickly lead forth 

sub 
at 



constitueret 

should station 



(them) 



dextro latere hostium; 
the right wing of the enemy; 

depulsos loco, 

repulsed from the place, 



quo 
so that 



insequerentur minus 
they would follow less 



progressus 
having proceeded 



paulum ex ?o 
a little from this 



constiterat, expectabat 
he had halted, was awaiting 



eventum 

the issue 



pugnae. 

of the battle. 



50 Quum 

While 



pugnatur 

it was fought 



35 



accerime 

most violently 



comminus, 

hand to hand, 



hostes confiderent loco et numero 

the enemy confided in the place and (their) number 

nostri virtute ; i^dui sunt subito visi, ab 

our men in (their) courage ; the ^Edui were suddenly seen, by 



420 



The Commentaries of CcBsar. BOOK vil 



Iat6ie, quos Caesar miserat 

flank, whom Caesar had sent 



nostris aperto 

our (men) on the exposed 

ah dextra parte alio 

from the right side [flank] by another 

distinendae manus.^ Hi vehementer perterruerunt 

of cutting off the force They very much alarmed 



ascensu, causa 
ascent, for the purpose 



nostros 
our men 



similitudine 
by the similarity 



armorum ; 
of (their) arms , 



ac 

and 



animadvertebantur 
they were observed 



dextris humeris 

with the right shoulder 



tametsi 
although 

exertis, 
uncovered. 



quod 
which 

tamen 
however 

factum 

(was) done 

Eodem 
At the same 

qui 

(those) who 



consueverat 
was accustomed 

milites 

the soldiers 



esse 
to be 



insigne 

the sign 



pacatis, 
(of those) in peace, 



existimabant 
were thinking 



id 

this 



ab 

by 



hostibus 
the enemy 



tempore 

time 



causa 

for the sake 

centurio, 
the centurion, 



adscenderant 
had ascended 



murum 
the wall 



(that) 

fallendi 
of deceiving 

L. Fabius, 

L. Fabius, 
una. 



ipsum 

same 

sui. 
them- 

que 
and 



circumventi 
having been surrounded 

de muro. 
from the wall. 



atque 
and 



together (with him), 

interfecti, praecipitabantur 

slain, were thrown 



M. Petronius, 
M. Petronius, 



centurio 

a centurion 



ejusdem 
of the same 



legionis, quum conatus esset exscindere portas, 
legion. when he had attempted to cut down the gates, 



oppressus 
overpowered 

sibi, 
for himself. 



a multitudine, 
by the multitude, 



ac desperans 

and despairing of safety 



jam vulneribus 
already wounds 



acceptis, 
having been received. 



suis manipularibus qui 
to his comrades who 

Quoniam possum non servare 
" Since I can not save 



secuti 
had 



erant 
followed 



inquit 
said 

ilium, 
him. 



me una vobiscum, 

myself together with you. 



quidem certe 
indeed certainly 



prospiciam 

1 will provide 



vestrae 

for your 



I, 
I. 



adductos 
led 



cupiditate 
by the desire 



gloriae 
of glory. 



saluti, 
safety, 

deduxi 
have brought 



quos, 
wliom, 

in 
into 



BOOK VII On the Gallic War, 421 

periculum ; vos, facultate data consulite 

danger, you, an opportunity having been given. consult 

vobis. Simul irrupit in medios 

for yourselves " At the same time he threw himself into tlie midst 

hostes, que duobus interfectis, submovit 
of the) enemy, and two having been killed, he drove back 

relicjuos paulum a porta. Suis conantibus 

the rest a little from the gate To his (men) endeavoring 

auxiliari inquit, Frustra conamini subvenire meae 
to assist he said. "In vain you try to save my 

vitae quern sanguis que vires jam deficiunt, 
life whom blood and strength now fail, 

proinde abite bine, dum est facultas, 

therefore go from here, while there is the chance, 

que recipite vos ad legionem. Pugnans ita 

and get [betake] yourselves to the legion." Fighting thus 

concidit p5st paulum, ac fuit saluti^^ 

he fell after a little, and was (for) a safety 

suis. 

to his (men). 

51. Quum nostri premerentur undique, 

As our (ro*^^ were pressed on every side, 

quadraginta sex centurionibus amissis, 

forty six centurions having been lost, 

dejecti sunt loco. Sed decima legio, 

they were driven from the place. But the tenth legion, 

quae constiterat pro subsidio paulo aequiore 
which had taken stand for a reserve on a little more level 

l6co tardavit Gallos insequentes intolerantiiis. 
place checked the Gauls following too eagerly. 

Cohortes decimae tertiae legionis, rursus exceperunt 
The cohorts of the thirteenth legion, in turn supported 

banc, quae ednctae ex minoribus castris, 

this, that having been led from the smaller camp, 

cum T. Sextio, legato, cepgrant superiorem 

with T. Sextius, the lieutenant, had occupied the liigher 

locum. Ubi legiones primum attigerunt planitiem 
ground. When the legions first reached the plain 



422 



TJie Commeyitai'ies of Cccsa7\ book VII 



constiterunt, 
they halted 



signis 
the standards 

Vercingetonx 
Veroinjretorix 



infestis 
having been turned 

reduxit suos 
led back his (men) 



munitiones. 
the fortifications, 

septingentis 
seven hundred 



contra 

against 

ab 

from 

Eo 

On this 

milites 
soldiers 



hostes. 

the enemy 

radicibus collis intra 

the foot of the hill within 

die paulo minijs 

day a little less (than) 

desiderati sunt, 
were missing. 

52. Postgro die, Caesar, concione advocata, 

On the next day, Caesar. a council having been called, 

reprehendit temeritatem que cupiditatem militum, 
censured the rashness and avarice of the soldiers, 

quod ipsi judicavissent sibi, quo videretur 

because they had judged for themselves, where it seemed 



(that they) 

neque, 
neither. 

constitissent, 
did they halt, 



procedendum, aut quid 



to [must] go 

signo 
the signal 

neque 
nor 



or 



what 



recipiendi 
for halting 

potuissent 
could they 



agendum, 
to [must] be done, 

dato, 
having been given, 



retineri 
be restrained 



a 

by 



tribunis 
the tribunes 



militum 
of the soldiers 



que 

and 



quid 
what 

quid 
what 



iniquitas 
the disadvantage 



legatis. 
by the lieutenants 

loci 
of position 



Exposuit 

He showed 



posset, 

would be able (to effect), 



ipse 

(he) himself 



sensisset 
had thought 



ad 
at 



Avaricum, 

Avancum. 



hostibus 
the enemy 



deprehensis, 
having been surprised 



Sine 
without 



duce 
a leader 



quum, 

when, 

et 

and 



sine equitatu, demisisset 
without cavalry. he had given up 



exploratam victoriam, 
a certain victory. 



ne acciperet modo 

lest he might receive only 



parvum detrimentum in 
a small injury in 



contentione, 
the contest, 



propter 
on account of 



iniquitatem 
the disadvantage 



loci 
of the place 



Quantopere admiraretur eorum magnitudinem animi, 

As much as he admired their greatness of soul, 



BOOK VII On the Gallic War, 423 

quos non munitiones castrorum, non altitude 
whom neither the fortifications of the camp, nor tlie height 

montis, non murus oppidi potuisset 

of the mouutain, nor the wall of the town could 

tardare, reprehendere tantopere licentiam que 

retard, he censured so greatly (their) lawlessness and 

arrogantiam, quod existimarent se sentire 

presumption, because they were thinking (that) they understood 

plus quam imperatorem de victoria atque 

more than (their) commander about victory and 

exitu rerum ; se desiderare in milite nee 

the issue of affairs, (saying that) he desiied in a soldier no 

minus modestiam et continentiam, quam virtutem 
less moderation and submission. than valor 

atque magnitudinem animi. 
and greatness of soul." 

53. Hac concione, habita et ad extremum 

This council. havmg been held and at the end 

militibus confirmatis oratione, ne 

the soldiers having been encouraged by (his) speech, that (they) 

permoverentur animo ob banc causam, neu 

should not be disturbed in mind on account of this affair, nor 

tribuerent id virtuti hostium, quod 

should they attribute this to the valor of the enemy which 

iniquitas loci attulisset ; cogitans 

the disadvantage of position had brought on (them) ; thinking 

eadem de profectione, quae senserat 

the same concerning a departure, which [as] he had felt 

ante, eduxit legiones ex castris, que 

before. he led forth the legions from the camp, and 

constituit aciem idongo l{5co. Quum 

drew up the battle-line in a favorable place. When 

Vercingetorix nihilo magis descenderet in aequum 
Vercmgetonx no more would descend into level 

locum, levi equestri proelio facto, 

ground a slight cavalry engagement having occurred. 

atque eo secundo, reduxit exercitum 

' and this (being) favorable. he led back (his) armv 



424 The ComynentaiHes of Ccesar. BOOK VII 

in castra. Quum fecisset hoc idem postero 
into the camp When he had done this same thing the next 

die, existimans satis factum ad mmueiidam 

day, believing (that) enough was done for lessening 

Gallicam ostentationem, que confirmandos 

the Gallic arrogance, and for encouraging 

animos militum, movit castra in 

the minds of (his) .soldiers. he moves (his) camp into 

j^duos. Hostibus ne turn quidem insecutis, 
the ^dui. The enemy not then even having followed, 

tertio die refecit pontem ad flumen 

on the third day he repaired the bridge over the river 

Elaver, atque transduxit exercitum. 

Allier, and led over (his) army 

54. Ibi appellatus a Viridomaro atque 

There, having been waited on by Viridomarus and 

Eporedorij^e ^Eduis, discit Litavicus, cum 

Eporedorix the .Eduans. he learns (that) Litavicus, with 

omni equitatu profectum ad sollicitandos ^duos ; 
all tlie cavalry had set out for instigating thevEdui, 

et esse opus ipsos antecedere 

and (that) it was necessary (that) they should go before 

ad confirmandam civitatem. Etsi Caesar jam 
for restraining the state Although Caesar already 

multis rebus habebat perfidiam ^^duorum 

in many things was having the unfaithfulness ofthe^Edui 

perspectam atque existimabat disessu 

clearly understood and he was thinking (that) by the departure 

horum defectionem civitatis admaturari ; 

of these the defection of the state to [would] be hastened; 

tamen censuit eos non retmendos, ne 

however he was of the opinion that they should not be detained, lest 

videretur aut inferre injuriam, aut dare 

he might appear either to impose a wrong. or to give 

aliquam suspicionem timoris. His discedentibus, 

some suspicion of fear. To them dejjarting, 

breviter exposuit sua merita in j^duos, quos 

he briefly states his services to the .Edui, whom 



BOOK VII 



On the Gallic War. 



425 



accepisset et cjuani humiles, compulsos in 

he had taken in cliarge and how humbled, driven into 



oppida, 
their towns. 



inultatos 

deprived 



agns, 
of their lands. 



omnibus 

all (their) 



ereptis, 

having been taken away, 



stipendio imposito, 

a tribute having been imposed. 



copiis 
means 



(and) 



obsidibus extortis cum summa contumelia, 

hostages having been exacted with the greatest insult, 

in quam fortunam, que in quam amplitudinem 
to what fortune, and to what greatness 

deduxisset, ut non solum redissent in 

he had raised (them), that they had not only returned to (their) 

sed viderentur 



statum. 

state 



but 



pristmum 
former 

dignitatem 
the dignity 

mandatis 

charge 

se. 
his presence, 

55. Novidunum 

Novidunum [Nevers] 



et gratiam 
and influence 

datis, 
having been given. 



antecessisse 
they seemed to have surpassed 

omnium temp5rum. His 

of all times. Tins 



dimisit 

he dismisses 



60s 
them 



ab 

from 



6rat oppidum ^duorum 
was a town of the ^Edui 



positum opportune l6co ad 
situated in an advantageous place on 

Caesar contulerat hue omnes 
Caesar had brought hither all 



ripas 

the banks 



Ligeris. 

of the Loire. 



obsides Galhae, 
the hostages of Gaul. 



frumentum, publicam pecuniam, magnam partem 
the corn, the public money, a great part 



suorum impedimentorum, atque 

of his baggage. and (that) 

Miserat hue magnum num6rum 

He had sent hither a great number 

coemptorum in Italia atque Hispania, 
bought in Italy and Spain, 



exercitus. 
of the army. 

equorum 

of horses 

causa 

for the purpose 



hujus belli. Quum Eporedorix que Viridomarus 

of this war. When Eporedorix and Viridomarus 

venissent 60, et cognovissent de statu 

had arrived there, and had learned about the condition 



426 The Commentaries of Ccssar. BOOK VII 

civitatis; Litavicum receptum ab 

(attitude] of the state; (that) Litavicus was received by 

^duis Bibracte, quod est oppidum maximae 

the iEdui in Bibracte, which is a town of the greatest 

auctoritatis apud 60s, Coiivictolitavem 

importance among them, (that) Convictolitavis 

magistratum que magnam partem senatus 

the magistrate and a great part of the senate 

convenisse ad Sum, lej^atos publice 

had gone to him, (that) ambassadors were openly 

missos ad Vercingetorigem de concilianda pace 
sent to Vercingetorix concerning procuring peace 

et amicitia, existimaverunt tantum commodum 
and alliance, they thought so great an advantage 

non praetermittendum. Itaque custodibus Novioduni 
must not (to) be neglected. Therefore the guards of Noviodunum 

interfectis, que qui convengrant eo 

having been killed, and those who had assembled there 

causa negotiandi, aut itingris, partiti sunt 

for the sake of trading, or 'travel, they divided 

pecuniam atque equos inter se ; curaverunt 

the money and the horses among themselves ; they took care 

obsides civitatum deducendos Bibracte 

(that) the hostages of the states should be conducted to Bibracte 

ad magistratum, oppidum, quod judicabant 

to the magistrate, the town, because they thought (it) 

posse non teneri ab se, incenderunt, ne 
could not be held by them. they burned, lest 

esset cui usui Romanis. Avexerunt 

it might be (of) some use to the Romans. They carried away 

subito navibus quod potuerunt frumenti ; corru- 

suddenly in ships what they could of corn they 

perunt rehquum flumine atque incendio; ipsi 
destroyed the rest in the river and by fire , they 

coeperunt copf^re copias ex finitimis regionibus, 

began *o collect forces from the neighboring districts 

disponere praesidia que custodias ad ripas 

to place garrisons and guards along the banks 



BOOK VII On the Gallic War. 427 

Legeris, que ostentare equitatum omnibus l6cis 
of the Loire, and to display cavalry in all places 

causa iiijiciendi timoris, si aut possent 

for the purpose of exciting alarm, if either they could 

excludere Romanos re frumentaria, aut adductos 

cutoff" the Romans (from) a corn supply, or driven 

inopia, expell6re ex Proviucia; 

by want. could expel (them) from the province; (this) 

adjuvabat 60s multum ad quam spem, quod 

was assisting them much to such hope, because 

Liger creverat ex nivibus, ut videretur 

the Loire * had swollen from snows, so that it seemed 

omnino posse non transiri vador. 

altogether (that) it could not be crossed by a ford. 

56. Quibus rebus cognitis, Caesar censuit 

Which things having been known, Caesar was of the opinion 

sibi maturandum, si esset periclitandum 
(that) he must hasten, if he must take the risk 

in perficiendis pontibus, ut dimicaret prius 

in building the bridges so that he might fight before 

qu^m majores copiae coactae 60 Nam ut, 

(that) greater forces were collected there. For that, 

consilio commutato, convertSret iter 

(his) plan having been changed, he might alter (his) route 

in Provinciam, existimabat id ne tum 

into the Province he was thinking (that) this not then 

quidem necessario faciendum, quum infamia 
even of necessity to [must] be done, not only the disgrace 

atque indignitas rei, et oppositus mons 

and humiliation of the thing, and the opposed mount 

Cebenna, que difficultas viarum impediebat (sing ); 
Cevennes, and the difficulty of the roads were preventing; 

turn maxime quod cupiebat vehementer 

but also especially because he was desiring very much 

adjungi Labieno, atque iis legionibus quas 

to be united with Labienus, and these legions which 

miserat una. Itaque admodum magnis 

he had sent together (with him). Therefore very long 



428 



The Commentaries of CcBsar. BOOK VII 



itineribus 

marches 



diurnis 
by day 



atque 

and 



nocturnis, coiifectis 

by night. having been made 

pervenit ad Ligerim, contra opinionem omnium; 
he arrived at the Loire, contrary to the opinion of all; 

vado 



que 
and 



a ford 

pro necessitate 

for the urgency 

humeri 
the shoulders 



invento 

having been found 



r6i ; 
of the case . 

possent esse 
might be 



per equites, opportuno 

by the horsemen suitable 

ut brachia modo, atque 

that the arms only and 



liberi 
free 



ab 

from 



aqua 

the water 



ad 
for 



sustinenda arma, equitatu disposito 

supporting (their) equipments, the cavalry having been stationed 

qui refringeret vim fluminis, atque 

(that) they might break the force of the river, and 

hostibus 
the enemy 

transduxit exercitum incolumen que 

the army safe and 



he led over 

frumentum 
corn 



perturbatis primo adspectu, 
(having been) confounded at first sight 

nactus 

having found 



in 

in 



agris, 
the fields. 



exercitu 

the army 
fac6re 



repleto 



et 

and 
lis 



copiam 
abundance 



iter 
to make (his) march 



having been supplied with those 
in Senones. 



into the Senones, 



57. Dum 

While 



haec 

these things 



geruntur 
are transacted 



rebus, 

things, 



apud 

under 



pecoris, 
of cattle, 

instituit 
he determines 



Caesarem, 

Ccesar. 



Labienus, eo supplemento, quod nuper venerat 

Labienus. this contingent [addition], that had lately come 



ex Italia relicto 

from Italy having been left 



Agendici, ut 

at Agendicum [Sens]. that 



esset praesidio impedimentis, proficiscitur 

it might be (for) a guard to the baggage, marches 

cum quatuor legionibus Lutetiam. Id est 

with four legions to Lutolia [Paris] This is 

oppidum Parisiorum positum in insula fluminis 
a town oftheParisii situated on an island of the river 

Sequanae. Cujus adventu cognito ab 

Seine. Whose arrival having been learned by 



BOOK VII Oil the Gallic War. 429 

hostibus, magnse copiae convenerunt ex finitimis 
the enemy, great forces assembled from the neighboring 

civitatibus. Summa imperii transditur Camulooeno 
states The supreme command is given to Cainulogenus 

Aulerco; qui prope confectus aetate, 

theAulercan; who (though) nearly worn out with age, 

tamen evocatus est ad eum honorem propter 
yet was called to this honor on account of (hij) 

singularem scientiam militaris r6i Is, quum 

singular knowledge of military affairs. He, when 

animadvertisset , esse perpetuam paludem 

he had observed (that there) was a continuous marsh 

quae influeret in Sequanam, atcjue map:nopere 
which opened into the Seine. and greatly 

impediret omnem ilium l6cum, consedit hie, que 

obstructed all that place, encamped there. and 

instituit prohibere nostros transitu, 

resolved to prohibit our (soldiers) from passing. 

58. Labienus prim5 conabatur aggre vineas, 

Labienus at first was endeavoring to work the sheds, 

explere paludem cratibus atque agoere, atque 
to fill up the marsh with hurdles and a mound, and 

m^unire iter. Postquam animadvertit id 

to open a road After he observed (that) this 

confieri difficilius, egressus 

would be accomplished with great difficulty, having marched out 

e castris silentio tertia vigilia, pervenit 

from (his) camp in silence on the third watch, he arrived 

Metiosedum, 6odem itin^re, quo 

at Metiosedum [Melun] by the same road, by which 

venerat. Id est oppidum Senonum positum 

he had come. This is a town of the Senones situated 

in insula Sequanae, ut pauld ante diximus 

on an island of the Seine, as a little before we have said 

Lutetiam. CircTter quinquaginta navibus depre- 
(was) Lutetia. About fifty ships having been 

liensis, quer conjunctis celerite, atque 

seized, and (having been) joined together quickly. and 



430 The Commentaries of CcBsar. BOOK vii 

militibus impositis 66, et oppidanis 

soldiers having been placed thereon, and the people of the town 

perterritis novitate r6i, magna 

(having been) alarmed by the novelty of the thing a great 

pars quorum erat evocata ad bellum, 

part of whom had been called away to the war, 

potitur oppido sine contentione. Ponte 

he seizes the town without a contest. The bridge 

refecto, quem hostes resciderant 

having been rebuilt, which the enemy had destroyed 

superioribus diebus, transducit exercitum, et 

on the preceding days he leads over (his) array and 

coepit facgre iter secundo flumine ad Lutetiam. 

began to make (his) way down the river to Lutetia. 

Hostes, re cognita ab lis qui 

The enemy, the matter having been learned from those who 

profuggrant a Metiosedo, jubent Lutetiam 

had fled from Metiosedum, order Lutetia 

incendi que pontes ejus oppidi rescind!; 
to be burned and the bridges of this town to be destroyed : 

ipsi profecti palude, considunt in 

they themselves having left the marsh. place themselves on 

ripis Sequanae e regione Lutetiae contra 

the banks of the Seine over against Lutetia opposite 

castra Labieni. 
the camp of Labienus 

59. Jam Caesar audiebatur discessisse a 

Already Caesar was heard to have departed from 

Gergovia; jam rumores afferebantur de defectione 
Gergovia; already reports were brought of the revolt 

^duorum, et secundo motu Galliae, que 

oftheiEdui. and of the successful rising of Gaul and 

Galli in colloquis confirmabant Caesarem 

the Gauls in their conversations were asserting (that) Caesar 

interclusum itinere et Ligere, 

cut off from (his) route and from the Loire (and> 

coactum inopia frumenti, contendisse in 

forced by the want of corn. had marched into 



BOOK VII 



O71 the Gallic War. 



431 



Provinciam. Autem Bellovaci, defectione T^duorum 
the province But the Bellovaci the defection of the ^dui 



cognita, qui ante grant 

having been learned who before were 

infideles, coeperunt co^]j6re manus, 

unfaithful. began to collect forces. 



per 

of 



se 
themselves 



atque aperte 
and openly 



pa rare 

to prepare (for) 



bellum. Turn Labienus, 

war. Then Labienus, 



commutatione rerum 
a change of affairs 

consilium capiendum sibi, 
plan to [mu.stj be taken by him. 

antea. Neque jam cogitabat, 
before. Nor now was he thinkini 



tanta 

in so great 

intellifjebat longe aliud 

thought (that) a far different 



atque senserat 

than he had considered 

ut acquireret 

that he should acquire 



proebo, sed ut 
in battle, but that 



aliquid, que lacesseret hostes 
anything and should attack the enemy 

reduceret exercitum incohimen A^^endicum. 

he should lead back (his) army safe to Agendicum 



Namque ex altera 
For on the one 



parte Bellovaci, quae 
side the Bellovaci. which 



civitas 
state 

Gallia, 
Gaul. 



habet maximam opinionem virtutis in 
had the greatest reputation of [for] bravery in 

instabant ; altfiram Camulogenus tenebat 

were pressing- the other (side) Camulogenus was holding 



parato atque instructo exercitu; turn 

with an organized and equipped army , also 



maximum flumen 
a very large river 

interclusas a 

cut off from 

Tantis 
Such great 

videbat auxilium 

he saw (that) aid 



distinebat 

was separating 

praesidio 
the garrison 



legiones 

the legions (having been) 

atque impedimentis. 
and baggage 



difficultatibus 
difficulties 



subito objectis, 

suddenly having been presented 

41 



petendum 
to [must] be sought 



ab virtute' 
from strength 



animi. 
of mind. 

60. Itaque 
Therefore 



sub 
towards 



vesp^rum, concilio con- 

evening. a council having been 



432 The Comrneniaf'ies of CcEsar. BOOK VII 

vocato, cohortatus, ut dilin^enter cjue 

called; lie exhorted (his soldiers), that dilijjently and 

Industrie adiniiiistrarent 6a quae 

industriously they s)iould execute [performl those (Lliings) which 

imperasset; naves, quas deduxerat a 

he should command ; the ships, which he had brought from 

Metiosedo, attribuit singulas Romanis equitibus ; et 
Metiosedum, he assigns each one to Roman knights ; and 

jubet, prima vigilia confecta, 

orders (them), the first watch having been completed, 

progredi quatuor millia passuum secundo flumine, 
to proceed four thousand paces down the river, 

silentio, que ibi se expectari. Rebnquit 

in silence, and (that) there he was to be awaited. lie leaves 

quinque cohortes, quas existimabat esse minime 
five cohorts, which lie considered to be least 

firmas ad dimicandum, praesidio castris ; 

sturdy for fighting, for [as] a guard to the camp ; 

imperat reliquas quinque ejusdem legionis 

he commands the remaining five of the same legion 

proficisci de media nocte cum omnibus impedimentis 
to proceed at mid night with all (their) baggage 

adverse flumine magno tumultu. Etiam 

up the river with a great din. Also 

conquirit lintres ; has mittit in eandem partem, 

he collects boats; these he sends in the same direction, 

incitatas magno sonitu remorum. Ipse, paulo 

driven by a great sound [noise] of oars. He himself, a little 

post, egressus silentio cum tribus legionibus, 

after, having marched out in silence with three legions, 

petit eum locum, quo jusserat naves 

seeks this place, where he had ordered the ships 

appelli. 
to be brought. 

61. Quum esset ventum §o, exploratores 

When it was come [he came] there, Z]} the scouts 

hostium, ut dispositi grant omni parte 

of the enemy. as they were stationed in every part 



BOOK VII On the Gallic War. 433 

fluminis, inopinantes, quod magna tempestas 
of the river, not expecting. because a gre.it fetorm 

sabito coorta erat, oppnmuntur ab nostris ; 
had suddenly arisen, were overpowered by our (men) ; 

exercitus (jue equitatus celeriter transmittitur, 

the infantry and cavahy are speedily transported, 

Romaiiis equitibus admmistrantibus, quos 

the Roman knights superintending, whom he (Labienus) 

praefeceret ei negotio. Fere uno 

had appointed for this alfair. Nearly at one [the same] 

tempore sub lucem nunciatur hostibus, 

time about daylight it was announced to the enemy, 

tumultuari m castris Romanorum praeter 

(that) tlie'e was confusion in the camp of the Romans beyond 

consuetudinem, et magnum agmen ire 

custom, and (that) a great force was going 

adverse flumine, que sonitum remorum 

up the river, and (that) the sound [noise] of oars 

exaudiri in eadem parte, et paui6 

was heard in the same direction, and (that) a little 

infra milites transportari navibus. Quibus rebus 

below soldiers were transported in ships. Which things 

auditis, quod existimabant legiones 

having been heard, because they thought (that) the legions 

transire tribus locis, atque omnes pcrturbatos 

were crossing in three places, and (that) all alarmed 

defectione ^Eduorum parare fugam, 

by the defection of the ^Edui were preparing lor tight, 

quoque distribuerunt suas copias in tres partes. 
they also divided their forces into three parts. 

Nam, praesidio relicto a regicr.e castrorum, 

• For, a guard having been left opposite the camp, 

et parva manu missa versus Metiosedum, 

and a small force having been sent toward Metiosedum, 

quae progrederetur tantum quantum naves pro- 
which should advance only as far as the sh'ps had 

cessisent, duxerunt reliquas copias contra Lab.enum. 
proceeded, they led the remaining forces against Labienus. 



434 The Commentaries of Ccssar. BOOK vil 

62. Prima luce et omnes nostri 

At first light [chiylight] both all our (soldiers) 

transportati grant, et acies hostium cernebatur. 
had been transported, and the army of the enemy was discerned 

Labienus cohortatus milites ut tengrent 
(seen]. Labienus exhorted the soldiers that they should hold 

memoriam suae pristinae virtutis, et tot 

the memory (of) their former valor, and (of) so many 

secundissimorum proeliorum, atque existimarent 

very successful battles, and that they should think 

Caesarem ipsum, cujus ductu saepenum- 

Ctliat) Caesar himself, under whose leadership they had so 

ero superassent hostes adesse; dat signum 

often conquered the enemy, was present ; he gives the signal 

proeli. Primo concursu, ab dextro cornu, ubi 

of battle. On the first encounter, on the right wing, where 

se])tima legio constiterat, hostes pelluntur, 

the seventh legion stood. the enemy are repulsed, 

atque conjiciuntur in fugam; ab sinistro, 
and are thrown into flight; on the left (wing), 

quern locum duodecima legio tenebat, quum 
which place the twelfth legion was holding, when 

primi ordines hostium concidissent transfix! 
the first ranks of the enemy had fallen transfixed 

pilis, reliqui tamen resistebant acerrime, nee 

by javelins, the rest yet were resisting most actively, nor 

quisquam dabat suspicionem fugae. Dux 

was any one giving suspicion of flight. The general 

ipse hostium Camulogenus aderat suis, 

himself of the enemy Camulogenus was present with his 

atque cohortabatur eos. At exitu 

(men). and was encouraging them. But the issue 

victoriae etiam nunc incerto, quum 

of the victory even now (being) uncertain, when 

nunciatum esset tribunis septimae legionis, 

it was announced to the tribunes of the seventh legion, 

quae gererentur in sinistro cornu, ostenderunt 
what was transpiring on the left wing, they displayed 



BOOK VII On the Gallic War. 435 

legionem post tergum hostium, que intulerunt 

the legion behind [on] the rear of the enemy, and advanced 

signa. Ne eo temp5re quidem quisquam cessit 

the standards. Not at th.s tune even did any one leave 

l6co, sed omnes circumventi sunt que 

the place, but all were surrounded and 

interfecti; Camulogenus tulit 6andem 

slain, Camulogenus bore [met] the same 

fortunam. At li qui relicti grant praesidio 

fortune [fate]. But those who were left for a garrison 

contra castra Labieni, quum audissent 

over against the camp of Labienus, when they had heard 

prfrluim commissum, lerunt subsidio 

(that) the battle (had) commenced, went for [asj an aid 

suis, que ceperunt collem, ne(iue 

to their [people], and took [occupied], the h;ll. nor 

potuerunt sustinere impetum nostrorum nidituni 
could they endure the attack of our soldiers 

victorum : sic permixti cum suis fugientibus, 

(wlien) conquerors ; so mingled with their own (men) retreating. 

quos silvae que montes non texerunt 

those whom the woods and the mountains . did not conceal 

interfecti sunt ab equitatu. Hoc negotio con- 
were killed by the cavalry. Th:s alTair having 

fecto, Labienus revertitur Agedincum, iibi 

been completed, Labienus returned to Agedincum, where 

impedimenta totius exercitus relicta grant ; inde 
the baggage of all the army had been left , tlience 

pervenit ad Caesarem cum omnibus copns. 

became to Caesar with all (his) forces. 

63. Defectione i^duorum cognita, bellum 

The revolt of the ^Edui having been known, the war 

augetur; legationes circummittuntur in omnes 
is increased, embassies are sent about in all 

partes ; nituntur ad solhcitandas civitates quantum 

directions they strive to solicit the states as much as 

valent gratia, auctoritate, pecunia. 

they may avail by favor by authority, (or) by money. 



436 Tlie Commentaries of Ccesar. BOOK vii 

Nacti obsides, quos Caesar deposuerat 

Having got the hostages, whom Caesar had deposited 

apud 60s, territant dubitantes supplicio 

with them, they frighten the hesitating by the punishment 

horum. ^dui petunt a Vercingetorige ut 

of these. The ^Edui request of Vercingetorix that 

veniat ad se, que communicet rationes 

he come to tliem, and communicate the plans 

gerendi belli. Re impetrata, 

of carrying on the war. This thing having been obtained,. 

contendunt, ut summa imperii tradatur 

they maintain, that the chief command should be assigned 

ipsis et, re deducta in controversial, 

to them and, the thing having been brought into dispute, 

concilium totius Galliae indicitur B!bracte. 
a council of all Gaul is convoked at Bibracle. 

Frequentes undique conveniunt eodem ; res 
Great numbers from everywhere assemble there; the matter 

permittitur sufFragjis multitudinis ; omnes ad unum 
is consigned to the votes of the multitude , all to one 

probant Vercingetorigem imperatorem. 

[a man] approve of Vercingetorix (as) commander. 

Remi, Lingones, Treviri, abfuerunt ab 

The Remi, Lingones, (and) Treviri, were absent from 

hoc concilio ; illi quod sequebantur 

this council ; those [two first] because they were following 

amicitiam Romanorum ; Treviri quod 
[observing] the friendship of the Romans ; the Treviri because 

longiiis aberant, et premebantur ab Germanis ; 
they were far distant, and were hard pressed by the Germans; 

quae fuit causa quare abessent toto 

which was the reason why they were absent in the whole 

bello, et mitterent auxilia neutris. ^^dui 

war, and were sending auxiliaries to neither. The Jidui 

ferunt magno dolore se dejectos 

bear with great resentment (that) they were deprived 

principatu; queruntur commutationem fortunae, 

of the leadership , they lament the change of fortune, 



BOOK VII On the Gallic IVa?'. 437 

et . requirunt Caesaris induljjjeritiam in se; 

and they miss Caesar's indulgence toward themselves ; 

neque tamen, bello suscepto, audent 

nor however, tlie war having been undertaken, do they dare 

separare suum consilium ab reliquis. 

to separate their plan [course] from the rest. 

Eporedorix et Viridomarus adolescentes summae 
Eporedorix and Viridomarus young men of the highest 

spei (sing.) inviti parent Vercingetorigi. 

expectations unwillingly obey Vercingetorix. 

64. Ille imi)erat obsides reliquis 

He [Vercingetorix] demands hostages from the other 

civitatibus. Deni(iue constituit diem 6i r6i; 

states. Finally he appoints a day for this matter; 

hue jubet omnes equites, num^ro 

here he orders all the horsemen. to the number 

quindecim millia, convenire celeriter. Dicit 
of fifteen Ithdusand, to assemble quickly. He says 

se fore contentum peditatu quern 

(that) he would be content with the infantry which 

habu( rit ante; neque temtaturum fortimam, neque 

he luul before ; nor would he tempt fortune, nor 

dimicaturinn acie ; sed, quoniam abundet 

would he light in the battle-line; but, since he abounds 

equitatu, esse pertacile factu prohibere 

in cavalry, itjwould be very easy in fact to check 

Romanos frumentationibus que pabulationibus; modo 
the Romans from corn and forage ; provided 

ipsi aequo animo corrumpant sua 

they themselves with a calm mind destroy their own 

frumenta, que incend^nt aedificia; qua 

corn, and burn (their) houses. by which 

jactura faniilaris r$i videant se 

loss of private property they may see (that) they would 

consequi perpetiium imperium que libertatem. His 
obtain perpetual empire and freedom, These 

rebus constitutis, imperat ^^duis que 

things having been arrang-d, he demands from the ^lldui and 



438 



The Commc7itarics of Co; say-. BOOK VII 



Sefjusianis, 
the Segusiani. 

millia 
thousand 



qui 
who 



sunt finitiini Provinciae, decern 

are nearest to llie Province, lea 

peditum; hue addit octin<?entos 

(of) infantry: to this he adds eight hundred 



equites ; his 

horsemen ; over these 



praefieit fratrem Eporedorigis, 
he appoints the brother ofEporidonx, 



que 

and 

Ex 

On 



jubet 
orders 



(him) 



altera parte 
the other side 



inferre bellum 
to wage war 

mittit Gabalos 
he sends the Gabah 



Allobrof^ibus. 

witli the Allobroges. 



que 

and 



proximos 

the nearest 



pagos Arvernorum 
cantons of the Arverni 



in Helvios ; 
against the Helvii , 



item Rutenos, 
hkewise the lluteni. 



que Cadurcos ad depopulandos fines Volcarum 
and the Cadurci to lay waste the territories of the Volcae 



Arecomicorum. 

Areconiici. 



Nihilominiis 

Nevertheless 



sollicitat 
he soHcits 



Allobroges 
the Allobroges 



clandestinis nunciis que legationibus, quorum mentes 
by secret messages and embassies, whose minds 

sperabat nondum resedisse a 

he was hoping not yet to have [had] recovered from 

superiore bello. Horum principibus pollicetur pecunias, 
the former war. To their leaders he promises money, 

autem civitati imperum totius Provinciae. 

but to the state the empire of all the Province. 

65. Ad omnes bos casus praesidia 

Against all these contingencies [crises] the protection 

viginti et duarum cohortium provisa ^rant, quae 
of twenty and two cohorts had been provided, which 



coacta 

having been collected 



ex Provmcia ipsa ab L. Caesare, 
from the province itself by L. Caesar, 



legato 

(his) lieutenant 



opponebantur ad 
were oposing at [on] 



omnes partes. 

all sides. 



Helvii, sua sponte congressi Drcr-lio cum 

The Helvii, of their own accord having engaged in battle with 

finitimis, pelluntur, et C. Valerio Donotauro, 

their neighbors are defeated. and C Valerius Donaturus, 

filio Caburi, principe civitatis, que compluribus 
tbe son ofCaburus, a chief of the state, and many 



BOOK VII On the Gallic War. 439 

aliis interfectis, compelluntur intra oppida 

others having been killed, they are driven into the towns 

que muros. Allobroges crebris praesidiis 

and fortifications. The Allobroges frequent guards 

dispositis ad Rhodanum, tuentur suos 

having been placed at [along] the Rhone, defend their 

fines cum magna cura et diligentia. Caesar, 
frontiers with great care and diligence. Caesar, 

quod intelligebat hostes esse 

because he was perceiving (chat) the enemy to be [were] 

superiores equitatu, et omnibus itineribus 

superior in cavalry, and, all the roads 

interclusis, poterat sublevari nulla re 
having been shut up, he could be assisted in no thing [respect[ 

ex Provincia atque Italia, mittit trans Rhenum 

from the Province and Italy. sends across the Rhine 

in Germaniam ad 6as civitates, quas pacaverat 
into Germany to these states, which he had conquered 

superioribus annis, que arcessit equites ab his, 
in former years, and demanded cavalry from them 

et pedites levis armaturae, qui consuev6rant 
and infantry of light armor, that were accustomed 

proeliari inter eos. Eorum adventu, quod 

to battle among them On their coming, because 

utebantur equis rniniis idon^is, sumit equos 
they used horses less suitable, he takes horses 

a tribunis militum, sed ut 

(not only) from the tribunes of the soldiers, but also 

Romanis equitibus, atque evocatis, que distribuit 
fro:n the Roman knights, and veterans, and distributes 

Germanis. 

to the Germans. 

^^. Interea dum haec geruntur, copiae 

Mean time while these things are transpiring, the forces 

ex Arvernis, que equites, qui imperati grant 

from the Arverni, and the cavalry, that had been demanded 

toti Galliae, conveniunt. Magno numero horum 
of all of Gaul, assemble. A great number of these 



440 The Comment aj'ies of CcEsa7\ BOOK VII 

coacto, quum Caesar faceret iter in 

having been collected, when Caesar made (his) way into 

Sequanos, per extremos fines Lingonum, 

the Sequani, through the extreme borders of the Lingones, 

quo posset facilius ferre subsidium Provinciae, 
so that he could more easily bring aid to the Province, 

Vercingetorix consedit, trinis castris, circiter decern 
Vercingetorix halted, in three camps, about ten 

millia passuum ab Romanis ; que praefectis 

thousand (of) paces from the Romans ; and the commanders 

equitum convocatis ad concilium, demonstrat 

of the cavalry having been called to a council, he shows (that) 

tempus victoriae venisse ; Ronianos fugere in 
the time of victory had come; the Romans were fleeing into 

Provinciam, que excedere Gallia; id esse satis 

the Province, and were leaving Gaul; (that) this was enough 

sibi ad obtinendam praesentem libertatem; 

for them for obtaining present (immediate] freedom; 

profici parum ad pacem atque otium 
(but it) profited little for the peace and repose 

reliqui temporis ; enim majoribus copiis 

of the remainmg tmie; .for greater forces 

coactis reversuros neque facturos 

having been collected they would return nor would they make 

finem bellandi ; proinde adoriantur 

an end of waring ; therefore let them attack (them) 

impeditos agmine. Si pedites ferant auxilium 

encumbered on the march. If the infantry brmg assistance 

suis, atque morentur eo, iter posse 

to their (men), and delay for this, (that) the march could 

non confici; sni, id quod magis 

not be performed ; but. this which the rather [the more] 

confidat futurum, impedimentis relictis, 

he trusts would be, the baggage having been abandoned, 

consulant suae saluti, iri spoliatum 

if they may consult their safety, they would be deprived 

at usu necessariarum rerum, et dignitate. 

both of the use of necessary things, and of their honor. 



BOOK VII 



On the Gallic War. 



441 



Nam de 

For concerning 

quidem debere 
even ought 

audeat m5do 
would dare even 

Quo faciant 
That tliey may do 



equitibus 
the cavalry 



hostium, 

of the enemy, 



dubitare, quin 

to doubt, (but) that 



ne 

not 

nemo 

no one 



ipsos 

they 

6orum 
of them 



id 
this 



progredi 
to advance 

majore 
with greater 



extra 

beyond 



agmen. 
the marching-line. 



animo, se habiturum 
spirit, he would hold 



omnes 

all (his) 

terror! 
(for) a terror 

oportgre 
it was proper 



copias 

forces 



pro 

before 



castras, 

the camp. 



et 
and 



fiiturum 
would be 



hostibus. 
to the enemy. 

confirmari 
to confirm (this) 



Equites conclamant 

The cavalry shout (that) 

sanctissimo jurejurando, 
by a most sacred oath, 



ne recipiatur tecto, habeat aditum 

that he should not be received under a roof, (nor) have access 



ne 

either 

qui 
who 



ad liberos ne ad parentes, ne ad 
to ^children or to parents, or to 



non bis perequitasset 
had not twice ridden 



hostium. 
of the enemy. 

67. Re 

The thing 

adactis 
having been bound 

eau'tatu 
tne cavalry 

ostendunt 
show 



probata, 
having been approved, 

ad jusjurandum, 
to an oath. 



per 
through 



atque 
and 



uxorem, 

wife, 

agmen 
the army 



omnibus 
all 



post6ro 
on the next 



die 
day 

duae 
two 



impedire 

to impede 



distributo in tres partes, 

having been divided into three parts, 

se a duobus lateribus; una coepit 

themselves on the two flanks ; one began 

Qua 

Which 



iter 
the march 



a 

on 



primo 
the first 



agmine. 

line (the front]. 



re nunciata, 

thing having been announced, 



» Caesar quoque jubet suum 
Caesar also orders his 



equitatum divisum tripartite ire contra hostem. 
cavalry divided into three parts to go against the enemy. 

Pugnatur (pass, sing.) una in omnibus partibus. 
They fought together on all sides. 



442 



The Commentaries of CcEsar. BOOK vn 



Agmen 
The marching-column 



constitit. 
halted. 



Impedimenta recipiuntur 

The baggage is received 



inter legiones. Si 
among the legions. If 

videbantur laborare, aut 
were seeming to labor, or 

Caesar jubebat 

Caesar was ordering 



in 

in 



qua 

any 

premi 
be pressed 



parte 

part 



nostri 
our 



signa 
the standards 



gravius, 
more severely, 

inferri, 
to be borne, 



(men) 

66 

there 

que 
and 



aciem 

the battle-line 



converti ; 

to be turned ; 



quae 
which 



res 

thing 



hostes ad insequendum, 

the enemy for [from] following, 

auxill. 



nostros 
our 



spe 



ab 

on 



(men) with the hope 
dextro latere, 



of aid. 



et tardabat 
both was retarding 

et confirmabat 
and was encouraging 

Tandem German! 
At length the Germans 



the right 



depellunt 

force 



wmg, 

hostes 
the enemy 



fugientes usque ad 
(them) fleeing even to 



nacti 
having gained 

loco; 
from the place ; 

flumen, ubi 
the river, where 



summum 
^the top 



jugum 
of the hill 



persequuntur 
they pursue 

Vercingetorix 
Vercingetorix 



consedgrat 
had halted 

complures. 
very many. 



cum pedestribus copiis, que interficiunt 
with the foot forces, and they kill 



Qua 

Which 



re 

thing 



veriti, 
afraid. 



ne 

lest 



animadversa, reliqui 

having been observed, the rest 

circumvenirentur, mandant se 

they might be surrounded, consign themselves 



fugae. Caedes fit 

to flight. Slaughter is made 

nobilissTmi ^dui capti 

most noble ^duans captured 



Cotus 
Cotus 



praefectus 
the commander 



omnibus locis. Tres 
in all parts. Three 

perducuntur ad Caesarem; 
are led back to Caesar ; 

equitum, qui habuerat 

of the cavalry, who 



controversiam cum Convictolitave proximis 
the contest with Convictolitavis in the late 



et 

and 



Cavariilus, 
Cavarillus, 



qui, 
who, 



post 
after 



defectionem 
the revolt 



had held 

comitiis; 
elections; 

Litavici 
of Litavicus 



praefuerat pedestribus copiis, et Eporedorix, 
had commanded the foot forces, and Eporedorix, 



BOOK VII 



On the Gallic War, 



443 



quo 

with whom 



duce, ante 
as leader, before 

contend6rant bello 

had fought in the war 

68. Omni equitatu 

All the cavalry 

reduxit 

led back 



adventum Cacsaris, NA\i\ 
the arrival of Caesar, the ^dui 

cum Sequanis. 

with the Sequani. 

fugato, Vercingetorix 

having been routed, Vercingetorix 



suas 
his 



copias 
forces 



ut 
as 



collocaver^it 
he had placed (them) 

protinus coepit facere 
immediately began to make (his) 

Alesiam,^^ quod est oppidum Mandubiorum ; 

to Alesia, 



castris ; 
the camp 



que 

and 



which 



a town 



of the Mandubii ; 



pro 

before 

iter 
march 

que 
and 



jussit impedimenta celeriter educi ex castris, 



ordered 

et 

and 



the baggage 

subsequi 
to follow closely 



quickly to be brought from the camp, 



se. 

after him. 



Capsar, 
Caesar, 



impedimentis 
the baggage 



deductis 
having been conducted 



in proximum collem, que duabus 
to the next hill, and two 



legionibus 

legions 

quantum 

as far as 

millibus 
thousand 



relictis 
having been left 

tempus di6i 
the time of day 

hostium 
of the enemy 



praesidio, secutus, 

for [as] a guard, ■ having followed, 

passum est, circTter tribus 

allowed, about three 



ex novissimo agmine 
in the rear line 



inter- 
having been 



fectis, 
slain, 

Alesiam. 
Alesia. 

hostibus 

the enemy 



altero die fecit castra 

on the next day makes Ipitches] camp 

Perspecto situ urbis, 

Having reconnoitered the situation of the town, 



ad 
at 

que 

and 



perterritis, quod erant pulsi 
(having been) terrified, because they were beaten 



equitatu, qua parte exercitus 

by the cavalry, in which part [branch] of the army 



maxime 

especially 



confidebant ; 
they were confiding ; 



instituit 
he determined 



adhortatus 
having exhorted 

Alesiam. 

Alesia. 



milites ad 
the soldiers to 



lab 

the labor, 



orcm. 



cicumvallare 
to invest 



69. Oppidum ipsum erat in summo 
The town itself was on the top 



colle, 

(of) a hill. 



444 



The Co77imentaries of Ccesar, BOOK VII 



l6co admodum edito, ut videretur non posse ex- 
the place very high, so that it seemed it could not (to) 

pugnari nisi obsidione. Duo flumina ex 

be captured unless by a blockade Two rivers on 



duabus partibus 
two sides 



subluebant 
were washing 



radices 

the foot 



Ante oppidum planities patebat 
Before the town a plain was extending 



CUJUS 
of this 

cu'cTter 
about 



coUis. 

hill. 

trium 

three 



millia passuum in 

thousand paces [miles! m 



longitudinem. Ex 
length On 



reliquis 
the remaining 

(having been) 

altitudinis 
of height 

pars 
the part 



partibus, 

sides, 

interjecto 

interposed 

cingebant 
were encircling 



colles, 
hills. 

pari 

with equal 



mediocri 
a moderate 



fastigio 
elevation 



collis, 
of the hill, 



quae 
which 



oppidum. 
the town. 

spectabat 
was looking 



Sub 

Under 

ad 
to 



omnibus 
all 

spatia 
distance 

[degree] 

muro, 

the wall. 



orientem, 

the east, 



omnem hunc l6cum copiae Gallorum compleverant, 
ail this place the forces of the Gauls had filled. 



que 
and 

sex 
six 



praeduxgrant fossam, 

had led [thrown] around a ditch, 



et 

and 



maceriam 

a cement wall 



pedum 
feet 



munitionis, 
fortification, 

tenebat 

was extending 

posita grant 
was placed 



m 
in 

quae 

which 



altitudinem. 
height. 



instituebatur 
was undertaken 



Circuitus 
The circuit 

ab 

by 



ejus 
of this 

Romanis 
the Romans 



undecim 

eleven 



millia passuum. Castra 

thousand paces [miles]. The camp 



tria 
three 



castella 
fortresses 



disponebantur 
were placed, 

Haec eadem 
These same 

ac firmis 
and strong 



opportunis locis ; que ibi viginti 
in favorable positions ; and there twenty 

facta, in quibus interdiu stationes 
were made, in which by day guards 

ne qua irruptio fieret subito. 

lest any sally might be made suddenly. 

tenebantur noctu excubitoribus, 

were held [occupied] at night by pickets, 

praesidiis. 
posts. 



BOOK VII 



On the Gallic War. 



445 



70. Opere instituto, 

The work liaving been undertaken. 

fit in 

took place on 



equestre 

a cavalry 



proelium 
battle 



6a planitie. 

this plain, 



quam, 

winch. 



demonsti'avimus 

we have shown 



supra, patere tria millia passuum in longitudinem, 

paces in length, 

Contenditur (pass, sinj^.) 



above, extends three thousand 



mtermissam 
limited 



collib s. 
by the hills. 



summa 
with the highest [utmost] 



VI 

vigor 



submittit 
sends 



Germanos 

tlie Germans 



nostris 

to our men 



They contended 

ab utrisque. 

by [on] both sides. 

laborantibus, 

hard pressed. 



Caesar 

Caesar 

que 

and 



constituit legiones pro castris, ne qua irruptio 
draws up the legions before the camp, lest any sally 

subito fiat peditatu hostium. Praesidio 

suddenly should bemade by the infantry of the enemy. The protection 

legionum addito, animus augetur nostris ; 

of the legions having been added, courage is increased in our men; 



hostes 
the enemy 



conjecti 
thrown 



in 
into 



fugam. 
flight. 



ipsi 
they 



impediunt 
impede 



se multitudine; 

themselves by their mass ; 

portis relictis. 
gates left (open). 

acriiis uscjue ad 

more vigorously even to 



atque coartantur angustioribus 

and are crowded in the narrower 



Germani 

The Germans 

munitiones ; 

the fortifications; 



sequuntur 

follow (Ihem) 



maga 
a great 



ca^des 

slaughter 



fit; nonnulli, equis relictis, conantur 

is made ; some, the horses having been abandoned, endeavor 

transire fossam, et transcend^re maceriam. 

to cros? over the ditch, and climb the cement wal[. 



Caesar 
Caesar 



jubet 
orders 



legiones, 

the legions, 



quas 
which 



constituerat 
he had drawn ud 



pro vallo 
before the rampart 



promoveri paulum. 

to be moved forward a little. 



qui 
who 



grant 

were 



intra munitiones, non 

within the fortifications, no 



Galli, 

The Gauls 

miniis 
less 



perturbantur ; 
were terrified ; 



existimantes 
thinking 



(our men) 



veniri 
were coming 



446 The Commentaries of Ccesar. BOOK Vll 

confestim ad se, conclamant ad arma. NonnuUi 
quickly to them. they call to arms. Some 

perterriti irrumpunt in oppidum. Vercingetorix 
panic stricken burst into the town. Vercingetorix 

jubet portas claudi, ne castra nudentur. 
orders the gates to be closed, lest the camp should be left bare. 

Multis interfectis, compluribus equis 

Many having been slain, (and) very many horses 

captis, Germani recipiunt sese. 

having been captured, the Germans return [retire]. 

71. Vercinf?etorix capit consilium dimittere a 
Vercingetorix adopts the plan to send away from 

se omnem equitatum noctu, priusquam munitiones 
him all the cavalry by night, before the fortifications 

perficiantur ab Romanis. Mandat discedentibus, 
should be finished by the Romans He commands them departing, 

ut, quisque 6oruni adeat suam civitatem, que 
that, each one of them should go to their own state, and 

cogant ad bellum omnes, qui per 

(that) they should assemble for the war all. who by 

aetatem possint ferre arma. Proponit sua 

their age might be able to bear arms. Restates his 

merita in illos, que obtestatur, ut habeant 

services toward them, and implores, that they should have 

rationem suae salutis, neu dedant se hostibus 
a regard for his safety, nor deliver him to the enemy 

in cruciatum, meritum optime de 

for torture, having merited so well concerning 

communi libertate ; qui ^ si fuerint indiligentiores, 
the common liberty ; who if they should be somewhat remiss, 

demonstrat octoginta millia delecta hominum 

he shows (that) eighty thousand chosen men 

interitura cum se ; ratione inita, 

would perish with him. a calculation having been entered [madel, 

se habere frumentum exigue triginta dierum, sed 
he had corn scarcely of [for] thirty days. but 

posse tolerare etlam paul5 longius parcendo. 
he could endure even a little longer by sparing. 



BOOK VII On the Gallic War, 447 

His mandatis datis, dimittit equitatum 

These orders having been given, he dismisses the cavalry 

silentio, secunda vigilia, qua mostrum opus 
in silence, in the second watch, where our work 

intermissum ; jubet omne frumentum ferri ad 
ceased ; he orders all the corn to be brought to 

• • 46 

se; consiituit poenam capitis iis, 

himself; he ordains the punishment of the head [of death] to those, 

qui non paruerint; distribuit pecus, cujus 
who should not obey; he distributes the cattle, of which 

maffna copia compulsa erat ab Mandubiis, 

a great abundance had been driven (there) by the Mandubii, 

viritim; instituit frumentum metiri 

man by man; he regulates (that) the corn to [should) be measured 

parce et paulatim ; recipit omnes copias, 

sparingly and by little; he receives all the forces, 

quas collocavgrat pro oppido, in oppidum. 
which he had placed before the town, into the town. 

His rationibus parat expectare auxilia Galliae, 
In this manner he prepares to await the aid of Gaul, 

et administrare bellum. 
and to carry on the war. 

72. Quibus rebus cognitis ex perfugis 

Which things having been known from deserters 

et captivis, Caesar instituit haec gen6ra (pi.) 
and prisoners, Caesar adopts this kind 

munitionis. Duxit fossam viginti pedum 

of fortification. He constructed a ditch (of) twenty feet 

latam directis lateribus, ut ejus solum 

broad with perpendicular sides, so that its bottom 

pateret tantundem quantum summa labra distabant. 
might open just as much as the upper edges were apart. 

Reduxit omnes reliquas munitiones quadringentis 
He drew back all the other fortifications (by) four hundred 

pedibus ab 6a fossa; id hoc consilio 

feet from this ditch; this with this design 

(quoniam tantum spatium necessario esset complexus, 
(since so great a space necessarily was embraced, 



448 



The Commentaries of Ccesar, BOOK vil 



totum opus nee 
(that) the whole work not 

corona militum), ne 

by a circle of soldiers), lest 



cingeretur 
could be surrounded 



ad 
to 



munitiones de improviso noctu, 
the works of a sudden by niglit, 

possent conjicgre tela in 

they might be able to throw weapons against 



advolaret 
should sally out 

aut interdiu 
or by day 

nostros destinatos 
our men assigned 

misso, perduxit duas fossas 
left, he forms two trenches 



facile 

easily 

aut multitude hostium 
either amass of the enemy 

de 
of 



opgri. Hoc spatio inter- 

to the work. This space having been 

quindecim pedes latas, 
fifteen feet wide. 



eadem 

with the same 

campestribus 
in level 



altitudine 
depth ; 



interiorem 
the inner one 



quarum 
of which 



(being) 



ac demissis locis, complevit aqua 
and low ground, he fills with water 



derivata 
led 

atjorerem 
a mound 



ex 

from 
et 

and 



flumine. 
the river. 

vallum 
rampart 



Post 

Behind 



6a S 
these 



extruxit 
he constructed 



duodecim pedum, 
of twelve feet. 



adjecit loricam 
he added a parapet 



que pinnas, grandibus 
and battlements, with great 



Huic 

To this 

cervis 
stag-horns 



eminentibus 
projecting 



ad 
at 



commissuras (pi.) pluteorum (pi.) 

the junction of the parapet 



atque 
and 



agggris, 
the mound, 



qui 

which 



tardarent 
might hinder 



adscensum 
the ascent 



hostium ; et circumdedit turres toto opere, 
of the enemy ; and he put around towers on all the w-ork, 

-47 



quae 
which 



distarent 
were distant 



inter 
among 



se 
themselves 



octoginta pedes. 



73. 



Erat 
It was 



necesse 
necessary 



eighty 

eodem 
at the same 



feet. 

tempore 

time 



materiari, 
to bring wood, 

munitiones 
fortifications 

inutis, 
diminished. 



et 

and 



frumentari, 
to get corn. 



et 

and 



(that) 



et 

both 

tantas 
so great 



fieri, 

to [should] be made. 



nostris copiis 
our forces 



dim- 
having been 



quae progrediebantur longius ab 

that were proceding rather far from 



BOOK VII On the Gallic War, 449 

castris ; et Galli nonnunquam conabantur 

the camp ; and the Gauls sometimes were endeavoring 

tentar nostra op6ra, atque fac6re eruptionem 
to attack our works, and to make a sally 

ex oppido summa vi pluribus portis. 

from the town with the utmost vigor by several gates. 

Quare Caesar putavit ad haec rursus 
Therefore Caesar thought to these again (to) [there must] 

addendum opera, quo munitiones possent 

be added works, so that the fortifications might 

defend! minore numgro militum. Itaque truncis 
be defended wilh a less number of men [soldiers]. Therefore trunks 

arborum, aut ramis admodum firmis abscissis, 
of trees, or branches somewhat stout having been cut down, 

atque cacuminibus horum delibratis atque 

and the tops of these having been peeled and 

preacutis ; perpetuse fossae quinos pedes altae 
sharpened; continuous ditches five feet deep 

ducebantur. Hue illi stipites demissi, et 

were cut. Here these stakes were put down, and 

revincti ab infimo possent ne revelli, 

fastened at the bottom (so that) they could not be pulled up, 

eminebant ab ramis. Quini ordines 

they were projecting by their branches. Every five rows 

grant conjuncti, atque implicati inter se, 

were united, and intertwined among themselves, 

quo ipsi qui intraverant, induebant se 

where they who might enter, were impaling themselves 

acutissimis vallis ; appellabant hos cippos. 

on very sharp stakes ; they were calling these cippi [boundary 

Ante hos obliquis ordinibus, 
posts]. Before these in oblique rows, and (having been) 

dispositis in quincuncem, scrobes, in altitudinem 
arranged in quincunx, pits, to the depth 

trium pedum fodiebantur paulatim angustiore 

of three feet were dug with a little narrower 

fastigio ad summum. Hue teretes stipites crassitudine 
surface at the top. Here round stakes of the thickness 



450 



The Cotnmentaries of Ccssar. BOOK VII 



feminis, 
of the thigh, 



ab 

at 



summo 
the top 



demittebantur ; ita 
were set in ; so 



digitis 
inches 



eminerent 

might project 



Ut 

that 

ex 

from 



praeacuti 
very sharp 

non amplius 
not more 

terra, 
the ground. 



et 

and 



praeusti, 
burnt, 



causa 
for the purpose 

pedes (pi.) 

foot 



confirmandi et 
of strengthening and 

ab inflmo 

from the lowest 



quatuor 

(than) four 

Simul 
At the same time 
49 



stabiliendi, singuli 
steadying, each 



terra 
with earth 



exculcabantur ; 
were trodden down 



viminibus 
with osiers 



ac 
and 



reliqua 
the remaining 

virgultis 

twigs 



pars 
part 



Octoni ordines hujus generis 
Eight rows of this kind 

ternos pedes inter se. 

three feet among themselves. 

floris, appellabant lilium. 
to the flower, they were calling a lily. 

ferreis hamis 
with iron hooks 



solo 
ground 

scrobis integebatur 
of the pit was covered 

ad occultandas insidias. 
for concealing the traps. 

ducti, distabant 

were set, they were distant 

Id, ex similitudine 

This, from the likeness 

Ante haec 

Before these. 



taleae, 

stakes. 



pedem longae, 
a foot long. 



infodiebantur in terram : 

were sunk into the ground; 



infixis, 
fixed in, 

que, 

and, 



totae 
all 



wholly] 

mediocribus 
moderate 



intermissis, disserebantur omnibus 
(having been) interposed, were planted in all 



spatiis 
spaces 

locis, quos 
places, which 

74. His 

These 



regiones aequissimas, nro 
localities the most level, for 



nominabant stimulos. 
they were calling spurs. 

rebus perfectis, secutus 

things having been completed, having followed 

natura loci 

the nature of the place 



potuit, 
he could, 

passuum, 

paces, 

generis, 
kind, 



(and) 



complexus 

having enclosed 



quatuordecim 
fourteen 



perfecit 
he completed 



pares 

like 



diversas 
opposite 



ab 

from 



his, 
these, 



munitiones 
fortifications 

contra 
against 



quam 
that las] 

millia 
thousand 

ejusdem 

of the same 

exteriorem 
an external 



BOOK VJI On the Gallic War. 451 

hostem; ut praesidia munitionum possent 

enemy ; that the guards of the fortifications could 

circumfundi ne magna^^ multitudine, quidem (si 
be surrounded not by a great multitude, even (if 

accidat ita, discessu' ejus), 

it should happen so, by the departure of it [its. the cavalry's 

Neu cogerentur egredi ex 

departure]. Nor (that) they should be forced to go from 

castris cum periculo, jubet omnes habere pabulum 
the camp with danger, he orders all to have forage 

convectum que frumentum trigmta dierum. 
collected and corn for thirty days. 

75. Dum haec geruntur ad Alesiam, 

While these (things) are transpiring at Alesia, 

Galli, concilio principum indicto, 

the Gauls, a council of the chiefs having been convoked, 

statuunt, non omnes convocandos qui 

ordain, (that) not all should be called out who 

possent ferre arma (ut Vercingetorix censuit), 
could bear arms (as Vercingetorix decided), 

sed certum num6rum imperandum cuique 

but (that) a certain number should be ordered for each 

civitati; ne, tanta confusa multitudine 

state ; lest, in so great (and) mi.xed a multitude 

possent nee moderari, nee discernere suos 
they could neither govern. nor distinguish their (men) 

nec habere rationem frumentandi. Imperant 

nor have the means of provisioning They demand 

triginta quinque millia iEduis atque 

thirty five thousand from the .Edui and 

6orum clientibus, Segusianis, Ambivaretis, Aulercis, 

their clients, the Segusiani, the Ambivareti, the Aulerci, 

Brannovicibus, (Blannoviis); pa^-em numerum 

the Brannovices, (Blannovii), a IIkc number 

Arvernis, adjunctis Eleutetis, Cadurcis, 

from the Arverni, united with the Eleuteti, the Cadurci, 

Gabalis, Vellaviis, qui consueverunt 

the Gabali, (and) the Vellavii, who have been accustomed 



452 



The Commentaries of Ccesar. BOOK vil 



totidem 
the same 

Turonis, 
the Turoni, 



Lemovicibus ; 

from the Lemovices; 



esse sub imperio Arvernorum : Senonibus, 

to be under the command of I lie Arverni . from the Senones, 

Sequanis, Biturigibus, Santonibus, Rutenis, 

the Sequani, the Bituriges, the Santones, the Ruteni. 

Carnutibus, duodena millia ; Bellovacis, decim ; 
the Carnutes, twelve thousand ; the Bellovaci, ten ; 

octona Pictonibus, 
eight from the Pictones, 

et Parisiis, et Helvetiis ; 
and the Parisii, and the Helvetu i 

Ambianis, Mediomatricis, Petrocoriis, 
the Ambiani, the Mediomatrici, the Petrocorii, 

Nerviis, Morinis, Nitiobrigibus ; quina milia 

the Nervii, the Morini, the Nitiobriges , five thousand 

Aulercis Cenomanis ; totidem Atrebatibus ; 

from the Aulercis Cenomahi ; the same number from the Atre bates; 



Audibus, 

from the Audes, 



et 

and 
sena 

six 



quatuor 
four 



Veliocassis 



(Lexoviis 

(the Lexovii 



.from the Veliocassi; 

Rauracis 
from the Rauraci 



et) 

and) 



Eburovicibus terna ; 
Eburovices three ; 



et 

and 



Aulercis 
the Aulerci 

Boiis 
Boii 



bina. 
two. 



Decim 

Ten 



from 



universis 
all 



civitatibus, 

the states, 



quae 
which 



attingunt 
border on 



in 

in 



Oceanum, 
the Ocean, 

Armoricae, 
Armoricae, 

Redones, 
the Redones, 

Lexovii, 

Lexovii, 

contulerunt suum 
contribute their 



quaeque eorum consuetudine appellantur 
and that by their custom are called 



quo 

which 



num6ro 
number 



sunt 
are 



Coriosolites, 
the Coriosolites, 

Veneti, 
the Veneti, 



non 
did not 



se 

they 



Ambibarii, Caletes, Osismi, 
the Ambibarii, the Caletes, the Osismi, 

Venelli. Ex his Bellovaci 

Venelli. Of these the Bellovaci 

quod dixerunt 
because they said (that) 

Romanis suo 

the Romans by their own 



numerum ; 
number ; 



gesturos 

would carry on 



nomine 
name 

imperio 
the command 



atque 
and 



bellum 

war 

arbitrio, 
will. 



cum 

with 



cujusquam. 
of any one. 



neque 
nor 

Rogati 
Requested 



obtemperaturos 
would they obey 



a 

by 



Commius, 
Commius, 



BOOK VII 



On the Gallic War. 



453 



pro 

on account of 



ejus hospitio, 

his tie of hospitality, 



tamen 
however 



miserunt 
they sent 



duo 
two 



millia. 
tliousand. 



76. Caesar, ita ut ant6a demonstravimus, 6rat usus 
Caesar, just as before we have shown, had used 

fideli atque utili op6ra hujus Commius, 

the faithful and helpful service* of this Commius, 

in Britannia, pro quibus meritis 
years in Britain ; for which deserts 



superioribus annis 



in former 

jusserat 
he had ordered 

reddiderat 
had restored 

ipsi 
on himself [him] 

universae 
of the whole 



ejus civitatem esse immunem, 
his state to be exempt (from tribute). 



jura 
the rights 

Morinos 
the Morini 

Galliae 
of Gaul 



que leges; atque attribuerat 
and laws; and had conferred 



. Tamen tanta 
Yet so great 

vindicandae 

of [for] establishing 



recuperandae 
of [for] recovering 

moverentur 
they could be moved 



(their) 



pristinae 
ancient 



fuit consensio 
was the unanimity 

libertatis, et 
liberty, and 

laudis belli, ut 
renown in war, that 



neque beneficiis, neque memoria 
neither by benefits, nor by the memory 



amicitiae, 
of friendship. 



que 

and 



omnes incumberent in 

all were devoting themselves to 



bellum 
war 

millibus 
thousand 



et 

with both 



animo et 

mind [thought] and 



equitum, 
cavalry, 



et 
and 



circiter 
about 



opibus ; 
means; 

ducentis 
two hundred 



id 
this 

octo 
eight 

et 
and 



quadraginta millibus 
forty thousand 

Haec recensebantur 
These were reviewed 



in 
in 



numgrus 
the number 



inibatur ; 
was secured 



peditum 
infantry 

finibus 
the country 

praefecti 
commanders 



coactis. 
having been collected. 



iEduorum ; 

of the yEdui ; 



que 
and 



constituebantur ; 
were appointed; 



summa imperii transditur Commius 
the supreme command is conferred on Commius 



Viridomaro 
Viridomarus 



et 

and 



Eporedorigi 
Eporedorix 



Atrebati, 
the Atrebatian, 

iEduis, 
the iEduans, (and 



454 



The Commentaries of Ccesar. BOOK ^^n 



Vercassivellauno Arverno, consobrino Vercinge- 
Vercassivellauns the Arvernan, cousin-german to Vercinge- 

torigis. lis delecti ex civitatibus 

torix. To them (those) selected from the states 

attribuntur, quorum consilio bellum administraretur. 
are assigned, by whose counsel the war should be conductod. 

Omnes proficiscuntur ad Alesiam alacres et pleni 



All set out 

fiduciae. 
of confidence. 

arbitraretur 
supposed 

multitudinis 
a multitude 

proelio ; quum 
battle ; when 



Nec 
Nor 

that 

posse 

could 



to 

erat 

was there 



Alesia 



eager and full 



quisquam omnium, qui, 
anyone of all, who, 

adspectum modo tantse 

the sight even of so great 



sustineri, 
be endured. 



praesertim 

especially 



ancipiti 
in a two-fold 



.52 



pugnaretur 
it would be [they] fought 



eruptione 
by [in] a sally 



ex 

from 



oppido, 
the town, 

peditatus 
infantry 



77. 



At 

But 



et foris tantse copiae equitatus que 
and outside so great forces of cavalry and 

cerneretur. 
should be descerned. 

li qui obsidebantur Alesiae, die 

those who were besieged in Alesia, the day 



praeterita, qua expectaverant auxilia suorum, 
having passed, on which they had expected the aid of their (allies) 



omni 
all 



frumento 
the corn 



consumpto, inscii quid 

having been consumed, ignorant what 



geretur in 
was passing among 

consultabant 
they were deliberating 



T^duis, 
the ^dui, 

de exitu 
about the issue 



concilio coacto, 

a council having been assembled 



suarum fortunarum. 
of their fortunes. 

Ac variis sententiis dictis, quarum 

And various opinions liaving been expressed, of which 

censebant deditionem, 
were recommending a surrender, 

vires (pi.) suppeterent. 
(their) strength was sufficing. 

videtur non praetereunda, 

it seems ought not to be passed over, 



pars eruptionem 
a part a sally 



pars 
a part 

dum 
while 



Oratio 
The speech 



Critognati 
of Critognatus 



propter 

on account of 



ejus 

its 



BOOK VII On the Gallic War, 455 

singularem ac nefariam crudelitatem. Hie, natus 
singular and infamous cruelty. He, born 

summo l5co in Arvernis, et habitus 

of the highest family among the Arverni. and possessed 

magnae auctoritatis, inquit: dicturus sum nihil 
of great influence, said: "I am about to say nothinp: 

de sententia 6orum, qui appellant 

concerning the opinion of those, who call 

turpissiniam servitutem nomine deditionis: 

the basest slavery by the name of surrender : 

censeo hos neque habendos l6co 

I am of the opinion (that) these neither ought'to be held in the place 

civium, neque adhibendos ad 

[role] of citizens, nor ought they to be admitted to 

concilium. Res est mihi cum lis, qui 

the counsel. The business is forme with those, who 

probant eruptionem ; in consilio quorum consensu 
sanction a sally ; in the advice of whom with the consent 

vestrum omnium memoria pristinae virtutis 

of you all the memory of the old-time valor 

videtur residere. Ista est mollities animi non 
seems to abide. This is a ^^■eakness of mind not 

virtus, non posse ferre inopiam paulisper. 

courage, not to be able to endure privation for a little time. 

Qui ultro offerant se morti faciliiis 

(Those) who willingly offer themselves to death more easily 

reperiuntur, quam qui patienter ferant dolorem. 

are found, than (those) who patiently endure distress. 

Atque ego probarem banc sententiam tantum 
And I would approve this opinion, so much 

apud me dignitas potest), si viderem 

with me honor is able [avails]), if I could see (that) 

nullam jacturam fieri praeterquam nostrae 

no loss would be made except of our 

vitae (sing.). Sed in capiendo consilio, 

lives. But in taking [forming] plans, 

respiciamus omnem Galliam, quam concitavimus 
let us regard all Gaul, which we have aroused 



456 The Commentaries of Ccesar. BOOK vil 

ad nostrum auxilium. Octoginta millibus hominum 
to our assistance, Eijjhty thousand men 

interfectis, uno loco, quid animi existimatis 

having been slain, in one place, what (of) spirit do you think 

fore nostris propinquis que consanguineis, si 

(this) would be to our relatives and kinsmen, if 

cogentur decertare prcelio paene in 

they may be forced to engage in battle almost over (our) 

cadaveribus ipsis? Nolite spoliare hos vestro 

dead bodies themselves? Do not deprive those of your 

auxilio, qui causa vestrae salutis neglexerint 
aid, who for the sake of your safety have disregarded 

suum periculum, nee vestra stultitia ac 
their own peril, nor by your folly and 

temeritate, aut imbecillitate animi prosternere 
recklessness, or imbecility of mind prostrate 

omnem Galliam, ac addicere perpetuae servituti. 
all Gaul, and consign (it) to perpetual slavery. 

An quod non venerint ad diem 

Why because they may not have come at [on] the day 

dubitatis de ?orum fide que constantia? Quid 
do you doubt of their fidelity and constancy? What 

ergo? Putatis Romanos exerceri quotidie 

then? Do you suppose (that) the Romans are training daily 

in illis ulterioribus munitionibus ne causa 

in those outer fortifications only for the purpose 

animi r^^ Si potestis non confirmari nun- 

of the mind' If you can not be strengthened by the 

tiis illorum, omni aditu praesepto, 

messages of those, all access having been prevented 

utimini lis testibus eorum adventum 

use these (as) witnesses (that) their arrival 

appropinquare exterriti timore cujus re 

draws near alarmed by the fear of this thing 

versantur diem que noctem in op6re. Quid 
they are busied day and night in the works. What 

ergo est m6i consilii? Facere quod nostri 

therefore is my advice? To do what our 



BOOK VII 



On the Gallic War, 



457 



majores fecerunt nequaquam pari bello Cimbrorum 
forefathers did in the by no means equal war oftheCimbri 



que 
and 



Teutonum, 

Teutones, 



qui compulsi 
who driven 



in oppida, ac 
into towns. and 



qui 
who 



subacti simili inopia, toleraverurst vitam corporibus 
forced by a like want, supported life by the bodies 

aetate videbantur inutiles ad bellum, 
by age seemed useless for war, 

transdiderunt se hostibus. Si 

did they surrender themselves to the enemy. If 

haberemus non exemplum 
we had not the example 



eorum, 

of those, 

neque 
nor 



cujus 
of this 



r6i, 
thing, 



judicarem 
I should judge it 

institui, 
to be established. 



pulcherrimum 

most glorious 



causa 
for the sake 



et 

and 



quid 
what 



fuit 
was it 



simile 
like 



prodi 
be handed down 

illi bello r'^^ 

that war? 



depopulata, 
depopulated, 



que magna calamitate 
and a great disaster 



tamen 
yet 

libertatis 
of liberty 

posteris. Nam 
to posterity. For 

Gallia 
Gaul (having been) 

illata, 

(having been) inflicted. 



Cimbri aliquando excesserunt nostris finibus, atque 
the Cimbri at length departed from our territories, and 

petierunt alias terras ; 
sought other lands ; 



reliquerunt nobis 



leges, 

the laws, 



agros 

the lands 



(and) 



they left 

libertatem. 
liberty. 



jura, 

the rights. 



Vero 

But 



Romani 

the Romans 



quid 

what 



aliud 

else 



petunt, 
do they seek. 



aut 

or 



quid 

what 



adducti 
induced 



invidia, 
by greed. 



civltatibus horum, 
states of these 



considere 
to settle 

quos 
(those) whom 



in 

in 



volunt, 
do they wish, 

agris 
the fields 



cognoverunt 
they have learned 



(are) 



nobiles 

noble 



que 
and 



potentes 

powerful 



injungpre 
impose 



apternam 
perpetual 



bello, 
in war, 

servitutem? 
slavery? 



atque 
and 

Neque 
Nor 



unquam gesserunt bella alia conditione. 

have they ever waged war on any other terms. 



nisi 
except 

que 

and 

fama 
by report 

his 
on these 

enim 
even 

Qu6d 
For 



458 The Commentaries of Ccssar. BOOK vil 

si ignoratis 6a quae geruntur in 

if you know not those things which are carried on ir; 

longinquis nationibus, respicite finitimam Galliam, 
distant nations, look ye [you] at neighboring Gaul, 

quae redacta in provinciam, jure et legibus 

which reduced to a province, (its) rights and laws 

commutatis, , subjecta securi- 

(having been) subverted (having been) subjected to the (lic- 

bus premitur perpetua servitute ' 

tors') axes, is oppressed by perpetual slavery!" 

78. Sententiis dictis, cor»stituunt, ut 

The opinions having been delivered. they resolve, that 

qui valetudine, aut aetate sunt inutiles bello 
(those) who by sickness, or age are useless for war 

excedant oppido, atque omnia experiantur, 
should leave the town, and all things should be tried, 

prius quam descendant ad sententiam 

before (that) they descend to the recommendation 

Critognati ; tamen utendum illo consilio, is res 
of Critognatus ; however to use his advice, if the case 

cogat, atque auxilia morentur, potius quam 
compels, and aid be delayed, rather than (that) 

conditionem deditionis aut pacis subeundam. 

a condition of surrender or of peace should be endured. 

Mandubii, qui receperant 60s oppido coguntur 
The Mandubii, who had received them in the town were forced 

exire cum liberis atque uxoribus. Hi 

to depart with the children and wives. These 

quum accessissent ad munitones Romanorum, 
when they had approached to the fortifications of the Romans, 

flentes orabant omnibus precibus, ut recep- 

weeping were praying with all entreaties, that having been 

tos in servitutem, juvarent cibo. 

received into slavery, they would relieve (them) with food. 

Hos Caesar, custodiis dispositis in vallo, 

These Caesar, sentinels having been posted on the rampart. 

prohibebat recipi. 

was refusing to be received. 



BOOK VII On the Gallie War. 459 

'''9. Interea Comius, et reliqui duces, 

In tlie mean time Commius, and the other leaders. 

quibus summa imperii permissa grant, perveniunt 
to whom the supreme command had been assigned, arrive 

ad Alesiam cum omnibus copiis, et exteriore 

at Alesia with all the forces. and an outer 

oolle occupato, considunt non longius 

hill having been occupied, they encamp not farther (than) 

mille passibus a nostris munitionibus. Postgro 
a thousand paces from our fortifications. The next 

die, equitatu educto ex castris, 

day, the cavalry having been led forth from (their) camp, 

complent omnem 6am planitiem, quam demonstravimus 
they fill all this plain, which we have shown 

patere tria millia passuum in longitudinem ; 

to extend [extends] three thousand paces in length: 

que constituunt pedestres copias paulum ab 5o 
and they station the foot soldiers a little from this 

l6co, abditas in superioribus l6cis (pi.)- Erat 

place, removed on higher ground. There was 

despectus ex oppido Alesia in campum. 

a view from the town (of) Alesia over the plain. 

His auxiliis visis, concurritur. 

These auxiliaries having been seen, there is running together 

gratulatio fit (sing.) inter eos, atque animi 

congratulations are made among them. and the souls 

omnium excitantur ad laetitism. Itaque, copiis 

of all are excited to joy Therefore, (their) forces 

productis ante oppidum, considunt et 

having been drawn out before the town, they take stand and 

integunt proximam fossam cratibus, atque explent 
cover the nearest ditch with hurdles. and fill (it) 

agggre, que comparant se ad eruptionem, 

with dirt, and prepare themselves for a sally. 

atque omnes casus, 
and all chances. 

80. Caesar, omni exercitu disposito ad 

Caesar, all the army having been stationed at 



460 



The Commentaries of CcBsar. BOOK VII 



utramque partem 
both sides 



munitionum, 
of the fortifications. 



Ut SI USUS 
(so) that if the need 



veniat, quisque noverit et teneat suum locum, 

came, each might know and keep his own place, 

jubet equitatum educi ex castris, et 

orders the cavalry to be led from the camp, and 



committi proelium. 



to join 

castris, 
the camp, 

jugum, 
ridge. 



battle. 

quae 

which 



Erat despectus ex omnibus 
There was a view from all 



undique 
everywhere 



tenebant 

was holding 



atque 
and 



exspectabant 
were anticipating 



animi 

the minds 

eventum 

the issue 



omnium 
of all 



militum 
the soldiers 



pugnae. 
of the battle. 



summum 

the highest 

intenti 
absorbed 

Galli 
The Gauls 



interjecerant inter equites raros 

had placed among the horsemen scattered 

55 



que expedites levis 
and ready soldiers lightly 



auxilio 
by (their) aid 

impetum 
the charge 

vulnerati 
wounded 

prcelio. 

from the battle. 



suis 

their (men) 



armaturae,' 
armed, 

cedentibus 

retreating 



qui 
who 

et 

and 



sagittarios, 
archers, 

succurrent 
might succor 

sustingrent 
hold 



nostrorum equitum. Complures 
of our 

de improviso 

unexpectedly 



Quum 
When 



cavalry. 

ab 

by 

Galh 
the Gauls 



(men) 
nostros 



esse 
were 



superiores 

superior 



Many (of our men) 

his excedebant 

these were withdrawing 

confiderent suos 

were trusting (that) their 

pugna, et viderent 

in the fight. and were seeing 



our (men) 



premi multitudlne; ex om- 

(to be) hard pressed by the throng, from [on] 



nibus partibus, 

all parts [sides], 

munitionibus, et 

within the fortifications, and 



both 

li 

those 



li qui ccntinebantur 
those who were retained 



qui convenerant ad 
who had come for 



auxuium, 
aid. 

et ululatu 
and yell. 



confirmabant 
were encouraging 



animos 
the souls 



suorum 

of their men 



clamore 

by a shout 



Quod res gerebatur in conspectu 
As the action was carried on in the sigh' 



BOOK VII On the Gallic War. 461 

omnium, neque factum recte ac' 

of all, neither fa thing) done rightly [nobly] and [nor] 

turpiter pot6rat celari, et cupidltas laudis, 

shamefully could be concealed, both the desire of praise. 

et timor ignominiae excitabat (sing.) utrosque ad 
and the fear of disgrace were inciting both sides to 

virtutem. Quum pugnaretur a meridie 

valor. When it was ItheyJ fought from noon 

prope ad occasum solis dubia victoria, 

nearly to the setting of the sun with a doubtful victory, 

Germani in una paite confertis turmis fecerunt 
the Germans on one side in compact troops made 

impetum in hostes, que propulerunt eos. 

an attack on the enemy, and routed them. 

Quibus conjectis in fugam. 

Whom [These] (having been) thrown into flight, 

sagittarii circumventi sunt que interfecti. Item 
the archers were surrounded and slain. Also 

ex reliquis partibus nostri insecuti 

in other quarters our men followed (those) 

cedentes usque ad castra, dederunt 

retreating even to the camp. (and) gave 

non facultatem colligendi sui. At 

no opportunity of [for] collecting their (men). But 

li, qui processgrant ab Alesia, victoria 

those, who had come from Alesia, the victory 

prope desperata, receperunt se 

nearly (having been) despaired of betook themselves 

moesti, in oppldum. 
sorrowful, into the town. 

81. Uno die intermisso, atque hoc spatio 

One day having intervened, and in this period 

magno numgro cratium, scalarum, harpagonum 
a great number of hurdles, ladders, pole-hooks 

effecto, Galli, media nocte, silentio, 

having been made, the Gauls, at mid night, (and) in silence, 

egressi ex castris accedunt ad 

having marched from (their) camp approach to 



462 The Commentaries of CcBsar. book vil 

campestres munitiones. Subito clamore 

the field (outside] fortifications. A sudden shout 

sublato, qua significatione, qui 

having been raised, by which signal. (those) who 

obsidebantur in oppido, possent cognoscere de 
were besieged in the town, might know of 

suo adventu, projicgre crates deturbare 

their arrival. (they) (to) throw out the hurdles, force 

nostros de vallo fundis, sugittis lapidibus, 

our men from the rampart by slings, arrows (and) stones, 

que administrare reliqua quae pertinent ad 

and (to) perform the other things which belong to 

oppugnationem. Eodem tempore, clamore 

an assault. At the same time, the shout 

exaudito, Vercmgetorix dat signum suis 

having been heard, Vercingetorix gives the signal to his men 

tuba, atque educit ex oppido. 

by the trumpet, and leads (them forth) from the town 

Nostri, ut superioribus diebus, suas l6cus 

Our men, as on the former days, his place (having 

attributus erat cuique, accedunt ad munitiones ; 
been) assigned to each one, proceed to the fortifications . 

perterrent Gallos fundis libralibus^^ que 

they alarm the Gauls by slings (of) pound-weight and 

sudibus, quas disposu6rant in opgre, ac 

stakes, which they had placed in the works, and 

glandibus. Prospectu adempto tenebris, 

by lead bullets The view (having been) prevented by darkness, 

multa vuln&ra accipiuntur utrimque, complura 
many wounds are received on both sides, numerous 

tela conjicmntur tormentis. At M. Antonius,^^ 
weapons are thrown by the engines But M. Antonius, 

et C. Trebonius, legati, quibus 6a partes 

and C. Trebonius, the lieutenants. to whom these parts 

obvenSrant ad defendendum, ex qua 
had fallen for defending, on what [whatever] 

parte intellexerunt nostros premi, 

side they understood (that) our men were hard pressed 



BOOK VII On the Gallic War. 463 

submittebant lis auxilio deductos ex 

they sent to them for [as] aid (those) drawn lied] out from 

ulterioribus castellis. 
the more remote fortresses. 

82. Dum GaUi aberant longius ab 

While the Gauls were distant rather far from 

munitione, proficiebant, plus niultitudine 

the fortifications, they were accomplishing, more by the multitude 

telorum ; posteaquam successerunt proprius, 
[mass] of weapons. after they approached nearer. 

aut ipsi inopinantes induebant se stimulis, 

either they unawares were impaling themselves on the spurs. 

aut delapsi in scrobes transfodiebantur, aut 

or having fallen into the pits were translixed, or 

interibant transjecti niurialibus pilis ex 

were perishing pierced by the wall javelins (thrown) from 

vallo et turribus. Multis vulneribus accep- 

the rampart and lowers. Many wounds having 

tis undique, nulla munitione perrupta, 

been received on all sides, no fortification having been forced. 

quum lux appeteret, veriti ne 

when (day) light was approaching. having feared lest 

circumvenirentur ab aperto latere, eruptione 
they might be surrounded on the exposed flank, by a sally 

ex superioribus castris, receperunt se ad suos, 
from the higher camp, they retreated to their (people). 

At interiores, dum proferunt ea 

But those within (the town), while they bring out these things 

quae prseparata grant Vercingetorige ad 

which had been prepared by Vercingetorix for 

eruptionem, explent priores fossas ; morati 

the sally, fill up the first ditches; having been delayed 

diutius in administrandis Tis i 
rather long in performing these 1 

verunt suos discessisse 

learned (that) their men had withdrawn 

appropinquarent munitionibus. 

they had got near (to) the fortifications. 



ibus, 


cogno- 


lings. 


they 


prius 


quam 


before 


(that) 


Ita, 


re 


Thus, 


the thing 



464 



The Conunentaries of Coesar. BOOK VII 



infecta, 
having been unaccomplished, 



[design) 
oppidum. 

the town. 



83. Galli bis 

The Gauls twice 



reverterunt 
they returned 



in 

into 



repulsi cum magno 

having been repulsed with great 



detremento, consulunt quid 
loss, consult 



(those) 
his 

these 



peritos 
acquainted with 



agant. 
what they should do 

locorum (pi.)- 
the locality. 



Adhibent 
They admit 



Cognoscunt ab 
They learn from 



situs 
the position 



superiorum 
of the higher 



castrorum 
camp 



que 

and 



munitiones. 

the fortifications 
.59 



Erat 

There was 



collis 
a hill 



a 

on 



septentrionibus, 
the north, 



quem" quia non potuSrant circumplecti opere, 
which because they could not enclose in the works, 



propter magnitudinem 
on account of the greatness 

necessario fecerunt 
necessarily pitched (their) 

et leniter declivi. 

and gently descending. 

C. Caninius Rubilus, 
C. Caninius Rubilus, 



circuitus, 
of the circuit. 



nostri 
our men 



paene 
almost 



castra iniquo loco, 

camp in an unfavorable place, 



C. Antistius Reginus, 

C. Antistius Reginus. 



legati, 
the lieutenants, 



obtinebant 
were holding 



et 
and 

haec 
this 



cum duabus legionibus. Regionibus cognitis 

with two legions. The country having been explored 



per exploratores, 

by scouts. 



duces 

the leaders 



hostium 
of the enemy 



sexaginta 
sixty 

civitatum, 
states. 

virtutis ; 
of [for] bravery 



millia 
thousand 

quae 
which 



ex 

from 

habeant 
have 



omni 
all 



numero 
the number 



deligunt 

select 

garum 
of those 



maximam 

the greatest 



opinionem 
reputation 



que 
and 



quo 

in what 



Definiunt 
They determine 



occulte constituunt inter se, quid, 

secretly they arrange among themselves, what, 

pacto placgat agi. 

manner it pleases (them) to be done [to take action]. 

tempus adeundi quum videatur 
the time of advancing when it may seem 



BOOK VII 



On the Gallic War. 



465 



esse 
to be 



meridies. 
noon. 



Vercassivellaunus 
Vercassivellaunus 



Praeficiunt lis 

They place over these 

Arvernum, unum 

the Arvernian, one 



copiis 
forces 



ex 

from 



quatuor ducibus, propinquum Vercingetorigis. 



the four 



leaders, 



a kinsman 



[of] 
Ille 

He 



egressus ex 

having departed from 

confecto 
having been completed 



of Vercingetorix. 

castris prima vigilia itin6re 
the camp on the first watch the march 

prope sub lucem, occultavit 

nearly about (day) light, concealed 

montem, que jussit milites 

the mountain, and ordered the soldiers 

refic6re sese ex nocturnol abore. Quum 

to refresh themselves from [after] (their) nocturnal labor. When 

meridies videretur 

noon was seeming to draw near, 

castra, quae demonstravimus 

camp, which we have mentioned 



se 

himself 



jam 
now 



post 

behind 



appropinquare, contendit 
he marched 



ad 
to 



ea 

this 



supra, 
above. 



que 
and 



godem 
at the same 



tempore 
time 



equitatus 
the cavalry 



coeperunt 
commenced 



ad campestres 

to the field [outer] 



munitiones, 

fortifications. 



copiae ostend6re sese pro 

forces to show themselves before 



et 

and 

castris. 
the camp. 



accedere 
to approach 

reliquae 
the remaining 



84. V^ercingetorix 
Vercingetorix 



conspicatus 

having beheld 



SUOS, 

his 



(allies), 



ex 

from 



arce Alesiae, egreditur ex 
the citadel of Alesia, marches from 



oppido, profert 
the town, he brings forth 



e castris longurios, musculos, falces, que 

from the camp long poles; moveable sheds, wall hooks, and 

reliqua, quae paraverat causa eruptionis. 

other things, which he had prepared for the purpose of the sally. 

Pugnatur uno temp5re, omnibus l6cis, atque 
It was fought at one time, in all places, and 

omnia tentantur. Quae pars visa esse minime 
all things are attempted. What part is seen to be least 



fi 



rma, 



hue 



, xx«^ concurritur 

strong, hither (they) run together. 



Manus 
The force 



Romanorum 
of the Romans 



466 The Commentaries of CcBsar. BOOK vii 

distinctur tantis munitionibus ne facile 

is extended in so great fortifications that not easily 

occurrit pluribus l6cis. Clamor, qui exstitit 
it opposed in many places. The din, that arose 

post tergum pucrnantibus, valuit multiim ad 

in the rear to [ofj the combatants, served much for 

terrendo nostros, quod vident suum 

alarming our men, because they see (that) their 

periculum consistere in virtute aliena. Enim 

peril depends on the bravery (of) others. For 

plerumque omnia quae absunt perturbant 

generally all things which are absent alarm 

mentes hominum vehementius. 
the minds of men more violently. 

85. Caesar nactus idoneum l6cum, cognoscit 

Caesar, having chosen a suitable place, learns 

quid geratur in quaque parte, submittit 

what is done in every part, he sends (a"d) 

laborantibus. Occurrit ad animum utrisque, 
(to those) hard pressed. It occurs to the mind to each, 

illud esse unum tempus, quo conveniat 
(that) that was the one time, in which it was fitting 

maxime contendi. Galli, nisi 

to the greatest degree to be fought [to fight]. The Gauls, unless 

perfregerint munitiones, desperant de omni 

they break through the fortifications, despair of all 

salute. Romani, si obtinuerint rem 

safety. The Romans, if they should gain the atfair (action] 

expectant finem omnium laborum. Maxime 

expect an end of all (their) labor. Especially 

laboratur ad superiores munitiones, quo 

it was [they] struggled at the higher fortifications, where 

demonstravimus Vercassivellaunum missum. 

we have shown (that) Vercassivellaunus (had been) sent. 

Exiguum fastigium ]6ci ad declivitatem, 

The small elevation of the place with the slope, 

habet magnum momentum. Alii conjiciunt tela, 
has great importance. Some throw weapons 



BOOK VII On the Gallic War, 467 

alii testudine facta, subeunt, integri 

others a testudo having been made advance, fresh men 

succedunt defatigatis invicem. Agger conjectus 

relieved the wearied by turns. The materials thrown 

ab universis in munitionem, et dat (sing.) 

by all against the fortifications. both give 

adscensum Gallis, et contegit (sing.) quae 

an ascent to the Gauls, and cover what 

Romani occultav6rant in terram. Nee jam 

the Romans had concealed in the ground. Neither now 

arma, nee vires suppetunt nostris. 
arms, nor strength suffice for our men. 

86. His rebus cognitis, Caesar mittit 

These things having l)een known. Caesar sends 

Labienum cum sex cohortibus laborantibus 

Labienus with six cohorts (to those) struggling 

subsidio. Imperat, si possit non 

for [as] aid He commands (him), if he could not 

sustinere, cohortibus deductis, pugnaret 

withstand, the cohorts having been drawn [led) out. he should fight 

eruptione ; non faciat id, nisi necessario. 

in a sally ; not [nor] do this, unless necessarily. 

Ipse adit reliquos ; cohortatur ne 

He goes to the rest , he exhorts (them) that they should not 

succumbant labori; docet fructum omnium 

succumb to the work , he shows (that) the fruit of all 

superiorum dimicationum consistere in 60 
(their) former battles depended on this 

die atque hora. Interiores campestribus 

day and hour Those within [The besieged] the level 

l5cis desperatis, propter magnitudinem 

places having been despaired of, on account of the size 

munitionum, tentant l6ca praerupta ex 

of the fortifications. attempt the places steep in 

adscensu ; hue conferunt 6a quae para- 

ascent ; here they bring those things wbich they had 

v6rant, deturbant propugnantes ex turribus 
prepared, they drive back the defenders from the towers 



468 The Commentaries of Ccssar. BOOK vil 

multitudine telorum ; explent fossas agggre 
by the multitude of weapons ; they fill up the trenches with earth 

et cratibus expediunt aditus ; rescindunt 

and fascines they prepare an approach ; they tear down 

vallum ac loricam falcibus. 

the rampart and parapet with hooks. 

87. Caesar prim6 mittit Brulum, adolescentem, 

Caesar at first sends Brutus, a young man, 

cum sex cohortibus, post Fabium legatum cum 
with six cohorts, afterwards Fabius (his) lieutenant with 

septem alTis. Postremo ipse, quum pugnaretur^^ 
seven others. At length he himself, when it is fought 

vehementius, adducit intergos subsidio. 

more desperately, leads up fresh (men) for aid. 

Proelio restitute, ac hostibus repul- 

The battle having been renewed, and the enemy having been 

sis, contendit S6 quo miserat Labienum; 

repulsed, he marches thither where he had sent Labienus ; 

educit quatuor cohortes ex proximo castello; 
he draws out four cohorts from the nearest fortress ; 

jubet partem equitum sequi se, partem 

he orders apart of the cavalry to follow himself, apart 

circumire exteriores munitiones, et adoriri 

to go around the other fortifications, and to attack 

hostes ab tergo. Labienus, postquam 

the enemy from [in] the rear. Labienus, after (thai) 

neque aggeres neque fossae poterant sustinere 
neither the mounds nor the trenches could resist 

vim hostium, una de quadraginta cohortibus 

the force of the enemy, thirty-nine cohorts 

coactis, quas deductas ex proximis 

having been assembled, which drawn from the nearest 

praesidiis, sors obtulit; fecit certiorem Caesarem, 
posts, chance offered ; he informs Caesar, 

per nuncios quid existimet faciendum. Caesar 
by messengers what he thought must be done. Caesar 

accelerat ut intersit proelio. 

hastens that he may be present at the battle. 



BOOK VII On the Gallic War. 469^ 

88. Ejus adventu cognito ex colore* 

His arrival having been known from the color 

vestitus, (quo insigni consueverat uti 

of (his) robe, (which (as) an insignia he was accustomed to use 

in proeliis), que turmis cquitum et cohortibus 
in battle), both the troops of cavalry and cohorts 

visis, quas jusserat sequi se, ut de 

having been seen, which he had ordered to follow him, as from 

superioribus locis haec declivia et devexa 
the higher places these sloping and inclined (places) 

cernebantur, hostes committunt prcelium. Clamore 
were beheld, the enemy join battle. A shout 

sublato utrimque, clamor rursus excipit 

having been raised on both sides, a shout is again received 

ex vallo atque omnibus muuitionibus. 

[heard] from the rampart and all the fortifications. 

Nostri pilis omissis, gerjnt 

,Our (men) the javelins having been laid aside, carry on 

rem gladiis (pi.)- Equitatus repente cernitur 

the action with the sword. The cavalry suddenly is seen 

post tergum; aliae cohortes appropinquant ; 

in the rear (of the Gauls); other cohorts advance; 

hostes vertunt terga ; equites occurrunt 

the enemy turn (their) backs ; the cavalry meet 

fugientibus ; magna caedes fit. Sedulius 

(those) fleeing; a great slaughter is made. Sedulius 

dux et princeps Lemovicum occiditur; 

general and chief of the Lemovices is slain ; 

Vercassivellaunus Arvernus comprehenditur vivus 
Vercassivellaunus the Arvernian is taken alive 

in fuga ; septuaginta quatuor militaria signa 

in , flight; seventy four military standards 

referuntur ad Caesarem ; pauci ex tanto 

are brought to Caesar ; few from [of] so great 

numero recipiunt se incolumes in castra. Conspicati 
a number return safe into the camp. Having beheld 

ex oppido caedem et fugam suorum, 
from the town the slaughter and flight of their (people), 

♦ white. 



470 



The Commentaries of CcEsar. BOOK vii 



salute 

safety 

a 
from 

fuga 
a flight 



desperata, 

having been despaired of, 



copias 

forces 



munitionibus. 
the fortifications. 

protlnus 
immediately 



Hac 

This 



reducunt 
they lead back (their) 

re audita 

action having been heard 



fit, 
is made. 



ex 

from 



nisi 



quod 
as to [regarding] which [thisl unless the soldiers had been 



castris Gallorum ; 
the camp of the Gauls; 

milites fuissent defessi 



crebris 
by the frequent 



subsidiis 
reinforcements 



diei, omnes copiae 
day, all the forces 



fatigued 

ac labore totius 

and by the labor of the whole 

hostium potuissent deleri. 

of the enemy would have been destroyed. 



De media nocte, equitatus missus consequitur 
About mid night, the cavalry having been sent overtakes 



novissimumi agmen. Magnus 

the rear line. A great 

atque interficitur; reliqui discedunt 
and killed ; the rest escape 



numgrus 
number 



capitur, 
are taken, 



in 
into 



89. 



civitates. 
their states. 

Postero 
On the next 



Vercingetorix 
Vercingetorix 



die, 
day, 

demonstrat 

shows 



concilio 
a council 

(that) 



ex fuga 
from the flight [rout] 



convocato, 
having been called, 

se suscepisse 

he had undertaken 



bellum 
the war 



non causa suarum necessitatum(pl.), sed 



not for the sake of his own 



necessity. 



communis 
of (their) common 

cedendum 
be yielded 



libertatis, 
liberty, 



et 

and 



quoniam 
because 



fortunae, 
to fortune. 



(that he) 



offere 

ofifered 



se 

himself 



but 

sit 

it must 

illis 
to them 



ad 
for 



utramque 
either 



rem, 



satisfacgre 
to satisfy 



thing 

Romanis 
the Romans 



[alternative]. 



seu 

whether 



sua 
by his 



(him) 

de 

concerning 



vivum. 
alive. 



his 
these 



Legati 

Ambassadors 

rebus, 
things. 



morte, 
death, 

mittuntur 
are sent 

Jubet 
He orders 



seu 

or 
ad 

to 



velint 
they wished 

trad ere 
to surrender 

Caesarem 

Caesar 



(their) 



arma 
arras 



BOOK VII 



071 the Gallic War. 



471 



tradi, principes roduci. Ipse 

to be surrendered, (and their) chiefs to be led forth. He 



consedit 
seated himself 



in 
at 



munitione 
the fortification 



pro castris ; 66 
before the camp ; there 



principes producuntur. 
the chiefs are led forth. 



Vercinffetorix 
Vercingetorix 



arma 
the arms 



projiciuntur. 
are thrown down. 



iEduis 
The i^dui 



atque 

and 



reserv^atis, si 

having been reserved, if 

civitates ; ex 
(.their) states ; from 



per 
through 



60s posset 
tliem he could 



deditur ; 
is surrendered 

Arvernis 
, Arverni 

recuperare 
gain over 



reliquis captivis distribuit 
the remaining captives he distributed 



singula 
one 

prsedae. 
of booty. 

90. His 

These 



capita 
each 



rebus 
things 



toto 
in the whole 



exercitu 
army 



confectis, 
having been accomplished, 



in 
into 



iEduos ; 
the i*:dui ; 



recipit 
he receives 



civitatem. 
the state. 



legati ab Arvernis missi 

ambassadors from the Arverni having been sent 



nomine 
under the name 



proficiscitur 
he marches 

E6 

Thither 

pollicentur 
they promise 



(that) 



se facturos, quae 
they would do, what 



imperaret. 
he might command. 



Imperat 
He orders 



magnum numerum obsTdum. Mittit legiones in 
a great number of hostage?. He sends the legions into 



hiberna. 
winter-quarters. 



Reddit 
He restores 



captivorum i^duis 
(of) prisoners to the vtldui 



T. Labienum 
T. Labienus 



proficisci 
to march 



circiter 

about 

que 
arid 

in 
into 



viginti 
twenty 

Arvernis. 
Arverni. 

Sequanos 
the Sequani 



millia 
thousand 

Jubet 
He orders 

cum 
with 



duabus legionibus et 

two legions and 

M. Sempronium Rutilum. 
M. Sempronius Rutilus; 

L. Minucium Basilum 



equitatu. Huic attribuit 
the cavalry. To him he assigns 

CoUocat C. Fabium 

He places C. Fabius 



et 

^^^nd 



Minucius 



Basilus 



in 
among 



Pemis 
the Remi 



cum 

with 



472 The Commentaries of Coesar. BOOK VH 

duabus lejjionibus, ne accipiant quam 

two legions, lest they might receive any 

calamitatem a finitimis Bellovacis. Mittit 

injury from the neighboring Bellovaci. He sends 

C. Antistiiim Reginum in Ambivaretos, 

C. Antistius Reginus among the Ambivareti, 

T. Sextium in Bituriges, C. Caninum Rebilum 
T. Sextius among the Bituriges, C. Caninus Ilebilus 

in Rutenos, cum legionibus singulis ; collocat 
among the Ruteni, with a legion each, he stations 

Q. TuUium Ciceronem, et P. Sulpicium Cabiloni 
Q. Tullius Cicero, and P. Sulpicius at Cabilo 

et Matiscone ad Ararim in ^^duis 

and Matisco on [near] the (river) Saone among the iEdui 

causa frumentariae rei ; ipse constituit 

for the purpose of the coin supply , he himself determines 

hiemare Bibracte. His rebus cognitis 

to winter at Bibracte. These things having been learned 

litteris Caesaris Romae, supplicatio viginti 

by letters of Caesar at Rome, a thanksgiving of twenty 

dierum indicitur. 
days is decreed. 



BOOK I Notes: Ccesar, 473 



NOTES 

FIRST BOOK 

Page 1 — 1 Latin order:- Gallia est omnis divisa in partes 
tres; quarum unam incoliint Belgae, Lit., Gaul is all divided 
into parts three; of which one inhabit Belgae. 

Page 2 — 2 eorum i. e. the Germans, eorum in the next 
sentence refers to the Celts or Gauls, tertiam, above. 3 Mean- 
ing, on the same side of the river, i. e. west side. 4 The 
country slopes to the north. 

Page 3 — 5 Dative after verb of pursuading, used as direct 
object. 6 on one side, the Rhine a river very wide and very 
deep — on the other side the Jura (St. Cloude) a very lofty 
mountain — on the third side by Lake Geneva and the river 
Rhone. 

Page 4 — 7 Other text: - qrta ex parte, and for this reason. 
8 they were considering that they had narrow territories in 
consideration of the multitude of men, the glory of war and 
their bravery. 9 to make as great sowings as possible. 
10 they decided two years' time would be sufficient to them 
for accomplishing these things. 

Page 5 — 11 Orgetorix is chosen for executing these things. 
12 Whose father had held sway among the Sequani many 
years. 

Page 6 — 13 he assures (them) that he himself is about to 
secure the kingdom for them with his resources and his army 
14 they hope that they may be able to get possession of all 
Gaul. 15 and brought together to the same place all his cli- 
ents and debt bondsmen of whom he was having a great num- 
ber; through M'hom he rescued himself from pleading his 
cause. 

Page 7 — 16 nor is suspicion wanting as the Helvetians 
think, that he had committed suicide 17 they might be more 
prepared for undergoing all dangers. 



474 Notes: Ccssar. BOOK I 

Page 8 — 18 Literally, and they vote in the Boii, admitted 
to themselves, as their (^516/^ allies. In English a double verb 
construction would be used, not the participle they take the 
Boii into their own number (ad sej and vote them in as allies. 
19 They were thinking that they (sese) either would pursuade 
the Allobroges because they were seeming to be not yet in 
good feeling toward the Roman people, or would compel by 
force to suffer them to go through their territories. 

Page 9 — 20 by journeys as great as he was able. 

Page 10 — 21 to ask that it may be allowed them to do this 
with his good will [permission] 22 Because Caesar was holding 
in memory that Lucius Cassius the consul had been slain 
(supply esse with occisum) and his army had been routed (supply 
esse) by the Helvetians and sent under the yoke, he was consid- 
ering that it must not be granted, nor was he thinking that men 
of hostile spirit, an opportunity of making a way through the 
province having been given, would refrain from injury and 
damage. 23 that he himself was about to take a day for 
deliberating, 

Page 11 — 24 nineteen thousand paces i. e. nineteen Roman 
miles about seventeen and one half English miles. The work 
actually represented five short spans the remaining distance 
being naturally protected somewhat by bluffs and ravines 
25 he denies that according to the custom and example of the 
Roman people he is able to grant a way to any through the 
province; and if they attempt to employ force he shows that 
he would prevent them (supply esse with prohibiturum) 26 
Lit. : - ships having been joined and rafts having been made 

i. e. when ships had been joined together and rafts made, 

27 where the depth of the river was least. 

Page 12 — 28 because he had taken in marriage, 29 

and induced by a desire (lit., greed) for the throne, he was 
zealous for a revolution and was wishing to have as many 
states as possible attached to him by his beneficence. 

Page 13 — 30 and where the route was the nearest into far- 
ther Gaul, 

Page 14 — 31 and were ravaging their lands. 32 their 
children led off into captivity, 

Page 15 — 33 now that their fields are devastated they are 



BOOK I Notes: Ccssar. 475 

not easily checking the violence of the enemy from the towns 
34 and show that there is nothing left to them besides the 
soil of the land. 

Page 16 — 35 When Caesar had been informed by scouts 
that the Helvetians had already led over this river three parts 
of their forces but that the fourth part had been left, 

Page 17 — 36 he takes care that a bridge should be made 
on the Saone 37 when they were understanding that he had 
done in one day, ;- 

Page 21 — 37a and from the iEdui and from their allies 

Page 22 — 38 Meantime Caesar daily demands from the ^dui 
the grain — Flagitare is a historical infinitive used as a 
finite tense 39 The emphasized word or phrase stands be- 
tween ne and qu'idem and qnidem throws its force back upon 
the emphasized term. 40 The ^dui put him off from day to 
day (and) say that it is being gathered, that it is being brought, 
that it is at hand. — ducere and dice?'e are historical infinitives. 

Page 23 — 41 their chiefs have been called together 

42 especially when in a great degree (lit., from a great part) 
he induced by their prayers had undertaken the war. 43 that 
there are some whose authority avails very much among the 
common people. 

Page 25 — 44 he had both increased his family estate i. e. 
his clanship, and provided great means for 

Page 26 — 45 and for the sake of this power he had married 
his mother among the Bituriges to a man there, most noble 
and most powerful, he himself had a wife from the Helveti- 
ans, he had given his sister on his mother's side and his kins- 
women in marriage into other states. That he favors and 
wishes well to the Helvetians on account of this alliance, that 
he hates (odisse, perfect with present sense) Caesar and the 
Romans by his own right (lit., name) because his power had 
been diminished by their arrival 45a He favors and wishes 
well to the Helvetians on account of this alliance; also he 
hated Caesar and the Romans on his own account (lit., from 
his own name) because his power (lit, the power of him) had 
been diminished by their arrival (lit., by the arrival of them), 
and Divitiacus, his brother, restored into the ancient place of 
favor and honor: if anything may happen to the Romans, he 



476 Notes: Caesar. book i 

entertains the highest hope of obtaining the Kingdom through 
the Helvetians. 46 he entertains the highest hope of obtain- 
ing the throne through the Helvetians if anything happens to 
the Romans. 47 he not only despairs of the throne. 

Page 27 — 48 sinee the most certain facts were substantiat- 
ing these suspicions 49 he was deeming that there was 

enough cause why (wherefore) either he himself should punish 
him (lit., attend to him) or should order the state to punish 
him. 

Page 28 — 50 that he himself knows that these things are 
true nor does anyone take more grief from this thing than 
himself 

Page 29 — 51 which means and strength he was using not 
only for diminishing his (Divitiacus') influence but almost for 
his destruction. 52 from which thing it would come to pass 
that 

Page 30 — 53 he warns him to avoid all suspicions 

54 he says that he himself forgives the past (offences) for 
(the sake of) his brother Divitiacus. 

Page 31 — 55 It was reported that it was easy. 56 At earlj'^ 
dawn when the mountain summit (lit., highest) is held bj'^ Ti- 
tus Labienus 

Page 33 — 57 This movement (lit., thing) is reported to the 
enemy by fugitives from Lucius ^milius, captain of the Gal- 

hc horse, 58 or because they Avere trusting that our men 

could be cut ofi^ from the grain supply. 

Page 35 — 59 It was a great disadvantage to the Gauls in 

the battle nor since the left hand was hampered to fight 

conveniently enough and to fight with unprotected person 

(i. e., the body unshielded, lit., naked). 

Page 36 — 60 having assailed our men upon the march on 
(the exposed flank began) to surround (them). 61 So the 
fighting continued in a doubtful battle long and fiercely. 62 
no one could see a routed enemy. 

Page 37 — 63 When the fighting had continued a long time 
our men got possession of the baggage and the camp. 64 and 
if they (lit., if who) should assist them he would hold them 
in the same light (or, position - Zoctts) as (quo) the Helvetians. 

Page 38 — 65 Some texts have: legatos de ditione ad eum 
miserunf - nent ambassadors to him concerning a surrender. 



BOOK I Notes: CcBsar. 477 

Page 39 — 66 they were thinking that their flight would be 

either concealed or overlooked altogether, 67 When 

Caesar discovered (other readings: resciU) this (lit., which) he 
ordered those through whose territories they had gone — 
68 if they were wishing to be exculpated toward himself i. e. 
in his eyes. 69 When they were brought back he held them 
in the class of enemies i. e. they were either sold into slavery 
or more probably put to death. 70 because he was unwilling 
that this place whence the Helvetians had departed should be 
unoccupied 

Page 40 — 71 and they afterwards received them into an 
equal estate of law and liberty as were they themselves. 

Page 41 — 72 ambassadors of almost all Gaul, chiefs of the 
states, assembled for congratulating Caesar. 

Page 43 — 73 Divitiacus the ^Eduan spoke for these (saying 
that) there are two factions of all Gaul, that the iEduans hold 
the chieftaincy of one, of the other the Averni. 

Page 44 — 74 The iEdui and their clients time and again 

have contended 75 nor would refuse that they should be 

forever under their sway and empire (lit., sway and empire 
of them) 

Page 45 — 76 because Ariovistus king of the Germans had 

settled in their territories (lit., borders) 77 We would 

compare the worse with the better and would say in English : for 
neither is the German land to be mentioned with the Gallic 

Page 46 — 78 if anything is not done at his nod and will 

79 his demands (lit., commands) cannot be endured longer. 
Unless there may be some aid in Caesar or the Roman people, 

the same thing must be done by all the Gauls 80 there 

is no doubt (lit., he not to doubt). 

Page 47 — 81 This speech having been delivered by Divi- 
tiacus 

Page 49 — 82 That the Germans moreover were accustomed 
little by little to cross the Rhine and that a great multitude 
of them came into Gaul, he was seeing was a perilous thing 
to the Roman people, nor was he judging that wild and bar- 
barous men, when they had occupied all Gaul as the Cimbri 

and Teutones had done, would restrain themselves before 

83 he was thinking he must meet these things (lit., which 
things) as early as possible 



478 Notes: CcBsar. BOOK i 

Page 50 — 84 had taken upon himself so many airs (so great 
insolence) that it seemed he must not be borne. 85 if any- 
thing was needful to him from Caesar, he would have come to 
him 86 nor could he gather an army into one place with- 
out great provisions and trouble, moreover it seemed wonderful 
to himself 

Page 51 — 87 that he should, though invited, be averse to 
come into a conferance nor should think that he must not 
speak nor learn concerning a common matter, these are the 

things which he was demanding from him, that 88 that 

it should be granted to the Sequani that it should be allowed 
with his consent to return to them (the ^Edui) those whom 
they were holding 

Page 53 — 89 if he was not dictating to the Roman people 
in what manner it should use its right, it was not proper that he 
himself should be hindered by the Roman people in his right 
90 he himself would not return the hostages to the iEdui, nor 
would he bring war with damage upon them nor upon their 
allies if they would abide by that (lit., remain in that) which 
had been agreed upon and would pay (lit., weigh out) the trib- 
ute yearly, if they would not do this the fraternal name of the 
Roman people would be far away from them. 

Page 54 — 91 were ravaging their territories, they could not 
purchase peace of Ariovistus when even hostages had been 
given 92 judged that he must hasten, lest if the new hand — . 

Page 55 — 93 it could be less easily opposed 94 when he 

had gone athree days' course 95 that Ariovistus with 

all his troops was hastening to seize Vesontio (lit., for occu- 
pying Vesontio) 96 which were of use for war 97 for pro- 
longing the war. 

Page 56 — 98 so that the foot (lit., roots) of this mountain 
touches the bank of the river on either hand (Ht., each part, i. 
e. the entire intervening space) 99 hither Caesar hastens by 
forced marches day and night. 100 for the sake of grain and 
provisions 101 that they themselves having oftentimes en- 
countered them were not able to bear even their looks, and 

Page 57 — 102 one of whom for one cause, another for an- 
other having reported what he was declaring was necessary to 



BOOK I Notes: CcBsar. 479 

him for setting out, was asking- that it might be allowed him to 

depart with his consent 103 to avoid the suspicion of 

fear, were remaining. 104 (Those) of them who were wishing 
that they might be thought less fearful were saying that they 
did not dread the enemy but feared the straits of the way 
— or the matter of corn that it could not be transported con- 
veniently enough. 

Page 58 — 105 that the soldiers would not be obedient to 
the command nor would bear the standard on account of fear. 
106 because they were thinking; it should be inquired or con- 
sidered into what part 

Page 59 — 107 Indeed he himself was persuaded that when 
his demands were known and the fairness of the conditions 

preceived he would reject neither 108 was seeming to 

have deserved not less praise than the commander himself. 

(Supply esse with meritus). 109 in the slave uprising . 

Many of the slaves were German captives taken by Marius 
110 From which it can be judged how much good firmness 

was having in itself by this (trickery) ( ) not even he 

himself expected our army could be taken. 

Page 61 — 111 upon the pretence of the grain supply and 
the straits of the ways did this officiously 112 These 
things were his care. 113 that it is said (translate dicantur as 
if singular) that they are not going to be obedient to the com- 
mand and are not going to bear the standard, he himself is 
disturbed in nowise by this thing, for he knew that to whom- 
soever an army has been disobedient at the command 

Page 62 — 114 his own integrity in his life throughout 

Page 63 — 115 and the highest alertness and eagerness for 
waging war was incited 116 and assured (him) that it was 
most prepared for waging war. 117 Their apology (lit., satis- 
faction) having been received and the way having been recon- 
noitered by Divitiacus 118 he was informed 

Page 64 — 119 and he was thinking he could do this without 
danger. Caesar did not reject the terms. 120 and thought 
he had now returned to reason 121 it would transpire (fore) 
that he would cease from his obstinacy 

Page 65 — 122 in another manner he himself would not 
come. 



480 Notes: Ccesar. BOOK I 

Page 66 — 123 now he enrolls it among the horse (lit., to 
the horse) i. e. makes them "equites,^^ horsemen or knights. 
124 When they had come there. 

Pagk 67 — 125 were existing between them and the ^dui. 

Page 69 — 126 that he himself had not inflicted war upon 
the Gauls, but the Gauls upon himself 127 he himself did 
this for the sake of protecting himself and not of assailing 
the Gauls. 

Page 70 — 128 that he did not come except as he was ask- 
ed and that he did not wage war but had defended himself, 
129 Never before this time had an army of the Roman people 
gone out of the borders of the province of Gaul. 

Page 71 — 130 He ought to be suspicious {suspicari, passive 
voice) that while friendship is feigned, because Caesar had an 
army in Gaul, he has it for the sake of crushing him. 131 
that if he should kill him he himself would be doing a grateful 

thing 132 that he himself has this, an ascertained 

fact, from themselves through their messengers. 

Page 72 — 133 allies who have deserved the best, nor does 

he himself judge that Gaul is rather the possession 134 

but if it is proper that the most ancient time in detail (lit., 

each most ancient time) be regarded 

Page 73 — 135 approached nearer the hillock and rode up 

to our men, threw stones and weapons against our men — — 

136 yet he was thinking it must not be permitted that, the 

enemy having been repulsed, it could be said they had been 

tricked by himself treacherously (lit., contrary to faith) in a 

conference 137 the arrogance that Ariovistus had used in 

the conference and that he had interdicted 

Page 74 — 138 It did not seem to Caesar that there was a 
cause for conferring, and so much the more that 

Page 75 139 and because the Germans had in him no cause 
of transgressing (lit., because there was not cause to the Ger- 
mans of transgressing in him) 140 But M'hen Ariovistus 

had beheld them {Qiios, whom, translate. But. . . .them). 

Page 76 — 141 were brought {supportai'etur is singular, the 
English idiom requires the plural number) 142 the opportu- 
nity might not be lacking to him 143 in cavalry battle 

Page 77 — 144 if they must advance farther or retire more 
quickly anywhere. 



BOOK II Notes: Ccesar. 481 

Page 79 — 145 to assault the lesser camp. There was 
fighting sharply on both sides until towards evening 147 
that they reported fdicere) thus: "it is not permitted (was, — 
the divine law, or fate) that the Germans shall conquer, if 
they should join in battle before the new moon." 148 because 
he was less powerful in the mass (lit., multitude) of legionary 
soldiers as compared with the number of the enemy. 

Page 80 — 149 Caesar appointed lieutenants one each and a 
questor (quartermaster) for the several legions 

Page 81 — 150 The j? velins thrown aside the fighting went 
hand to hand with swords. 151 because he was more free to 
act (lit., more unencumbered) than those who were involved 
in the battle-line he sent as a reinforcement the third battle 
-line to our toiling men 

Page 82 — 152 The term, woman, is inserted to show the 
gender of una and Sueva. 

Page 84 — 153 and the Ubii who dwell nearest the Rhine 
having pursued them panic-stricken To follow the Eng- 
lish idiom render quos by a connective and relative as if it 
were etque eos. 

SECOND BOOK 

Page 85 — 1 also he was informed by the letters of Labienus 

that all the Belgae were conspiring and were giving 

hostages among themselves. That these were the causes of 
conspiring 

Page 86 — 2 who were having means for mustering men. 
3 he himself as soon as there was beginning to be plenty of 
forage came to the army. 

Page 87 — 4 that they ascertain these things that are 
transpiring among the latter (lit., them) and inform him con- 
cerning these matters 5 then indeed he judged that he must 
not hesitate to set out to them (lit., that it must not be hesi- 
tated but that ) 6 that they entrust themselves and 

cheir all to the good faith and power of the Roman people. 

Page 88 — 7 that they could not intimidate (lit., restrain by 



482 Notes: CcEsar. BOOK il 

fear) even the Suessiones from intriguing (lit., but that 

they should intrigue. Or, from conniving) with these. 

Page 89 — 8 and that it was they alone who in the memory 
of our fathers when all Gaul was harassed, checked the Teu- 
tones and Cimbri from entering within their territories. 9 The 
Bellovaci were the most powerful among them. 

Page 91 — 10 and having dismissed them (lit., followed, 

took leave of) generously in an address 11 lest he must 

come to blows (lit., it must be combatted) at one time with 
so great a multitude 

Page 92 — 12 he dismisses him from his presence (lit., from 
himself). 13 nor now were far distant. > 

Page 93 — 14 For when so great a multitude were hurling 
stones and weapons, there was an opportunity for no one of 
standing on the walls. 

Page 95 — 15 favorable and suitable for drawing up the 
battle-line. 

Page 96 — 16 suhsido, lit. for a relief. 

Page 97 — 17 iUis, those (forces) i. e. the enemy. 18 con- 
tendehatur, lit. it was contended. 19 for carrying on the war. 
20 and were cutting off our (men) from supplies. Other 
reading: -g?/« sustenehant nostros commeatu - and were sus- 
taining our (men) with provisions. 21 light armed Numidians 

Page 98 — 22 There was sharp fighting in that place 23 
when they understood that they had deceived themselves in the 

hope both of storming the town and of crossing the river, 

24 for defending those into whose borders 

Page 99 — 25 were approaching the borders 26 It 

was not possible to persuade these to delay longer and not to 
bring aid to their (countrymen) 27 had not yet seen clearly 
28 at daybreak 

Page 100 — 29 to whom they came 30 as the period of the 
day permitted 

Page 101 — 31 he was not able to storm it 32 although 
few were defending. 33 of use for storming 

Page 102 — 34 they bring it to pass (lit., obtain) that they 

shall be preserved. 35 the chiefs of the state and two sons 

Caesar received the Suessiones into surrender 36 and signify 



BOOK II Notes: CcBsar. 483 

by voice that they come into his protection and power and 
are not contending in arms against the Roman people. 

Page 103 — 37 (saying) the Belovaei for all time had been 

in the confidence that they had been impelled by their 

chiefs who had said that the iEdui were reduced to slavery 
by Caesar and bore all indignities and affronts; (saying) that 
they had both revolted from the ^Edui and had waged war 
against the Roman people. 

Page 104 — 38 support themselves if any wars have arisen 

Page 105 — 39 there was no approach for merchants to 
them; that they suffered no wine and other things tending to 
luxury to be imported, because they judged their minds were 
enfeebled and their valor diminished by these things; that 

the men were fierce and of great valor that they chided 

and blamed the remaining Belgians that they affirmed 

that they would neither send ambassadors nor would receive 
any conditions of peace. 

Page 106 — 40 Dative after persuadeo. 41 there might not 
be access for an army 

Page 107 — 42 nor was there any dfficulty when the first 
legion had come into camp 43 it would come to pass that 
the remaining legions would not dare to take stand in 
opposition. 

Page 108 — 44 into which it was not possible not only to 
make entrance (pass, voice) but even to be seen through. 
45 so that it was possible to get sight (pass, voice) within. 

Page 109 — 46 For, because Caesar was approaching the 
enemy according to his custom he was leading six legions 
light armed 47 nor were our (men) daring to follow those 
yielding farther than to the limit which the extended and 
open places Avere reaching; the six legions meantime 

Page 110 — 48 and encouraged themselves 

Page 111 — 49 those who had advanced rather far for the 
sake of mound material must be summoned 

Page 112 — 50 for the sake of exhorting the soldiers 51 he 
gave the signal for joining battle 52 and so prepared the 
mind of the enemy for fighting that time failed not only for 
putting on the badges but even for donning the helmet and 
drawing off the coverings from the shields 



484 Notes: CcEsar. BOOK ll 

Page 113 — 53 since some legions in one position others in 
another were resting the enemy in various places and as very 
dense hedges were interposing, as we have shown before, the 
view was intercepted and neither were sure reserves able to 
be placed nor what might be useful in each position before seen 
nor all the commands given by one (person) 

Page 114 — 54 They did not hesitate to cross the river 
55 the Veromandui having been routed with whom thej^ had 
joined (battle), were fighting from the higher ground on the 
very banks of the river 

Page 115 — 56 and some panicstricken were borne in one 
direction, others in another 57 they announced to the state 
that the Romans had been routed and overcome; that the 
enemy possessed their camp and baggage — \s'\\h. pulsos, sup- 
eratos and potitos supply esse, after verbs of saying. 

Page 117 — 58 and that they (the enemy) pressed on from 
either flank and that the case was in a crisis, and that there 
was no reinforcement which could be sent up 

Page 118 — 59 Hope being infused in the soldiers by his 
coming and their spirit restored, since each one was desiring 
to do his best for himself m the sight of the General, even in 
his extreme dangers, the attack of the enemy w^as checked a 
little. 60 and should direct against the enemy the standards 
turned about — i. e. right and left face. 61 when some were 
bringing aid to some, others to others 

Page 119 — 62 they left nothing undone for themselves as 
regards speed 

Page 120 — 63 these dead bodies having been thrown down 
and heaped up 64 so that it ought to be considered that not 
without reason (i. e" with hope of success) men of so great 
valor 

Page 121 — 65 and in recounting the calamitj' of the state 
they said that they themselves were reduced 

Page 122 — 66 esse understood with ksics. 67 Since this 
(town) on all sides in its circumference had very high rocks 
and outlooks, on one sid *a gently sloping approach was left 
not more than two hundred feet in width. This qnum-clause 
explains egregie munitum. 



BOOK III Notes: Ccesar. 485 

Page 123 — 68 when sometimes they were waj^^ing war, at 
other time were repeUing it when broug^ht upon (them) 

Page 124 — 69 But when they saw that it was moved and 
that it approached the walls 

Page 125 — 70 they said that they p:ive up themselves and 
all their possessions into their (the Romans') power; that they 
sought and begged one thing 

Page 126 — 71 but that there was no condition of surrender 
except when the arms had been delivered; that he himself 
would do 

Page 127 — 72 There was a rush thither from the nearest 
fortresses and the battle was fought by the enemy 

THIRD BOOK 

Page 131 — 1 and this (which) village located in a valley a 
plain not large adjoining is hemmed in on all sides by very 
lofty mountains. 

Page 133 — 2 and they had pursuaded themselves that the 
Romans were endeavoring to occupy the peaks of the Alps 
3 since neither the work of winter quarters nor the fortifica- 
tions were fully completed nor was enough grain and other 
provisions secured, because, 

Page 134 — 4 neither was it possible (po.sfiff, understood) 
for anyone to come to their aid 5 for arranging and execu- 
ting these things Mhich they had decreed 6 Historical 
infinitives denoting rapid action are translated like finite 
tenses. The same is true of ronjicere, repugnare, mittere, 
occurrere, f err e, super ari. 7 Our men at first repulse them 
bravely while their strength is fresh 

Page 135 — 8 When now the fight was continuing unceas- 
ingly, 9 and as our men were becoming more faint, 

they began to, 

Page 136 — 10 who, we have said, was spent with many 
wounds, 11 that there is one hope of safety 

Page 137 — 12 nor of collecting themselves i. e. of recov- 
ering their senses 13 those (lit., these) who had come into 
the hope of getting possession of the camp, when they were 



I 



486 Notes: Ccesar. BOOK iii 

surrounded on every side. 14 nor suffered them to take 
stand even in the places that are higher, quidem emphasizes 
in locis. 15 and remembered that he had come into winter 
quarters with one design and was seeing that he had met 
with other circumstances. 

Page 138 — 16 and so at the beginning of winter had set 
out into Illyricum 17 omit mare in translation. 

Page 140 — 18 they take oath among themselves through 
their chiefs that they would act in nothing (accusative of 
specification) except by common counsel and that they would 
bear, 

Page 141 — 19 ambassadors, a name, .... had been 

detained by them and cast into chains. Supply esse with 
retentos and conjectos 

Page 142 20 Supply esse - that navigation was hindered 
21 longer, or rather long, i. e. any length of time. 22 supplies 
of grain 

Page 143 — 23 These were the difficulties of waging the 
war lit., of war to be waged. 

Page 144 — 24 esse understood, forming the perfect passive 
infinitive after verbs of saying 

Page 145 — 25 Pluperfect of defective verb, ccepi, used with 
the force of the imperfect - they were beginning to despair 

Page 146 — 26 in order that they may be able the more 
easily to take the shoals and ebb-tides (lit., ebb of the tide); 
27 for enduring any force and buffeting; the benches were 
made from beams a foot in width fastened together with iron 
nails of the thickness of a thumb. 

Page 147 — 28 and so great fury of the winds could (posse) 
not be withstood and so great masses of ships governed by 
sails conveniently enough 29 Some texts read adigebatur. - 
nor was a weapon easily shot at them. 

Page 148 — 30 nor could (posse) he inflict injury {noceri, 
passive voice) upon them, he decided that the fleet must be 
aw^aited. 31 about two hundred and twentj" of their ships 
the best equipped and most provided with every kind of 
armament (lit., arms) 

Page 149 — 32 for they had understood that they could not 
inflict injury by the beak (prow). Lit., hastes understood is 



BOOK III Notes: Caesar. 487 

subject of posse. 33 With a form not unlike that of wall- 
hooks. — — 

Page 150 — 34 all advantage of their ships was lost at the 
same time i. e. all at once. 35 after the barbarians perceived 
that this was done 

Page 151 — 36 and this condition (which thing) was espe- 
cially favorable for completing the business 37 since the 
battle continued 38 in whom there was some counsel or 
dignity had gathered there; besides they had assembled in 
one place what ships had been everywhere 

Page 152 — 39 under the hammer i. e. at auction 

Page 153 — 40 an enthusiasm for fighting was [were] 
recalling, 

Page 154 — 41 because he was thinking that a battle ought 

not to be undertaken by a lieutenant except on equal 

grounds or when some opportunity was given 42 to go over 
to the enemy 43 nor is it farther off than that on the next 
night Sabinus may lead out, — — and set out to Caesar for 
the sake of bringing him aid. When this report was heard 
all shout that the opportunity for carrying on the business 
well must not be lost that it is the proper thing to go to 
camp. 

Page 155 — 44 the want of food which had been provided 
by them without suflficient care. 45 Induced by these things 
they do not release Viridovix and the other leaders from the 
council before that it has been granted by them to take arms 
and to hasten to the camp 

Page 156 — 46 at full speed, that as brief a period as pos- 
sible might be given the Romans for assembling and arming 
themselves, and arrived out of breath. 47 It came to pass 
48 and our soldiers with fresh strength having pursued them 

(quos, translated by and them) encumbered slew a great 

number of them 

Page 157 — 49 for undertaking wars, so their mind is soft 
and by no means sturdy [resistant] for bearing misfortunes. 

Page 158 — 50 There was fighting long and sharply 51 
that the security of the entire Aquitania was placed in their 
valor (Supply esse with positam) 

Page 159 — 52 that it should be seen what they could 



488 Notes: Ccssar. BOOK IV 

accomplish without the general, The clause: quid 

possent (luce is subject oi perspici, and the whole construc- 
tion is the object of caperent. 53 and when they were bravely 

resisting, One of the many instances in which an 

ablative absolute may be rendered best in English by a sub- 
ordinate clause. 

Page 160 — 54 commit suicide 55 and the fighting there 
was violent 

Page 161 — 56 however he obtained from Crassus to enjoy 
(English idiom, the enjoyment of) the same condition of 
surrender. 57 because they had learned that a town....... 

had been stormed (supply esse) in the few days in which 
(the Romans) had come there. 

Page 162 — 58 he considered that he must not delay set- 
tling the issue (but that he should settle the issue) in battle. 
59 that all thought the same thing, 

Page 163 — 60 when the plan had been approved by their 
generals, although the troops of the Romans were drawn up, 
they were keepmg themselves in camp. 61 that it was 
befitting them not to wait longer but that they should be off 
to the camp; having exhorted his men, all filled wnth eager- 
ness, he hastens to the camp of the enemy. 

Page 166 — 62 far into the night 

Page 167 — 63 nor had ever sent ambassadors to him about 
peace. 64 and when Caesar had arrived at the margin of 
these forests and had decided to fortify a camp nor meantime 
had an enemy been seen, 

Page 168 — 65 therefore all their fields (lit., all the fields 
of them) having been laid waste (or, when all their fields had 
been laid waste and their villages and buildings burned,) 

FOURTH BOOK 

Page 171 — 1 from each of which they lead yearly a thou- 
sand armed men out of their territories. 2 but for the most 
part on milk and beef (lit., cattle) and are often (lit., much) in 
huntings; [in the chase J; and this condition (lit., which 
thing) 



BOOK IV Notes: CcEsar. 489 

Page 173—3 and fight on foot (lit., battle on the feet) 4 
therefore however few they dare to approach (to) any number 
whatever of saddled horsemen. They do not permit wine to 

be imported 5 because they think that by this thing men 

are enfeebled for enduring labor and are effeminated. 6 are 
said to be unoccupied from the Suevi on one side; the Ubii 
come next in the other direction (lit., at the other part). 

Page 175 — 7 they arrived at the Rhine, the localities which 
the Memapii were inhabiting 8 they were checking the 

Germans from crossing over 9 they pretend that they 

are returning to their own habitations and countries — — 
10 who have been informed of the departure of the Germans 
by spies 

Page 176 — 11 before (lit., before that) this part of the 
Memapii which was on this side of the Rhine was informed. 

Page 177 — 12 and very many answer fictions according to 
the wish of these. 13 lest he might encounter a severer war. 
Sometimes rendered: - a rather severe war 14 he learned that 
these things had been done which he suspected would be, that 
ambassadors had been sent by some states to the Germans 
and that they had been requested to depart (lit., that they 
should depart) from the Rhine — — Supply esse with facta 
missas and inintatos. 15 and the Germans induced by this 
(Qua) hope 

Page 178 — 16 When he was distant a few days' journey 

from them 17 whose speech was as follows: (lit., these 

thing?). 18 nor yet do they refuse to contend in arms if they 
are atttrrked. 

Page 181 — 19 forming many great islands (lit., many and 
great) — — 

Page 182 — 20 if their chiefs and senate would give pledge 
(lit., give faith) by oath they were showing that they them- 
selves would use those terms that were offered by Caesar (lit., 
this condition, let him give them (themselves) u period of 
three days for accomplishing these things. 

Page 183 — 21 let them assemble hither on the next day 
as numerously as possible that he might learn concerning their 
demands (lit., the requests of them) 22 But as soon as {ubi 
primum. lit., when first) the enemy beheld our cavalry — — 



490 .Notes: CcEsar. BOOK IV 

Introduce the noun into the subordinate clause in English 
and supply a pronoun as ii or illi^ as subject of psrturhaverunty 
the principal verb several lines below 23 some texts have 
induclis. 

Page 185 — 24 to whom he was judging no time at all 
should be given (lit., nothing of time) for taking counsel (lit., 
counsels), as well, (simul, correlative of simul below) 

Page 186 — 25 as it was said, for the sake of exonerating 
themselves 26 (contrary to what (lit., as) had been declared 

[said] and to what they themselves had sought 27 

Caesar rejoicing (lit., having rejoiced) ordered them when 
they were presented to him to be detained. Change the quos 
clause to the English idiom. The fate of these people is 
mention in the last few lines of Chapter 15. 

Page 187 — 28 qui, and they — — 29 time (lit., space) 
having been given neither for forming plans nor for taking 
arms 30 When their (lit., whose, or of whom) panic was 
indicated 

Page 189 — 31 of which (cause) this (that) was the most 
justifiable (lit., most just) 32 In addition also that portion 
of the cavalry 

Page 190 33 when Caesar had sent messengers to them 
34 if he should judge that it was not just that the Germans 
should cross the Rhine into Gaul, when he was unwilling, why 
should he demand that any of his empire or power should be 
across the Rhine. 

Page 191 — 35 since Ariovistus was routed and this last 

battle fought an ablative absolute denoting cause, it is 

best rendered in English by a subordinate clause 

Page 192 — 36 which having been separated and held fast 
in opposite directions 

Page 193 — 37 at the lower part of the river — — i. e. 
down stream. 

Page 198 — 38 the countries having been explored in so far 
as opportunity could (potuit, was able) be given to him 

Page 199 — 39 concerning the project of the former season 
(lit., time). 

Page 200 — 40 And when they were brought to him (lit., 
whom having been brought) he received them into alliance 



BOOK IV Notes: Ccssar. 491 

Page 201 — 41 since this was executed by these (ht., by 
whom) a little more slowly [rather slowly] 

Page 202 — 42 as the method of military affairs and espec- 
ially as maritime movements (lit., tiling) demand (as these 
(qu(p) have a quick and unsteady motion). 

Page 203 — 43 moreover the soldiers both must leap down 
at the same time from the ships and must take stand in the 

waves and must fi^ht with the enemy (lit., it must be 

leaped down by the soldiers ) 44 while they {Uli, the 

enemy) 45 when Caesar perceived this (which) 

Page 205 — 46 there was sharp fi^htinp: by both sides. 

Page 207 — 47 he said he would pardon their indiscretion 
(lit., ignorance) 

Page 208 — 48 the fourth day after he had come into Brit- 
ain (lit., it was come); when they were approaching to Britain 
49 qua; translate as if hf(\ these, subject of vomplerentur. 

Page 209 — 50 (in which Caesar had caused (lit., had pro- 
vided, or taken care,) the army to be transported) 

Page 210 — 51 and all things were lacking which were of 
use for repairing the ships and because it was evident to all 
that it was expedient to winter in Gaul (since) corn had not 
been provided in these places against the winter. 52 some 
texts have ad fa faclenda qncr Ca sar jnsserat for these (things) 
to be done which Caesar had ordered i. e. for doing these 
things which Caesar had ordered 

Page 212 — 53 he brought it to pass that they could make 
a sailing {narigarl, passive voice, lit., to be sailed) easily in 
the rest. Some texts read; satis commode, quite easily. 

Page 213 — 54 and disorder the ranks generally by the very 
terror of the horses (lit., terror itself) 

Page 214—55 and battle on foot (lit., on the feet) 

Page 215 — 56 having thought the time unsuited for attack- 
ing the enemy, and for joining battle 57 a short time 

having passed (lit., having been interposed) 58 the rest (i. 
e. the Britains) who were in the fields departed. 59 how 
great an opportunity was presented (lit., given) for (of) making 
plunder and of freeing themselves forever 

Page 217 — 60 he was thinking that the passage (lit., 
voyage) must not be incurred in winter (lit,, exposed to win- 



492 Azotes: CcEsar. BOOK V 

ter) with weak ships 61 when about three hundred 

soldiers had been landed from these (which) ships and were 

hartening into canip 65 if they were unwilling to be 

slain (lit., if they were unwilhng themselves to be slain) 



FIFTH BOOK 

Page 220 — 1 that they should take care in the winter (that) 
ships as many as could be (lit., as they were able) should be 
built and the old repaired. He shows their size and form. 

Page 221 — 2 because he had learned that the waves became 
less great there on account of the frequent alterations of the 
tides. 3 for transporting cargos and a multitude of beasts of 

burden 4 and for this object (lit., for which thing) etc. 

B.es is a very indefinite term and requires translation according 
to the connection. 5 He orders these (materials) which are of 
use for rigging ships, (lit,, for ships to be rigged) to be brought 
from Spain. 6 he demands soldiers from the states. Impero 
takes the dative of the person and accusative of the thing. 

Page 222 — 7 he shows that he would proceed against the 
state with war. 

Page 223 — 8 nor were they far from (wanting much from) 
this condition of being possible (possent) to be launched (lit., 
led down) in a few days. 9 This state is by far the most 
powerful of all Gaul in cavalry 

Page 224 — 10 were striving with one another (lit., among 
themselves) concerning the chieftaincj^ 11 he prepares war 
(parare, historical infinitive) 

Page 225 — 12 that he himself withdrew from his own peo- 
ple and had been unwilling to come to him for this reason in 
order that he might preserve the state more easily in its alle- 
giance etc. 13 for what reason these things were said (i. e. his 
jealousy of Cingetorix). 

Page 226 — 14 and this thing (which thing) he was not only 
understanding should be done by himself because of his deserts 
but also he was judging that it concerned him greatly that 
the authority of this one (lit., the authority of him) should 



BOOK V Notes: CcEsar. 493 

prevail as much as possible among his own people, whose good 
will he had perceived was so excellent toward himself. 

Page 227 — 15 had not been able, infinitive after cognoscit. 
Page 228 — 16 Impossible to render exactly, lit:- It was 
approaching hither that etc. It happened in addition that etc. 

17 suis - his, i. e. Dumnorix's 18 After he saw that this 

was denied him persistently (lit., obstinately) 

Page 229 — 19 (saying) that he was alarmed with the fear 
that not without reason it was done so that Gaul should be 
stripped of all the nobility etc. 20 he insinuated a pledge to 
the rest, demanded an oath etc. 21 because he was seeing 
that his madness had gone too far, he must look out (lit., it 
must be looked out) that {ne, lest) he should (posset) not in- 
jure himself and the state. 

Page 230 — 22 he was taking pains (lit., giving work) etc. 
23 and he orders that he be dragged back; if he shows violence 
(lit., makes violence) nor obeys, he orders that he be killed 
having considered that he would do nothing like a sane man 
since he had disregarded his commands in his presence. 

Page 231 — 24 that he might take counsel in accordance with 

time and circumstances Plu. in English idiom for re. 

Page 232 — 25 An approach was made to Britain by all the 
ships nearly at noon time. 26 Nor was an enemy seen in this 
place etc. 

Page 234 — 27 and were preventing our men from penetrat- 
ing within the fortifications. 

Page 235—28 Some texts have the term Uteris in parenthe- 
sis as given here although quite probably it should be omitted. 
Page 236 — 29 not the time of night even - nocturnis is 
emphasized by quidem. 

Page 237—30 The chieftaincy of the command and of the 
managing of the war i. e. the leadership of the command and 
the chief management. 31 The interior part or Britian is in- 
habited by those who, it is handed down by memory, (by tra- 
dition) have been born in (i. e. are native to) the island itself. 
Esse is understood with proditum. The subject of proditum 
esse is the clause quos natos (esse) in insula. 
Page 238 — 32 examinatis, lit., weighed. 
Page 240 — 33 in circuitu, - all around. 34 and they have 
long hair. 



494 Notes: Ccssar. BOOK v 

Page 243—35 Add to this etc. See note 16 36 and 

some were relieving some, others others in succession 

Page 244 — 37 so that they were not keeping back from 
the standards and the legions. 38 neither did they give the 
opportunity of collecting themselves nor of halting. 

Page 246 — 39 and by this fear was hindering them from 
roaming more widely. It followed (lit., was left) that Caesar 
would not allow departure to be made (lit., it to be departed) 
too far from the marching-line of the legions and that injury 
should be inflicted upon the enemy (lit., it should be injured to 
the enemy in) by ravaging the fields and making conflagrations 
(lit., burnings) etc. 

Page 248 — 40 many (of the enemy) etc. 

Page 250 — 41 He prohibits and commands Cassivellaunus 
not to injure Mandubracius nor the Trinobantes. 42 et, omit 
in translating 

Page 251 — 43 and (those) which Labienus had taken care 
to be made etc. 44 When Caesar had awaited these (lit., 
which) etc. 

Page 252 — 45 of these legions (lit., from which legions) 
he gave one etc. 

Page 254 — 46 by whose management (lit., work) he may 
learn that Tasgetius had been killed. Meantime he was in- 
formed by all the lieutenants and quaestors to whom he had 
assigned legions that they had arrived in winter quarters and 
that the place was fortified for the winter quarters. This is an 
impersonal construction and impossible to translate literally 
(i. e. that it had been arrived into winter quarters etc.). In 
about fifteen days since they had come into winter quarters 
(lit., from which it was come etc.). 

Page 257 — 47 that Gauls are not easily able to refuse Gauls, 
especially when a design was seeming best to be adopted (lit., 
entered into) concerning the |restoring of the common liber- 
ties. 48 he advises Caesar for his kindness, he beseeches 

Titurius for his hospitality 49 it is their plan (i. e. it is 

for them to decide) whether they etc. 

Page 258 — 50 when he does this he {sese) both consults for 
the state because it will be relieved from winter quarters and 
returns a favor to Caesar for his good offices (lit., merits, or 
services). 



BOOK V Notes: CcEsar. 495 

Page 259 — 51 that nothing must be performed rashly nor 
must they depart (lit., it to be departed) from winter quarters 
without the order of Caesar. 52 The fact is a witness. 
53 Meantime reinforcements would arrive both from the near- 
est winter quarters and from Caesar. 

Page 260 — 54 Neither otherwise would the Carnutes have 
formed the desij^n of killing Tasgetius nor would the Eburones 
have come etc. 

Page 261 — 55 The English idiom would require some such 
form as this: who would persuade himself, or, would be per- 
suaded, regarding this etc. 56 In which (i. e. following that 
advice) if not present danger etc. 

Page 263 — 57 Everything is calculated why they may not 
remain without danger and why the danger is increased by the 
weariness and wakefulness of the soldiers. 58 They set out 
at early dawn from the camp in such a manner (lit., so) as they 
etc. 59 but by Ambiorix as a most faithful man. 

Page 265 — 60 was performing the duties of a general in 
summoning and encouraging the soldiers and of a soldier in 
the battle. 61 this seemed to be done etc. 

Page 267 — 62 that they could in nowise be injured (lit., it 
was possible as to nothing to be injured to them) because of 
the lightness of their arms and their daily exercise. 

Page 268 — 63 Then Titus Balventius has each thigh pierced 
with a javelin. 64 who had led the first century i. e. had been 
first centurion. 

Page 271 — 65 that there is no trouble, for the legion, hav- 
ing been suddenly crushed, which winters with Cicero, to be 
slain etc. 

Page 272 — 66 as great as they arc able 67 necesse, 

unavoidable (lit., necessary) 

Page 273 — 68 they (the Romans) had brought together etc. 

Page 274 — 69 contahulantur, i. e. are built up with stories. 

70 nocturnum is emphasized by quidem in the regular text. 

71 they exhibit Ambiorix for the sake of creating confidence 
(lit., of making faith). 72 inveterascere, lit., to become old 
73 he himself hopes that they may obtain what they sought 
in view of his Justice. 

Page 277 — 74 i. e. it was spread into every part of the 



496 Notes: Ccesar. BOOK vi 

camp. 75 but no one scarcely even looked back and besides 
all were fighting most fiercely and most valiantly. 

Page 279 — 7Q pugnaretur, lit., when it was fought etc. 
77 "or what opportunity (lit., place) of proving thy valor dost 
thou await?" 78 Pullo's shield is pierced. 

Page 283 — 79 for the sake of passing (lit., bearing), the 
winter. 

Page 284 — 80 reciderat, lit., had fallen back. 

Page 286 — 81 and therefore was thinking he must relax 
with an easy mind from speed (lit., it must be relaxed) 

Page 288 — 82 and that there be confusion as much as pos- 
sible in managing these things and that it be performed {agi) 
with a pretence of fear. The enemy having been tempted by 
all these things (lit., by all which things) etc. 83 they ap- 
proach nearer i. e. the enemy approach. 

Page 289 — 84 after this time no longer would be the op- 
portunity. 85 nor was he seeing that the place had been left 
with a trifling loss on their part. 

Page 292 — 86 without anxiety on the part of Caesar etc. 

Page 294 — 87 they were not obedient to the command. It 
availed so much among barbarian men that some were found 
the leaders in waging war etc. 

Page 295 — 88 lost no time of the whole winter without 
sending ambassadors across the Rhine, inviting the states* 
promising money, (who) should say etc. 89 Nor yet was it 
possible to prevail upon any state of the Germans to cross the 
Rhine; 

Page 298 — 90 but was thinking he should not lose any op- 
portunity for performing a matter well. 

Page 299 — 91 with many insulting words. 92 and enjoins, 
(lit., forbids), which refers to the part of the sentence below: 
omnes peterent quemquam. 

SIXTH BOOK 

Page 302 — 1 augeri cannot be translated literally, i. e. to 
be increased, the idea being that the loss can not only be re- 
paired but may be more than made good, supplemented ap- 



BOOK VI Notes: Ccssar, 497 

proaches the meaning. 2 proximis and 3 uUeriores Germans or 

states is understood 4 they bind each other {inter se) by 

an oath. 5 parari, esse, venire, communicare, solicitari, are 
infinitives after videret (saw that), which are translated as finite 
past tenses. 

Page 304 — 6 and had united these states, (i. c, with the 
Senones,) but they were thought to have been absent from this 
council (the recent confederacy). Hac re this thing (the ad- 
journment to Lutetia) etc. 

Page 305 — 7 for the sake of asking quarter. 

Page 306 — 8 Lit., not to be about to contend. 

Page 307 — 9 Lit., for the sake of peace to be sought. 

Page 308 — 10 at fifteen thousand paces (from LabienusX 

Page 309—11 Lit., at first light. 

Page 310 — 12 Lit., among themselves. 

Page 312 — 13 Lit., for the sake of themselves to be cleared 

Page 313 — 14 Lit., he becomes, or is made more certain. 

Page 315 — 15 from one another. 

Page 316 — 16 and forced them to swear publicly that they 
would enter {esse understood with inituros, lit., to be about to 
enter) into no design (lit., nothing of design) against the 
Sequani. 

Page 317 — 17 Lit., themselves to use 18 as it was 

perceived that they {quos) equaled the iEdui in favor etc. 

Page 319 — 19 Lit., they to whom it had been interdicted 
are held in the number etc. 

Page 321 — 20 Lit., to pass from some to others, — plural 
to correspond with pi. number of animas, not the form. 

Page 322 — 21 they vow that they will sacrifice them. 

Page 323 — 22 depellere, tradere, tenere, regere, are infini- 
tives after hahent. . . .opinionem. 

Page 324 — 23 Supply esse with proditum. 

Page 325 — 24 according to the manner with slaves, i. e. 
torture. 25 Lit., to have been to the heart to them living. 

Page 328 — 26 as wide as possible. 

Page 331 — 27 they not themselves even compare etc., se 
is emphasized. 

Page 337 — 28 because he thought he must not contend in 
battle etc. 



498 Notes: Ccssar. BOOK VII 

Page 340 — 29 for devastating this locality, lit., for this 
locality to be devastated. 

Page 348 — 30 consciousness leaves Sextius, i. e. Sextius 
faints. 

Page 350 — 31 through the midst of the enemy etc. 

Page 352 — 32 would not have assaulted the camp etc. 

Page 353 — 33 Lit., for harassing the enemy. 34 Lit., it 
would seem it to be perished by these. 

Page 355 — 35 He inflicted death by flogging. 

SEVENTH BOOK 

Page 357 — 1 Lit., at the peril of their head, like our term 
capital (head caput) punishment. 

Page 359 — 2 Lit., it is departed from the council. 

Page 360 — 3 Lit., the sun rising (abl. absolute) 4 i. e. 

between nine and ten P. M., viz., about sixteen hours. It 
must be kept in mind that many miles of the country were 
then uninhabited. 5 recourse is had to arms, lit., it is rushed 
to arms. 

Page 363 — 6 who they ascertain had made this plan etc. 
7 virtute, i. e. vigor. Sometimes translated: thanks to Cneius 
Pompey. 

Page 366 — 8 Having been stirred by their entreaties etc. 
9 because he had anticipated in his judgment that these things 
would come to pass as regards Vercingetorix, he departs from 
the army etc. 

Page 367 — 10 for undertaking a plan. 

Page 370 — 1 1 very few of the whole number of the enemy 
having missed, (or escaped), being captured etc. Cuncti, in 
sense, goes with perpaucis ex numero. 12 When ambassadors 
had come to him from this town etc. 

Page 371 — 13 as soon as the townsmen had seen it {quern 
i. ei equitatum) and entertained the hope of aid etc. 

Page 373 — 14 Supply esse with laturos and progressuros, 
that the Romans either would not bear privation or would 
proceed rather far from the camp, with great danger. 

Page 376 — 15 Lit., that it should be gone. 



BOOK VII Notes: Ccssar. 499 

Page 377 — 16 to such a degree that the soldiers etc. 

Page 380 — 17 since he saw them {quos) so prepared in 
mind etc. 

Page 381 — 18 that he prefers to have etc. 19 feebleness 
of purpose. 

Page 382 — 20 gratiam habendam, thanks must be given, 
is understood before huic. 

Page 384 — 21 and when they had caught them (quos) etc. 

Page 385 — 22 at equal intervals apart (inter se) etc. 

Page 386 — 23 In this passage the same phrase (inter se) 
may be rendered one another, each other. 

Page 387 — 24 where first it should be thwarted (lit., it 
should be run to meet so as to frustrate or thwart). 

Page 388 — 25 When the battle was raging in all places etc. 
26 was depending on that instant of time (lit., to be placed in 
that instant etc,, esse being understood with positam). 

Page 389 — 27 Lit., was retarding the Romans for following. 

Page 391 — 28 that if any advance to meet them (obviam) 
on any side they might fight with the battle line arrayed. 

Page 392 — 29 that part of the camp which had fallen to 
each ft-om the beginning. 

Page 397 — 30 That is, each of them has his own (follow- 
ers) adherents, might translate freely suas eorum^ each of them 
has his own partisans. 

Page 401 — 31 he resolved that he must not act regarding 
a seige etc. 

Page 402 — 32 both in a large measure from water and from 
unrestricted (free) foraging etc. 

Page 409 — 33 who (quibus) on account of the size of the 
camp must remain continually on the wall without relief (lit., 
the same). 

Page 411 — 34 Although Caesar was knowing these things 
(lit., which things — quae) etc. 

Page 419 — 35 While they are fighting (While the fighting 
proceeds) most violently etc. 

Pags 420 — 36 Manus, force lit., band, i. e. the force of the 
enemy. 

Page 421 — 37 and was the salvation of his men. 38 viz., 
the tenth legion. 



500 Notes: Ccesar. BOOK ^ ii 

Page 427 — 38 Lit., it must be hastened by himself if it 
must be hazarded in building the bridges. 

Pagf 429 — 40 or Melodunum, accoringto some authorities. 

Pag 431 — 41 aid must be sought from his own mental re- 
sources (lit., by the courage of mind) 

Page 432 — 42 When he had come there etc. 

Page 437—43 in a pitched battle. 

Page 443 — AAc Alesia, \\\q modern Alise-St- Reine where 
many relics of the seige have been excavated. 

Page 446 — 45 and if they should be rather heedless (dila- 
tory) he shows etc. 

Page 447 — 46 Poenam capitis, capital punishment. 

Page 448 — 47 from each other eighty feet i. e. about four 
hundred of them. 

Page 449 — 48 where if any {qui) might enter 49 the 

foot lit., feet, of each (the several feet) in the ground at the 
bottom (from [on] the lowest ground) were trodden in with 
earth. 

Page 451 — 50 could be surrounded not by a multitude even 
great, quidem emphasizes magna. 51 (if it happens so through 
its withdrawal) i. e. the departure of the cavalry. This clause 
is generally omitted in translation. 

Page 454 — 52 when these would be fighting in a sally etc. 

Page 456 — 53 for the joy of it, i. e. for a mere idea. 

Page 457 — 54 For what was in (lit., to) that war like this ? 

Page 460 — 55 active (soldiers) of the light armed troops. 

Page 461 — 56 ac must be rendered as if nee, nor, i. e. neithe'^ 
a noble nor cowardly act could be concealed. 

Page 462 — 57 by one-pounder sling shots. 58 Mark An- 
thony, the triumvir. 

Page 464 — 59 and because they could not enclose it in the 
works on account of the extent of the surface, our men etc. 
{quern, viz. , and . . it) 

Page 465 60 There was fighting at the same time in all 
places, 

Page 466 — 61 in which it was fitting that they should fight 
to the uttermost. 

Page 468 — 62 when they are fighting more desperately etc. 



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Sample page of the New Students' Interlinear Translation 
THE FIRST ORATION 

OF MARCUS TULLIUS CICERO 
AGAINST LUCIUS CATILINE. 



1. Quousque tandem abutere, Catilina, 

How far at length will you abuse. O Catiline 

nostra (abl.) patientia (abl )? Quamdiu etiam 

our patience? How long also (will) 

iste furor tuus eludet (fut ) nos? ad quern 
that fury of yours elude us? to what 

finem effrenata audacia jactabit (fut.) sese^ 

end (will that) unbridled audacity flaunt itself? 

Nihil ne nocturnum praesidium Palatii, 

In no wise (has) the nightly guard of the Palatine, 

nihil vigiliae urbis, nihil, 

in no wise (have) the watches of the city, in no wise (has), 

timor populi, nihil concursus 

the fear of the people, in no wise (has) the assemblage 

omnium bonorum, nihil hie munitissimus 

of all the good, in no wise (has) this most fortified 

locus habendi senatus, nihil ora 

place of holding the senate, in no wise (have) the faces 

que vultus horum moverunt (perf. ) te? 

and looks of these moved you? 

Non sentis tua consilia patere? 

<Doyou)not perceive (that) your counsels [plans] lie open? 

Non vides tuam conjurationem jam 

(Do you) not see (that) your conspiracy already 

teneri constrictam conscientia omnium 

to be lis] held bound by the consciousness of al*. 



Sample page of the New Students' Interlinear Translation 



VIRGIL'S AENEID. 



FIRST BOOK 

The Landing- in Africa. 



.i 



Arma virumque cano, qui primus ab oris 

Arms and the hero I sinj^ who first from the shores 

Troiae, profugus fate, venit Italiam Laviniaque 
of Troy. an exile by fate came to Italy and the Lavinian 

litora ; multum lactatus ille et terns et 

shores, much tossed (was) he both on the lands and 

alto, vi superum, ob 

on the deep, through the violence of the gods above on account of 

memorem iram saevae lunonis ; et 

the unforgetting [relentless] rage of cruel Juno. and 

5 multa quoque passus bello, dum 

many things also having suffered in war. till 

conderet urbem inferretque deos Latino; 

he should found a city and introduce (his) gods intoLatium, 

unde Latinum genus, Albanique patres, atque 
whence the Latin race. and the Alban fathers. and 

moenia altae Romae. 

the walls (ramparts] of lofty Rome. 

Musa, memora mihi causas, quo numine 

O muse relate to me the causes [reasons], what deity 

laeso, dolensve quid, regina deum 

having been offended or grieving at what, the queen of the gods 

impulerit virum 10 insignem pietate 

compelled a hero renowned for (his) piety [goodnessl 

volvere tot casus, adire tot labores. 

to undergo so many calamities, to encounter so many toils. 



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